Glasgow International Exhibition (1901)
The Glasgow International Exhibition was the second of 4 international exhibitions held in Glasgow, Scotland during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The land used is now a park, the 40 foot cast-iron Walter MacFarlane Saracen Fountain from the Saracen Foundry now resides in Alexandra Park and two cottages from Port Sunlight still exist; the exhibition took place during a period of half-mourning requested by Edward VII but was still popular and made more than £35000 profit. The exhibition followed the lead of the previous Glaswegian exhibition in 1888 and took place at Kelvingrove Park, it was opened by the Duchess of Fife. It marked the opening of the city's Art Gallery and commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of the first world's fair held in the UK doubled its attendance with 11.5 million visits. Following the style popularised at the 1893 Chicago and 1901 Buffalo world's fairs the main exhibition building was in Renaissance-Baroque style, but the large industrial hall contrasted having a large white facade with Spanish and Venetian ornamentation and a large golden dome atop.
This design by Scottish architect James Miller won him one of his many awards. Countries with close ties to Glasgow exhibited including Japan and Russia; the Russian exhibition was the largest, a'Russian village' of 4 pavilions reported to have cost the Tsar of Russia £30 000 and included several brightly coloured buildings designed by Fyodor Schechtel. Whilst Charles Mackintosh's designs for the major exhibition halls were rejected, he did design four pavilions for commercial organisations, one for the Glasgow School of Art. Many art works were displayed, including Danae by Edward Burne-Jones, a plaster version of Rodin's Burghers of Calais and 160 works loaned by William Burrell. Entertainments included a water chute, an Indian theatre and soap sculptures; as well as the opening by the Duchess of Fife, the fair was visited by the King of Siam and by Empress Eugenie. Glasgow International Exhibition Cup International Exhibition of Science and Industry Scottish Exhibition of National History and Industry Empire Exhibition, Scotland 1938 Glasgow Garden Festival http://www.theglasgowstory.com/imageview.php?inum=TGSA00363 image of the opening of the exhibition
William Frederick "Buffalo Bill" Cody was an American scout, bison hunter, showman. He was born in Le Claire, Iowa Territory, but he lived for several years in his father's hometown in Toronto Township, Canada, before the family returned to the Midwest and settled in the Kansas Territory. Buffalo Bill started working at the age of eleven, after his father's death, became a rider for the Pony Express at age 15. During the American Civil War, he served the Union from 1863 to the end of the war in 1865, he served as a civilian scout for the US Army during the Indian Wars, receiving the Medal of Honor in 1872. One of the most colorful figures of the American Old West, Buffalo Bill's legend began to spread when he was only twenty-three. Shortly thereafter he started performing in shows that displayed cowboy themes and episodes from the frontier and Indian Wars, he founded Buffalo Bill's Wild West in 1883, taking his large company on tours in the United States and, beginning in 1887, in Great Britain and continental Europe.
Cody was born on February 1846, on a farm just outside Le Claire, Iowa. His father, Isaac Cody, was born on September 5, 1811, in Toronto Township, Upper Canada, now part of Mississauga, directly west of Toronto. Mary Ann Bonsell Laycock, Bill's mother, was born about 1817 near Philadelphia, she moved to Cincinnati to teach school, there she met and married Isaac. She was a descendant of a Quaker who had settled in Pennsylvania. There is no evidence to indicate. In 1847 the couple moved to Ontario, having their son baptized in 1847, as William Cody, at the Dixie Union Chapel in Peel County, not far from the farm of his father's family; the chapel was built with Cody money, the land was donated by Philip Cody of Toronto Township. They lived in Ontario for several years. In 1853, Isaac Cody sold his land in rural Scott County, for $2000, the family moved to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory. In the years before the Civil War, Kansas was overtaken by political and physical conflict over the slavery question.
