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American Fur Company

The American Fur Company was founded in 1808, by John Jacob Astor, a German immigrant to the United States. During the 18th century, furs had become a major commodity in Europe, North America became a major supplier. Several British companies, most notably the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were eventual competitors against Astor and capitalized on the lucrative trade in furs. Astor capitalized on anti-British sentiments and his commercial strategies to become one of the first trusts in American business and a major competitor to the British commercial dominance in North American fur trade. Expanding into many former British fur-trapping regions and trade routes, the company grew to monopolize the fur trade in the United States by 1830, became one of the largest and wealthiest businesses in the country. Astor planned for several companies to function across the Great Lakes, the Great Plains and the Oregon Country to gain control of the North American fur trade. Comparatively inexpensive manufactured goods were to be shipped to commercial stations for trade with various Indigenous nations for fur pelts.

The sizable number of furs collected were to be brought to the port of Guangzhou, as pelts were in high demand in the Qing Empire. Chinese products were, in turn, to be purchased for resale throughout the United States. A beneficial agreement with the Russian-American Company was planned through the regular supply of provisions for posts in Russian America; this was planned in part to prevent the rival Montreal based North West Company to gain a presence along the Pacific Coast, a prospect neither Russian colonial authorities or Astor favored. Demand for furs in Europe began to decline during the early 19th century, leading to the stagnation of the fur trade by the mid-19th century. Astor left his company in 1830, the company declared bankruptcy in 1842, the American Fur Company ceased trading in 1847. Prior to John Jacob Astor creating his enterprise in the Oregon Country, European descendants throughout previous decades had suggested creating trade stations along the Pacific Coast. Peter Pond, an active American fur trader, offered maps of his explorations in modern Alberta and the Northwest Territories to both the United States Congress and to Henry Hamilton, Lieutenant Governor of Quebec in 1785.

While it has been conjectured that Pond wanted funding from the Americans to explore the Pacific Coast for the Northwest Passage, there is no documentation of this and it is more that he had sent a copy of the map to Congress due to personal pride. Pond became a founding member of the North West Company and continued to trade in modern Alberta. In time Pond had an influence upon Alexander Mackenzie, who crossed the North American continent. In 1802, Mackenzie promoted a plan form the "Fishery and Fur Company" to the British Government. In it he called for "a supreme Civil & Military Establishment" on Nootka Island, with two additional posts located on the Columbia River and another in the Alexander Archipelago. Additionally this plan was formed to bypass the three major British monopolies at the time, the Hudson's Bay Company, the South Sea Company and the East India Company for access the Chinese markets; however the British Government ignored the plan. Another influence upon Astor was a longtime friend, Alexander Henry.

At times Henry mused at the potential of the western coast. Forming establishments on the Pacific shoreline to harness the economic potential would be "my favorite plan" as Henry described in a letter to a New York merchant, it is that these considerations were discussed with Astor during his visits to Montreal and the Beaver Club. Despite not originating the idea to create a venture on the Pacific coast, Astor's "ability to combine and use the ideas of other men" allowed him to pursue the idea. Astor joined in on two NWC voyages charted to sail to the Qing Dynasty during the 1790s; these were done with American vessels to bypass British commercial law, which at the time prohibited any company besides the British East India Company from commerce with China. These were financially profitable ventures, enough so that Astor offered to become the NWC agent for all shipments of furs destined for Guangzhou; however Alexander Mackenzie denied his offer, making Astor consider financing voyages to China without the Canadian traders.

Now a independent international merchant, Astor began to fund trading voyages to China along with several partners. Cargoes amounted to $150,000 in such as otter and beaver pelts, in addition to needed specie. Astor ordered the construction of the Beaver in 1803 to expand his trade fleet. By 1808, Astor had established "an international empire that mixed furs and silks and penetrated markets on three continents." He began to court diplomatic and government support of a fur trading venture to be established on the Pacific shore in the same year. In correspondence with the Mayor of New York City, DeWitt Clinton, Astor explained that a state charter would offer a particular level of formal sanction needed in the venture, he in turn requested the Federal government grant his operations military support to defend against British citizens and control these new markets. The bold proposals were not given official sanction however, making Astor to continue to promote his ideas among prominent governmental agents.

President Thomas Jefferson was contacted by the ambitious merchant as well. Astor gave a detailed plan of his mercantile considerations, declaring that they were designed to bring about American commercial dominance over "the greater part of the fur-trade of this continent..." This was to be accomplished through a chain of interconnected trading posts that stretch

Museum of Avant-Garde Mastery

The Museum of Avant-Garde Mastery is a continually renewed collection of hundreds of artworks, including paintings by famous Russian artists of Jewish origin, masterpieces of sculpture and graphic design. MAGMA’s collection includes works by Valentin Serov, Léon Bakst, Marc Chagall, El Lissitzky, Chaim Soutine, Amedeo Modigliani, Erik Bulatov, Ilya Kabakov, etc; the Museum was established in 2001. MAGMA President is Viatcheslav Moshe Kantor; the collection contains works by famous 20th-century photographers Lev Ivanov, Ivan Shagin, Lev Borodulin, as well as masterpieces by contemporary western artists, in particular well-known photos by Helmut Newton. The Museum’s mission lies in disseminating the ideas of tolerance and reconciliation in the world and uniting humanity to face the challenges posed by terrorism and anti-Semitism. MAGMA’s collection shows the vital importance of the cultural component in modern life and the significant role art plays in uniting society. According to MAGMA’s main ideologist Viatcheslav Moshe Kantor, “It is a tolerant environment that promotes art and vice versa.

