American Indian Wars

The American Indian Wars is the collective name for the various armed conflicts that were fought by European governments and colonists, by the governments and settlers, against various American Indian and First Nation tribes. These conflicts occurred in North America from the time of the earliest colonial settlements in the 17th century until the early 20th century; the various wars resulted from a wide variety of factors, including cultural clashes, land disputes, criminal acts committed by both sides. The European powers and their colonies enlisted Indian tribes to help them conduct warfare against each other's colonial settlements. After the American Revolution, many conflicts were local to specific states or regions and involved disputes over land use. In Canada, 11 Numbered Treaties covering most of the First Nations lands limited the number of such conflicts; as settlers spread westward across America and Canada after 1780, armed conflicts increased in size and intensity between settlers and various Indian and First Nation tribes.

The climax came in the War of 1812, when major Indian coalitions in the Midwest and the South fought against the United States and lost. Conflict with settlers became much less common and was resolved by treaty through sale or exchange of territory between the federal government and specific tribes; the Indian Removal Act of 1830 authorized the American government to enforce the Indian removal from east of the Mississippi River to the west on the American frontier Oklahoma. The federal policy of removal was refined in the West, as American settlers kept expanding their territories, to relocate Indian tribes to specially designated and federally protected and subsidized reservations; the colonization of America by the English, Spanish and Swedish was resisted by some Indian tribes and assisted by other tribes. Wars and other armed conflicts in the 17th and 18th centuries included: Beaver Wars between the Iroquois and the French, who allied with the Algonquians Anglo-Powhatan Wars, including the 1622 Jamestown Massacre, between English colonists and the Powhatan Confederacy in the Colony of Virginia Pequot War of 1636–38 between the Pequot tribe and colonists from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Connecticut Colony and allied tribes Kieft's War in the Dutch territory of New Netherland between colonists and the Lenape people Peach Tree War, the large-scale attack by the Susquehannocks and allied tribes on several New Netherland settlements along the Hudson River Esopus Wars, conflicts between the Esopus tribe of Lenape Indians and colonial New Netherlanders in Ulster County, New York King Philip's War in New England between colonists and the Narragansett people Tuscarora War in the Province of North Carolina Yamasee War in the Province of South Carolina Dummer's War in northern New England and French Acadia Pontiac's War in the Great Lakes region Lord Dunmore's War in western Virginia In several instances, the conflicts were a reflection of European rivalries, with Indian tribes splitting their alliances among the powers siding with their trading partners.

Various tribes fought on each side in King William's War, Queen Anne's War, Dummer's War, King George's War, the French and Indian War, allying with British or French colonists according to their own self interests. British merchants and government agents began supplying weapons to Indians living in the United States following the Revolution in the hope that, if a war broke out, they would fight on the British side; the British further planned to set up an Indian nation in the Ohio-Wisconsin area to block further American expansion. The US protested and declared war in 1812. Most Indian tribes supported the British those allied with Tecumseh, but they were defeated by General William Henry Harrison; the War of 1812 spread to Indian rivalries, as well. Many refugees from defeated tribes went over the border to Canada. During the early 19th century, the federal government was under pressure by settlers in many regions to expel Indians from their areas; the Indian Removal Act of 1830 offered Indians the choices of assimilating and giving up tribal membership, relocation to an Indian reservation with an exchange or payment for lands, or moving west.

Some resisted most notably the Seminoles in a series of wars in Florida. They were never defeated; the United States gave up on the remainder, by living defensively deep in the swamps and Everglades. Others were moved to reservations west of the Mississippi River, most famously the Cherokee whose relocation was called the "Trail of Tears." The American Revolutionary War was two parallel wars for the American Patriots. The war in the east was a struggle against British rule, while the war in the west was an "Indian War"; the newly proclaimed United States competed with the British for control of the territory east of the Mississippi River. Some Indians sided with the British, as they hoped to reduce American expansion. In one writer's opinion, the Revolutionary War was "the most extensive and destructive" Indian war in United States history; some Indian tribes were divided over which side to support in the war, such as the Iroquois Confederacy based in New York and Pennsylvania who split: the Oneida and Tuscarora

Kurt Fearnley

Kurt Harry Fearnley, is an Australian wheelchair racer, who has won gold medals at the Paralympic Games and'crawled' the Kokoda Track. He has a congenital disorder called sacral agenesis which prevented fetal development of certain parts of his lower spine and all of his sacrum. In Paralympic events he is classified in the T54 classification, he focuses on long and middle-distance wheelchair races, has won medals in sprint relays. He participated in the 2004, 2008 and 2012 Games. Fearnley finished his Paralympic Games career with silver and bronze medals at the 2016 Rio Paralympics, he won a gold and silver medal at the 2018 Commonwealth Games and was the Australian flag bearer at the closing ceremony. Fearnley was born on 23 March 1981 in the New South Wales town of Cowra as the youngest of five children, he was born with sacral agenesis. At the time of his birth, doctors did not believe, he grew up in the small New South Wales town of Carcoar. At school, he took part in all sports including rugby league.

He won his first athletics medal in the high jump. He took up wheelchair racing at the age of 14 and took it to an elite level at the age of 17. After leaving Blayney High School, he moved to Sydney to train and start a Bachelor of Human Movement degree, he is a teacher. He weighs 50 kilograms. In 2010, Fearnley married Sheridan Rosconi at Glenrock Lagoon. Fearnley and Rosconi met while studying at Charles Sturt University in New South Wales, their first son, was born in 2013 with a second child, a daughter Emilia born in 2017. In 2014, his autobiography Pushing the Limits: Life, Marathons & Kokoda was published. In 1997, Fearnley was a member of the Western Region Academy of Sport and by the 2000 Sydney Paralympics was representing Australia. At these Games, Fearnley won 4 × 100 m relay events, he represented his country in the demonstration sport of Men's 1500 m wheelchair, where he came 4th. He went to the 2002 IPC Athletics World Championships in Birmingham and finished 7th in both the 400 m and 800 m T54 events.

At the 2004 Olympic Games, he finished 5th in the demonstration sport of Men's 1500 m wheelchair. Following this he won two gold medals in the 5000 m T54 and marathon T54 events at the 2004 Athens Paralympics, for which he received a Medal of the Order of Australia. At the 2006 IPC Athletics World Championships in Assen, Netherlands, he won three gold medals and one bronze medal. Participating in his third Paralympics in Beijing, he won a gold medal in the marathon T54, two silver medals in the 800 m T54 and 5000 m T54 events and a bronze medal in the 1500 m T54 event. On 30 September 2009, Fearnley conducted a training climb of Sydney's Centrepoint Tower's 1,504 fire stairs in 20 minutes, taking them two at a time. While far short of the 6m 52s record for the annual charity climb, the Tower's manager said this was quicker than the 25 minutes required by most able-bodied people. In 2009, he won his fourth New York City Marathon title, his third consecutive title in the Chicago Marathon and victories in Seoul, Paris and Sydney.

In November 2009, Fearnley crawled the Kokoda Trail accompanied by family and friends in support of Movember and Beyond Blue. He completed the 96-kilometre journey in 10 days. In 2009, he was awarded the Young Australian of the Year for New South Wales. Fearnley is active in advocacy work, has been an ambassador for the Don't DIS my ABILITY campaign for four years, he was a 2010 International Day of People with Disability Ambassador. In 2010, Fearnley competed again in the New York marathon. In the same year his image was featured on the medal for the 2010 Blackmores Sydney Running Festival, he won a gold medal at the 2010 Delhi Commonwealth Games in the 1500 m T54 event. In early 2011 at the IPC Athletics World Championships in Christchurch, New Zealand, he won the marathon. In the year, Fearnley competed in the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race. At the 2012 London Paralympics, he was aiming to be the first person to win three consecutive marathon T54 gold medals. However, he instead won a bronze medal in the Men's Marathon T54 and a silver medal in the Men's 5000 m T54.

Fearnley won a bronze medal in the 1500 m T54 at the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games. In November 2014, he won his fifth New York Marathon men's wheelchair event. After the competition, he stated "That was one of the toughest races of my life" due to the high winds that nearly forced the cancellation of the wheelchair event. At the 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships in Doha, he finished fourth in the Men's 5000 m T54 and did not progress to the final of the Men's 1500 m T54, he left Doha to compete in the New York Marathon where he finished fifth after crashing at the 12-mile mark. On Australia Day 2016, he won the Oz Day 10K Wheelchair Road Race for the tenth time joining Louise Sauvage as a ten-time winner of this prestigious wheelchair road race. At his last Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro in 2016, Fearnley won the silver medal in the Men's Marathon T54 and the bronze medal in the Men's 5000 m T53/54. Fearnley indicated he will race in the wheelchair marathon at the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games and continue to race marathons on the international circuit.

At the end of the marathon, Fearnley said: "One of my biggest strengths is that I deal with discomfort better than most."At the 2017 World Para Athletics Championships in London, Fearnley finished sixth in both the Men's 1500 m and 5000 m T54 events. At the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games, Fear

Kim Brennan

Kimberley Jean "Kim" Brennan is a retired Australian rower. She is a sixteen-time national champion, two-time World Champion, three-time Olympian and Olympic gold medallist. Crow was born in Melbourne and went to school at Templestowe Heights Primary School from prep to year 4 Ruyton Girls' School from year 5, her father Max Crow was a Victorian Football League footballer between 1974 and 1986. She has been a regular columnist for The Age, she married Beijing Olympic double sculls gold medallist Scott Brennan in Hobart, Tasmania on 30 December 2015 and became known as Kim Brennan. The couple has a son, born in 2018. Crow was a 400 m hurdler and she won the silver medal at the 2001 World Youth Championships in Athletics, she won the Australian junior title at the Australian Athletics Championships for the seasons 2001–2002 and 2003–2004. At the 2003–2004 Australian Athletics Championships, she finished fourth in the senior final behind Jana Pittman and was the ranked the second Australian. In 2005, Crow took up rowing.

Crow rows from the Melbourne University Boat Club in Melbourne and represents Victoria at the national level. At the Australian Rowing Championships in 2012, 2015 & 2016 she won the Nell Slater Trophy in the Interstate Women's Single Scull representing Victoria. During the Victorian women's eights' twelve year consecutive victory run from 2005 to 2016, Crow was seated in the boat on nine occasions for nine Queen's Cup victories up till 2016. On five occasions at the Interstate Regatta she has raced in both the eight and the single scull on the same day, winning both titles on three occasions, she was coached by Lyall McCarthy at Rowing Australia's Centre of Excellence in Canberra. In Melbourne University Boat Club colours she contested the Australian national single sculls title at the Australian Rowing Championships five times from 2010 to 2014, she won that championship from 2011 to 2014. Crow with her partner Sarah Cook finished fourth in the women's coxless pair B-Final at the 2008 Beijing Olympics.

At the 2012 London Olympic Games, Crow won a silver medal in the women's double sculls and a bronze medal in the women's single sculls. At the 2015 world rowing championships Crow qualified the single scull for Australia to race at Rio 2016. At those 2016 Summer Olympics, Brennan won the women's single scull and took the gold medal, leading the race from start to finish. In May 2019, Brennan was announced as Australia's joint Deputy Chef de Mission, alongside fellow Olympians, Susie O'Neill and Evelyn Halls for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games. Crow was in the seven seat of Australian women's eight that won the bronze medal at the 2006 World Rowing Championships, she teamed with Kerry Hore to win silver medals in the Women's double scull at the 2010 and 2011 World Rowing Championships. At the 2013 World Rowing Championships in Chungju, Crow won gold in the single scull taking a lead from the 300 m mark and holding it to the line. In the same event at the 2014 World Rowing Championships in Amsterdam, Crow took silver behind New Zealand's Emma Twigg.

Crow became a dual world champion when she won gold in the single scull at the 2015 World Rowing Championships in Aiguebelette, defeating 2012 Summer Olympics champion Miroslava Knapková. On 3 November 2018, Brennan announced her retirement from rowing at the Rowing Australia annual awards, she stated “While I’ve known within myself for some time that I am happy to leave my competitive rowing career behind me, the arrival of Jude has put the decision beyond any doubt. I’m loving every minute with him, and, on a personal level, I can’t imagine now being able to give the time and energy necessary to be successful in rowing at the top level". Rowing Australia President Rowing Australia President, Rob Scott said, “Kim has been an integral member of Australia's rowing team for over 10 years while being a fantastic role model within the Australian Rowing Team and the broader Australian sporting community, her performances on the world stage speak for themselves, but I am sure that one her proudest moments in the green and gold are when she won her Olympic gold medal at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games.

Brennan announced her retirement from rowing after the birth of her son. She stated she still wants to be involved in the Olympic movement long into the future, she is Chair of the Australian Olympic Committee's Athletes Commission and a full voting member on the AOC Board. 2010 & 2011 – Rowing Australia Awards – Female Athlete of the Year with Kerry Hore 2012 & 2013 – Rowing Australia Awards – Female Athlete of the Year 2012, 2013 & 2016 – Victorian Female Athlete of the Year 2013 & 2016 – AIS Sport Performance Awards – Female Athlete of the Year 2013 – International Rowing Federation – Female Athlete of the Year 2013 – Australian Women's Health Prime Minister's Women in Sport Award 2016 – ACT Sports Awards – Female Athlete of the Year 2016 – Women's Health I Support Women in Sport Awards – Sportswoman Of The Year 2017 – Member of the Order of Australia – for significant service to rowing, to the welfare of elite athletes, to sport as a gold medallist at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games, to the community.

2018 — named as one of The Australian Financial Review 100 Women of Influence in the Arts and Sport category Kim Brennan at Rowing Australia Kimberley Brennan at FISA Kim Crow at the International Olympic Committee Kimberley Brennan at the International Olympic Committee Kim Crow at Olympics at Kim Crow-Brennan at Olympics at