Isaac Cody was against slavery. He was invited to speak at Rively's store, a local trading post where pro-slavery men held meetings, his antislavery speech so angered the crowd. A man stabbed him twice with a Bowie knife. Rively, the store's owner, rushed Cody to get treatment, but he never recovered from his injuries. In Kansas, the family was persecuted by pro-slavery supporters. Cody's father spent time away from home for his safety, his enemies plotted to kill him on the way. Bill, despite his youth, rode 30 miles to warn his father. Isaac Cody went to Cleveland, Ohio, to organize a group of thirty families to bring back to Kansas, in order to add to the antislavery population. During his return trip he caught a respiratory infection which, compounded by the lingering effects of his stabbing and complications from kidney disease, led to his death in April 1857. After his death, the family suffered financially. At age 11, Bill took a job with a freight carrier as a "boy extra". On horseback he would ride up and down the length of a wagon train and deliver messages between the drivers and workmen.
Next he joined Johnston's Army as an unofficial member of the scouts assigned to guide the United States Army to Utah, to put down a rumored rebellion by the Mormon population of Salt Lake City. According to Cody's account in Buffalo Bill's Own Story, the Utah War was where he began his career as an "Indian fighter": Presently the moon rose, dead ahead of me, he wore this war-bonnet of the Sioux, at his shoulder was a rifle pointed at someone in the river-bottom 30 feet below. I fired; the figure collapsed, tumbled down the bank and landed with a splash in the water.'What is it?' called McCarthy, as he hurried back.'It's over there in the water."Hi!' he cried.'Little Billy's killed an Indian all by himself!' So began my career as an Indian fighter. At the age of 14, in 1860, Cody was struck by gold fever, with news of gold at Fort Colville and the Holcomb Valley Gold Rush in California, On his way to the gold fields, however, he met an agent for the Pony Express, he signed with them, after building several stations and corrals, Cody was given a job as a rider.
He worked at this. Cody claimed to have had many jobs, including trapper, bullwhacker, "Fifty-Niner" in Colorado, Pony Express rider in 1860, stagecoach driver, a hotel manager, but historians have had difficulty documenting them, he may have fabricated some for publicity. Namely, it is argued that in contrast to Cody's claims, he never rode for the Pony Express, but as a boy, he did work for its parent company, the transport firm of Russell and Waddell. In contrast to the adventurous rides, hundreds of miles long, that he recounted in the press, his real job was to carry messages on horseback from the firm's office in Leavenworth to the telegraph station three miles away. After his mother recovered, Cody wanted to enlist as a soldier in the Union Army during the American Civil War but was refused because of his young age, he began working with a freight caravan that delivered supplies to Fort Laramie in present-day Wyoming. In 1863, at age 17, he enlisted as a teamster with the rank of private in Company H, 7th Kansas Cavalry, served until discharged in 1865.
International Inventions Exhibition
The International Inventions Exhibition was a world's fair held in South Kensington in 1885. As with the earlier exhibitions in a series of fairs in South Kensington following the Great Exhibition, Queen Victoria was patron and her son Albert Edward, the Prince of Wales, was president of the organising committee, it opened on 4 May and three and three-quarters of a million people had visited when it closed 6 months later. Countries participating included Austria-Hungary, Italy and the United States as well as the hosts, the United Kingdom. Attractions included pleasure gardens and music as well as inventions. One series of concerts including old instruments from Belgium. Other historical exhibits included five heliographs by Niépce with modern photographers such as Captain Thomas Honywood being present. Inventions included folding tables, the Sussex trug, lacquer covered wire from OKI, a meter from Ferranti and a 38-stop organ equipped with a new floating-lever pneumatic action. Henry Willis & Sons for more organ information Contains an image of the exhibition buildings
Royal Jubilee Exhibition
The Royal Jubilee Exhibition of 1887 was held in Old Trafford, England, to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria's accession. It was opened by Princess Alexandra, the Princess of Wales on 3 May 1887, remained open for 166 days, during which time there were 4.5 million paying visitors, 74,600 in one day alone. The site chosen for the construction of the purpose-built exhibition halls was the present-day White City retail park the Royal Botanical Gardens. Amusements such as tobogganing slides and a sports arena were provided, decorations were provided by Ford Madox Brown, assisted by Susan Dacre. Designed by the architectural practice of Maxwell and Tuke, the buildings were constructed from cast iron gas pipes, had large glazed areas; the main building was in the shape of a cross, with a central dome 150 feet high and 90 feet in diameter from which radiated four long galleries. Temporary sidings for the Manchester South Junction and Altrincham Railway were completed in 1886, to provide convenient access for visitors.
Maxwell and Tuke were the architects of the Manchester Exhibition in 1888. List of works by Maxwell and Tuke
Foot-and-mouth disease or hoof-and-mouth disease is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids. The virus causes a high fever for between two and six days, followed by blisters inside the mouth and on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness. Foot-and-mouth disease has severe implications for animal farming, since it is infectious and can be spread by infected animals comparatively through contact with contaminated farming equipment, clothing, feed and by domestic and wild predators, its containment demands considerable efforts in vaccination, strict monitoring, trade restrictions and the culling of animals. Susceptible animals include cattle, water buffalo, goats, antelope and bison, it has been known to infect hedgehogs and elephants. In laboratory experiments, mice and chickens have been infected by artificial means, but they are not believed to contract the disease under natural conditions. Humans are rarely infected.
The virus responsible for the disease is a Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Infection occurs; the cell is forced to manufacture thousands of copies of the virus, bursts, releasing the new particles in the blood. The virus is genetically variable, which limits the effectiveness of vaccination; the incubation period for foot-and-mouth disease virus has a range between 12 days. The disease is characterized by high fever that declines after two or three days, blisters inside the mouth that lead to excessive secretion of stringy or foamy saliva and to drooling, blisters on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness. Adult animals may suffer weight loss from which they do not recover for several months, as well as swelling in the testicles of mature males, in cows, milk production can decline significantly. Though most animals recover from FMD, the disease can lead to myocarditis and death in newborn animals; some infected ruminants remain asymptomatic carriers, but they nonetheless carry FMDV and may be able to transmit it to others.
Pigs cannot serve as asymptomatic carriers. Of the seven serotypes of this virus, A, C, O, Asia 1, SAT3 appear to be distinct lineages; the mutation rate of the protein-encoding sequences of strains isolated between 1932 and 2007 has been estimated to be 1.46 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year, a rate similar to that of other RNA viruses. The most recent common ancestor appears to have evolved about 481 years ago; this ancestor diverged into two clades which have given rise to the extant circulating Euro-Asiatic and South African. SAT 1 diverged first 397 years ago, followed by sequential divergence of serotype SAT 2, A, O, Asia 1, C, SAT 3. Bayesian skyline plot reveals a population expansion in the early 20th century, followed by a rapid decline in population size from the late 20th century to the present day. Within each serotype, there was no apparent periodic, geographic, or host species influence on the evolution of global FMDVs. At least seven genotypes of serotype Asia 1 are known; the FMD virus can be transmitted in a number of ways, including close-contact animal-to-animal spread, long-distance aerosol spread and fomites, or inanimate objects fodder and motor vehicles.
The clothes and skin of animal handlers such as farmers, standing water, uncooked food scraps and feed supplements containing infected animal products can harbor the virus, as well. Cows can catch FMD from the semen of infected bulls. Control measures include quarantine and destruction of infected livestock, export bans for meat and other animal products to countries not infected with the disease. Just as humans may spread the disease by carrying the virus on their clothes and bodies, animals that are not susceptible to the disease may still aid in spreading it; this was the case in Canada in 1952, when an outbreak flared up again after dogs had carried off bones from dead animals. Wolves are thought to play a similar role in the former Soviet Union. Daniel Rossouw Kannemeyer published a note in the'Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society' volume 8 part 1 in which he links saliva-covered locusts with the spread of the disease. Humans can be infected with foot-and-mouth disease through contact with infected animals, but this is rare.
Some cases were caused by laboratory accidents. Because the virus that causes FMD is sensitive to stomach acid, it cannot spread to humans via consumption of infected meat, except in the mouth before the meat is swallowed. In the UK, the last confirmed human case occurred in 1966, only a few other cases have been recorded in countries of continental Europe and South America. Symptoms of FMD in humans include malaise, vomiting, red ulcerative lesions of the oral tissues, sometimes vesicular lesions of the skin. According to a newspaper report, FMD killed two children in England in 1884 due to infected milk. Another viral disease with similar symptoms, hand and mouth disease, occurs more in humans in young children; because FMD infects humans, but spreads among anima
A tableau vivant, French for'living picture', is a static scene containing one or more actors or models. They are stationary and silent in costume posed, with props and/or scenery, may be theatrically lit, it thus combines aspects of the visual arts. A tableau may either be'performed' live, or depicted in painting and sculpture, such as in many works of the Romantic, Symbolist, Pre-Raphaelite, Art Nouveau movements. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, tableaux sometimes featured poses plastiques by nude models, providing a form of erotic entertainment, both on stage and in print. Tableaux continue to the present day in the form of living statues, street performers who busk by posing in costume. A Mass was punctuated with short dramatic scenes and painting-like tableaux, they were a major feature of festivities for royal weddings and royal entries into cities. The actors imitated statues or paintings, much in the manner of modern street entertainers, but in larger groups, mounted on elaborate temporary stands along the path of the main procession.
The history of Western visual arts in general, until the modern era, has had a focus on symbolic, arranged presentation, was dependent on stationary artists' models in costume – small-scale tableaux vivants with the artist as temporary audience. The Realism movement, with more naturalistic depictions, did not begin until the mid-19th century, a direct reaction against Romanticism and its heavy dependence on stylized tableau format. Before radio and television, tableaux vivants were popular forms of entertainment in frontier towns. Before the age of color reproduction of images, the tableau was sometimes used to recreate artworks on stage, based on an etching or sketch of a painting; this could be done as an amateur venture in a drawing room, or as a more professionally produced series of tableaux presented on a theatre stage, one following another to tell a story without requiring all the usual trappings and production of a full theatre performance. They thus influenced the form taken by Victorian and Edwardian era magic lantern shows, also sequential narrative comic strips.
Tableaux vivants were performed as the basis for school Nativity plays in England during the Victorian period. Several tableaux are performed each year at the school carol service, including the depiction of an engraving en grisaille. Theatrical censorship in Britain and the United States forbade actresses to move when nude or semi-nude on stage, so tableaux vivants had a place in risqué entertainment for many years. In the early 1900s, German dancer Olga Desmond appeared in Schönheitsabende in which she posed nude in "living pictures", imitating classical works of art. In the nineteenth century, tableaux vivants took such titles as "Nymphs Bathing" and "Diana the Huntress" and were to be found at such places as the Hall of Rome in Great Windmill Street, London. Other venues were the Cyder Cellar in Maiden Lane. Nude and semi-nude poses plastiques were a frequent feature of variety shows in the US: first on Broadway in New York City elsewhere in the country; the Ziegfeld Follies featured such tableaux from 1917.
The Windmill Theatre in London featured nude poses plastiques on stage. Tableaux vivants were included in fairground sideshows; such shows had died out by the 1970s. Tableaux remain a major attraction at the annual Pageant of the Masters in California. Jean-François Chevrier was the first to use the term tableau in relation to a form of art photography, which began in the 1970s and 1980s in an essay titled "The Adventures of the Picture Form in the History of Photography" in 1989; the initial translation of this text substitutes the English word picture for the French word tableau. However Michael Fried retains the French term when referring to Chevrier's essay, because according to Fried, there is no direct translation into English for tableau in this sense. While picture is similar, "... it lacks the connotations of constructedness, of being the product of an intellectual act that the French word carries." Other texts and Clement Greenberg's theory of medium specificity cover this topic. The key characteristics of the contemporary photographic tableau according to Chevrier are, firstly: "They are designed and produced for the wall.
Summoning a confrontational experience on the part of the spectator that contrasts with the habitual processes of appropriation and projection whereby photographic images are received and "consumed" By this, Chevrier notes that scale and size is important if the pictures are to "hold the wall". But size has another function; this "confrontational" experience, Fried notes, is quite a large break from the conventional reception of photography, which up to that point was consumed in books or magazines. The photographic tableau has its roots not in the theatrical tableau vivant, but in pictorialist photography, such as that of Alfred Stieglitz, a movement with its roots in Aestheticism, which alre