This is the specific message which our museum is sending humanity, I will be happy if this message is heard”. In June 2009, MAGMA’s first exhibition, called “My Homeland is within My Soul: Art without Borders,” opened in the Palace of Nations in Geneva, which now hosts the UN European Office, it is no coincidence that the Palace of Nations was chosen to host the exhibition, because it is the citadel of diplomacy and tolerance, which has housed two major international organisations. The exhibition received widespread coverage in Russian media. Second exhibition of the MAGMA Museum called "My Homeland Is Within My Soul" took its place at the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow from December 2013 until February 2014. In 2018, President of the Russian Academy of Arts and People’s Artist of the URSS Zurab Tsereteli awarded the robe and diploma of Honorary Member of the Russian Academy of Arts to the President of the Museum of Avant-Garde Mastery Viatcheslav Kantor. Russian Billionaire Kantor Reveals Chagall, Rothko Paintings, June 11, 2009.

Jewish art exhibit joins fight against racism,, June 14, 2009. Les trésors d'un oligarque russe sortis de l'ombre, Le Monde, June 14, 2009. Museum of Avant-Garde Mastery, page at the official website of Viatcheslav Moshe Kantor MAGMA Museum, official website

Melaleuca halophila

Melaleuca halophila is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south of Western Australia. It is a prickly shrub, similar to Melaleuca thapsina but its flowers are white and the leaves are shorter and hairier. Melaleuca halophila is a shrub growing to 3 m tall, its leaves are arranged alternately, linear to narrow elliptic oval in cross-section, 11–30.5 mm long, 1.7–2.5 mm wide with a short, prickly point on the end. The leaves are covered with soft hairs; the flowers are white and arranged in heads on the ends of branches which continue to grow after flowering and in the upper leaf axils. The heads are up to 15 composed of 5 to 11 groups of flowers in threes; the petals fall off as the flower ages. There are five bundles of stamens around each with 3 to 7 stamens. Flowering occurs in October and November and is followed by fruit which are woody capsules 1.8–3 mm long. Melaleuca halophila was first formally described in 1999 by Lyndley Craven in Australian Systematic Botany from a specimen collected near Salmon Gums.

The specific epithet is derived from ancient Greek word meaning "salt" with the ending -philus meaning "loving", referring to the habitat of this species. Melaleuca halophila occurs in the Fitzgerald Peaks and Salmon Gums districts in the Esperance Plains and Mallee biogeographic regions. Melaleuca halophila is listed as "not threatened" by the Government of Western Australia Department of Parks and Wildlife

L'elisir d'amore

L'elisir d'amore is a comic opera in two acts by the Italian composer Gaetano Donizetti. Felice Romani wrote the Italian libretto, after Eugène Scribe's libretto for Daniel Auber's Le philtre; the opera premiered on 12 May 1832 at the Teatro della Canobbiana in Milan. Written in haste in a six-week period, L'elisir d'amore was the most performed opera in Italy between 1838 and 1848 and has remained continually in the international opera repertory. Today it is one of the most performed of all Donizetti's operas: it appears as number 13 on the Operabase list of the most-performed operas worldwide in the five seasons between 2008 and 2013. There are a large number of recordings, it contains the popular tenor aria "Una furtiva lagrima", a romanza that has a considerable performance history in the concert hall. Donizetti insisted on a number of changes from the original Scribe libretto; the best known of these was the insertion of "Una furtiva lagrima" and the duet between Adina and Nemorino in the first act, "Chiedi all'aura lusinghiera".

The melody to the duet "Io son ricco e tu sei bella" in act 2, scene 1 recurs in the final scene of the opera sung by Dulcamara as a solo aria with new scabrous lyrics. The central narrative theme, the triumph of sincerity, is essential to the Romantic outlook. There is personal history in this opera. Donizetti's military service was bought by a rich woman, so that, unlike his brother Giuseppe, he did not have to serve in the Austrian army; the premiere of L'elisir d'amore took place at the Teatro della Canobbiana, Milan, on 12 May 1832. Today, the opera is part of the standard repertory. Place: A small village in the Basque Country Time: The end of the 18th century Nemorino, a poor peasant, is in love with Adina, a beautiful landowner, who torments him with her indifference; when Nemorino hears Adina reading to her workers the story of Tristan and Isolde, he is convinced that a magic potion will help him to gain Adina's love. The self-important Sergeant Belcore appears with his regiment and sets about courting Adina in front of everyone.

Nemorino becomes anxious and, alone with Adina, reveals his love for her. Yet Adina rebuffs him, saying she wants a different lover every day and following her example would do Nemorino better. Nemorino declares; the travelling quack doctor, arrives, selling his bottled cure-all to the townspeople. Nemorino innocently asks Dulcamara. Despite failing to recognise the name "Isolde", Dulcamara's commercial talents enable him to sell a bottle of the cure-all – in reality only cheap wine – to Nemorino, withdrawing all his savings. To make a safe escape, Dulcamara tells Nemorino the potion needs 24 hours to take effect – by which time, the doctor will be long gone. Nemorino drinks the potion in a haste. Emboldened by the "elixir", Nemorino feigns indifference when he encounters Adina, as he expects that the elixir will facilitate his conquest of Adina the following day, she becomes annoyed. Belcore proposes marriage to Adina. Still riled by Nemorino and wishing to give him a lesson, Adina falsely promises to marry Belcore in six days' time.

Yet Nemorino only laughs in response: such confidence is sustained in the belief in the magic potion. However, when Belcore learns that his regiment must leave the next morning, Adina promises to marry him before his departure; this of course panics Nemorino. Adina, invites everyone to the wedding. Adina and Belcore's wedding party is in full swing. Dr. Dulcamara encourages Adina to sing a duet with him to entertain the guests; the notary arrives to make the marriage official. Adina is annoyed to see that Nemorino has not appeared, for the whole deal has been intended only to punish him. While everyone goes to witness the signing of the wedding contract, Dulcamara stays behind, helping himself to food and drink. Having seen the notary, Nemorino depressed, as he believes that he has lost Adina, he frantically begs him for a more powerful, faster-acting elixir. Although Dulcamara is proud to boast of his philanthropy, upon discovering that Nemorino now has no money he changes his tune and marches off, refusing to supply him anything.

Belcore emerges, musing about why Adina has put off the wedding and signing of the contract. He asks his rival why he is depressed; when Nemorino says he needs cash, Belcore suggests joining the army, as he'll receive funds on the spot. Belcore tries to excite Nemorino with tales of military life, while Nemorino only thinks of getting the potion and thus winning Adina, if only for a day before departure. Belcore produces a contract. Nemorino vows to rush and buy more potion, while Belcore muses about how sending Nemorino off to war has so dispatched his rival. After the two men have left, Giannetta gossips with the women of the village. Swearing them all to secrecy, she reveals that Nemorino's uncle has just died and left his nephew a large fortune. However, neither Nemorino nor Adina is yet aware of this. Nemorino enters, having spent his military signing bonus on – and consumed – a large amount of the fake elixir from Dr. Dulcamara. Hoping to share hi

Kim Hyong-uk

Kim Hyong-uk was a South Korean brigadier general who served as director of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency. Born in Hwanghae province, he left for the South after high school and was a classmate of future President Park Chung-hee at military academy, graduating in 1949, he was an infantry troop commander in the Korean War. He attended the United States Army Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia, in 1955; as colonel, he took part in the May 16 coup in 1961, when he led a group of soldiers to take Prime Minister John M. Chang into custody, he served for two years as Minister for Home Affairs in the junta and was director of the KCIA from March 1963 to October 1969, where he was notorious for his brutality and corruption. After refusing to support Park's bid for a third term, he was replaced as head of the KCIA by Lee Hu-rak. At a meeting with Park, the President asked him, "why don't you take a rest after your long service?" - and on returning to his office, he discovered it had been cleared out.

In 1971, he became a member of the powerless parliament. Kim went into exile in the United States in 1973. In 22 June 1977, he testified to the Fraser committee about the Koreagate scandal and the activities of Tongsun Park, he claimed that the Japanese police had had foreknowledge of the kidnapping of Kim Dae-jung. Park had offered him $1 million not to testify. Kim accepted $500,000 not to publish his memoirs, but reneged on the deal and published them in Japan in April 1979, he disappeared on 7 October 1979, after last being seen in a Paris nightclub. A popular rumor is that Kim was smuggled back to Seoul and shot by President Park in the basement of the Blue House; this version was shown in part 12 of Destiny. His memoirs were published in South Korea in 1985. In February 2005, the Wolgan Chosun published claims that Kim had been lured from New Jersey to Paris by a hired female entertainer and been murdered by a French criminal syndicate in pay of the South Korean government. In May 2005, a report from the National Intelligence Service's Truth Commission concluded that Kim had been killed on the orders of Kim Jae-kyu, his successor as director of the KCIA.

He was shot with a silencer pistol and his body was dumped in the woods outside Paris. Three weeks after Kim Hyong-uk's disappearance, Kim Jae-kyu assassinated President Park

Cold abscess

Cold abscess refers to an abscess that lacks the intense inflammation associated with infection. This may be associated with infections due to bacteria like tuberculosis and fungi like blastomycosis that do not tend to stimulate acute inflammation. Alternatively, cold abscesses are typical in persons with hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome when infected with an organism like Staphylococcus aureus that causes abscesses with inflammation in others. Signs of acute inflammation are absent, so the abscess is not hot and red as in a typical abscess filled with pus. Cold abscesses are painless cysts that may be subcutaneous, ocular, or in deep tissue such as the spine. Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis