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American Kennel Club

The American Kennel Club is a registry of purebred dog pedigrees in the United States. In addition to maintaining its pedigree registry, this kennel club promotes and sanctions events for purebred dogs, including the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show, an annual event which predates the official forming of the AKC, the National Dog Show and the AKC National Championship; the AKC is not affiliated with the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. In the early 1800s, the English became concerned with the beauty of dogs as well as their function; this fad spread to North America, in 1877, the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show began. Soon after, the need for a regulating body became obvious; the National American Kennel Club, founded in 1876, began to publish and make publicly available its studbook in 1879. This organization, had a more vested interest in field trials than in conformation shows, changed its name to the National Field Trial Association and stopped hosting conformation shows completely.

In 1884, a group of 13 breed clubs, 10 American clubs and three Canadian clubs founded the American Kennel Club. These 13 clubs pledged "to do everything to advance the study, exhibiting and maintenance of purity of thoroughbred dogs." The AKC differed from The Kennel Club in that individuals could not directly join the AKC. When arguments began to develop between the American and Canadian breed clubs in 1886, the Canadian clubs pulled out from the organization and established their own kennel club two years the Canadian Kennel Club. In 1894, the American Kennel Club began to refuse to allow Canadian dogs without an American pedigree to participate in its shows, following the prevailing trends in American purebred cattle organizations. In 1906, the U. S. Department of Agriculture ruled that any dogs imported to America who were not registered with the AKC would have to pay a duty charge. Soon after the AKC, CKC, KC produced agreements that made any dog eligible to be registered with the club in its home country, eligible for registration in the remaining two clubs as well.

In 1909, the group became incorporated. On July 1, 2012, the AKC began to recognize certain titles issued by the North American Flyball Association; these titles are Flyball Champion, Flyball Master, the ONYX title. The AKC is the largest registry of purebred dogs in the U. S. and is the only not-for profit registry, as well as the most influential. For a purebred dog to be registered with the AKC, the dog's parents must be registered with the AKC as the same breed, the litter in which the dog is born must be registered with the AKC. If the dog's parents are not registered with the AKC or the litter is not registered, an exception may be made if the AKC determines, through special registry research, that the dog is eligible for AKC registration. Once a determination of eligibility is met, either by litter application or registry research, the dog can be registered as purebred by the AKC. Registration indicates; the AKC's Foundation Stock Service is an optional breed registry service the club provides for new purebred dog breeds that have been introduced to the US and are yet to be recognised by the AKC.

The AKC sanctions events in which handlers can compete. These are divided into three areas: Conformation shows Junior Showmanship Companion events, in which all registered and PAL/ILP dogs can compete; these include: Obedience trials Tracking trials Dog agility, including the specialized Fifteen and Send Time events Rally obedience Performance events, which are limited to certain entrants. The AKC National Championship is an annual event held in Orlando, FL; the show is by invitation only. The dogs invited to the show have either finished their championship from the bred-by-exhibitor class or ranked in the Top 25 of their breed; the show can be seen on major television stations. The AKC offers the Canine Good Citizen program; this program tests dogs of any breed or type, registered or not, for basic behavior and temperament suitable for appearing in public and living at home. Another AKC affiliate is AKC Reunite AKC Companion Animal Recovery, founded in 1995, North America's largest not-for-profit pet ID and recovery service.

Another AKC affiliate is the AKC Humane Fund, which supports breed rescue activities, assists shelters that permit domestic violence victims to bring their pets and educates dog lovers about responsible dog ownership. The AKC provides titles for therapy dogs, after the dogs have been certified by AKC recognized therapy dog organizations and have performed a required number of visits; the AKC has been criticized for the prevalence of genetic disorders in their dogs. A

Beijing 101 Middle School

Beijing 101 Middle School known as Beijing No.101 Middle/High School, is a coeducational public middle school for both boarding and day students in grades 7 to 12. The school is in Xiyuan, Haidian District of Beijing, half mile from Zhongguancun, the city's IT center, it is one of the beacon high schools accredited by Beijing Municipal Government. It has two affiliated schools. Beijing 101 Middle School is renowned for its study environment, its 200,000 square meter campus is surrounded by the Old Summer Palace, one of China's most splendid imperial palaces. Dozens of ponds dot the whole campus. 13,000 square meters of 101 are covered by water. Peking University and Tsinghua University, known as the best two universities in mainland China, are both within half a mile; the school has undergone reconstruction work since 2005. The school's academic facilities include a library housing 100,000 books and magazines, an electronic library, 100 classrooms with multi-media equipment, a lecture hall, a 700-people auditorium, an information center, a 300 m2 greenhouse supported by NASA and China Space Center.

The school has two standard soccer fields, six tennis courts, 16 basketball courts, a 400-meter track and a gymnasium for volleyball and ping-pong. Beijing 101 Middle School was founded in 1946; the school was founded on a town in the nearby Hebei Province. Soon after 101's foundation, the Chinese Civil War begun and both students and teachers were forced to move. After two years of moving, the school entered Beijing City and built its first permanent campus in Xiyuan, Haidian District; this moving is known as "the Long March of 101". In the first 20 years of its history, the school was only open to children of the country's top-ranking officers. Zhou Enlai, the former premier of China, once visited the school and encouraged students to achieve their dreams at 101. After Mao Zedong commented on 101's discriminate admission policies in 1964, the school was opened to all students disregard of their family backgrounds. Jiang Zemin, the former General Secretary of Communist Party and President of China, Li Peng, the former Chairman of the National People's Congress, both congratulated the school and wrote couplets when the school celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1996.

In 2003, premier Wen Jiabao visited the school and encouraged the students to carry on the school's rich traditions. During the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 101 was chosen to hold the Youth Camp of the XXIX Olympia. March 1946, Zhangjiakou Municipal School, the prototype of Beijing 101, was founded by the People's Liberation Army in Hebei Province. September 1946,Zhangjiakou Municipal School, Municipal Girls' School, Huimin Middle School evacuated from Zhangjiakou; the three schools moved across Taihang Mountains, arrived at Hebei Province. November 1946, the three schools were named as Jin Cha Ji Frontline United Middle School. January 1948, the United Middle School moved to the suburb of Shijiazhuang, the capital of Hebei Province. August 1948, the Xingzhi Middle School was incorporated by the United Middle School, the new school was named as Huabei Yucai Middle School. January 1949, Huabei Yucai Middle School moved to a small town southwest of Beijing City. May 1949, Huabei Yucai became a middle school affiliated to Peking Normal University.

1951, based on the agreement of Zhou Enlai, the school built its first permanent campus in the Old Summer Palace. 1955, the school was renamed as Beijing 101 Middle School according to the suggestion of Guo Moruo, a famous Chinese poet and author. Yizhi Wang, the second principal, is the most respected principal in 101's history; as a principal who had led the school for 30 years, through both Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution, Wang made substantial contributions to the school and its students. Since 1946, Beijing 101 Middle School has been one of the best middle schools in China. Before the school was opened to society based on the non-discriminate admission policy, 101's special position had brought the school the best educational resources. Before the Education Department called for a change in public schools' admission standards several years ago, 101's student body composed of the top 5% of applicants from each year. Over 80% of the students are enrolled in the country's key universities.

98% of 101's graduates get into colleges or universities each year the highest rate in mainland China. In 2008, the liberal arts department sent 99.3% of its students to universities all around the world, the highest rate in several years. Unlike most schools in mainland China, 101 runs a intense independent study program. Over 10% of the students have independent science programs that might take them more than a year to finish. In 2006, an asteroid was named after Zhongyuechen, a student at Beijing 101 High School, due to her newest biology discovery; the asteroid is now known as 21725 Zhongyuechen. 101 is one of the few public schools in China which offers courses for more than five foreign languages. 101 was chosen as the Olympic Youth Camp of the Beijing XXIX Olympia. Students from more than 50 countries spent their Olympic summer at 101. Beijing 101 Middle School was the last leg of Beijing XXIX Olympic's torch relay; the torch was ignited in Olympia, after 129 days of relay, passing 19 countries all around the world.

The torch ended its journey in front of 101's Lecture Hall. Beijing 101 Middle School hosted the 2007 Annual Summit of International School Connection; the school has built a relationship with the Olympic Delegatio


Tapora is a locality on the Okahukura Peninsula, on the eastern side of the Kaipara Harbour in New Zealand. It is part of the Rodney District. Wellsford lies to the east. Early history of Maori tells how the western shores of Okahukura once extended to the entrance of the Kaipara Harbour as sand dunes with two channels into the harbour instead of one, as it is now; this portion of land, more or less sand dunes was known as Tapora, was inhabited by the Maori. Great storms caused the sand dunes to drift away, allowing the sea to encroach, leaving only sand bars in the harbour where there was once a whare or large temple on the original sand dunes. For ten generations the land of Okahukura remained in the possession of Ngati Whatua. For more than ten years after the Government had purchased the neighbouring land known as Albertland, the peninsula was occupied by the Ngati Whatua tribe. About the year 1876 T. E. FitzGerald purchased the land from Ngati Whatua which included the Okahukura point and 24,000 acres of land.

FitzGerald built his first homestead around 1880 on a ridge overlooking Oruawharo River. Here he built a jetty for small boats for access when there was sufficient high tide, but there was a main landing point in deeper water for any tide. Due to the large number of kauri trees, FitzGerald leased the rights of this land to gum-diggers. Due to old age FitzGerald had to terminate his twenty years of occupancy at Okahukura. Following FitzGerald's retirement A. H. Walker leased this land for two and a half years and improved the landscape by re-fencing and sowing grass. T. C. Williams now leased the land with W. Williams taking over management. For the next ten years Williams and his workers spent many days cutting and burning down bush to allow for sowing grasslands, while opening gumfields and a store at one of FitzGerald's old homes. In the year 1910 Williams was in the process of transferring the management of the block to C. Kemp, when he accidentally fatally shot himself. Kemp took over management of Okahukura.

Nearer the end of 1910 Okahukura was sold to Messrs Smith of Christchurch. Kemp was still manager of the Okahukura property and split the property up, selling sections to others and developed roads for access into the new sections as well as communications through a telephone line; the land changed ownership numerous times between World War Two. During World War Two the United States Marines set up camp on'the run' and used the greater area for target practice; the New Zealand Government took over Okahukura to use as a soldier rehabilitation settlement in April 1945. The name Okahukura was changed to Tapora to avoid confusion with another Okahukura elsewhere in New Zealand; the Minister of'Land and Returned Services' Association brokered a pact to develop the Okahukura peninsula for returned servicemen through ballots. A community to be called Tapora was planned with a shop, school and workers' houses; the ballots for the Returned Services' Association were created in 1947 and Tapora turned into a dairy farming settlement.

Tapora is now a thriving community with productive dairy farms, a primary school, community hall and golf course. Tapora School is a coeducational full primary school with a decile rating of 5 and a roll of 30


3LCD is the name and brand of a major LCD projection color image generation technology used in modern digital projectors. 3LCD technology was developed and refined by Japanese imaging company Epson in the 1980s and was first licensed for use in projectors in 1988. In January 1989, Epson launched its first 3LCD projector, the VPJ-700. Although Epson still owns 3LCD technology, it is marketed by an affiliated organization named after the technology:"3LCD"; the organization is a consortium of projector manufacturers that have licensed 3LCD technology to be used in their products. To date, about 40 different projector brands worldwide have adopted 3LCD technology. According to electronics industry research company Pacific Media Associates, projectors using 3LCD technology comprised about 51% of the world's digital projector market in 2009.3LCD technology gets its name from the three LCD panel chips used in its image generation engine. Creating Colors from White Light: A projector using 3LCD technology works by first splitting the white light from the lamp into its three primary colors of red and blue by passing the lamp light through special dichroic filter / reflector assemblies called “dichroic mirrors.”

Each dichroic mirror only allows specific colored wavelengths of light to pass through while reflecting the rest away. In this way, the white light is split into its three primary color beams and each is directed toward, subsequently through its own LCD panel. Image Generation at the LCDs: The three LCD panels of the projector are the elements that receive the electronic signals to create the image, to be projected; each pixel on an LCD is covered by liquid crystals. By changing the electrical charge given to the liquid crystals, each pixel on an LCD can be darkened until it is opaque, lightened until it is transparent or shaded in varying degrees of translucence; this is similar to how a digital watch’s characters appear bold and black on its LCD when its battery is new, but start to fade as its battery weakens. In this way, the brightness level on every pixel for each primary color can be precisely controlled to produce the final pixel's specific color and brightness level required on the screen.

Color Image Recombination and Projection: After each colored light is filtered through its individual LCD panel, the beams are recombined in a dichroic prism that forms the final image, reflected out through the lens. For mainstream projectors, the competitors to 3LCD technology are single-chip DLP technology and to a much lesser extent, LCOS projection technology. Proponents of 3LCD projection technology claim that it has the following advantages over it closest competing technologies: 3LCD projectors can have higher color light output than single-chip DLP projectors; this is because 3LCD projectors mix and project the light beams from all three colors to form each individual pixel's color, while single-chip DLP projectors create colors by projecting them in sequence one at a time and rely on human color perception to mix and interpret the correct colors for each pixel. 3LCD projectors use less power compared to a single-chip DLP projectors of the same brightness rating. The way a single-chip DLP projector works sometimes causes viewers to see a "rainbow" or "color breakup" effect where false colors are perceived when either the image or the observer's eye is in motion.

As all three primary colors are displayed all the time by 3LCD projectors, they do not suffer from this effect. 3LCD projectors are able to display finer image gradations by giving each pixel on the projected image a smooth variation in brightness levels. This is because the liquid crystals for each pixel on an LCD panel can be given fine levels of opacity by varying the electrical charge. On the other hand, a single-chip DLP projector has a single mirror reflecting the lamp light to the lens on its DMD chip for each pixel, it varies the brightness of each pixel by vibrating the mirror between its on or off state in varying frequencies and relies on human perception to interpret the brightness of each pixel. 3LCD projectors are more affordable than those using LCOS or 3-chip DLP technologies. Older 3LCD projectors with large pixel pitches have a "screen door effect" Single-chip DLP projectors have higher contrast ratios compared to older 3LCD models of similar price or brightness rating; the smallest single-chip DLP.

Current LCOS projector models deliver sharper images at higher resolutions than 3LCD projectors. 3LCD web site 3LCD demo video Internal structure of a 3LCD projector 3LCD technology explanation and brief history on Epson web site A Comparison of 3LCD and DLP projection technologies by projector review and information web site, How Single-chip DLP technology works

1980–81 Fulham RLFC season

The 1980-81 Fulham RLFC season was the first in the club's history. They competed in the 1980–81 Second Division of the Rugby Football League, they competed in the 1980–81 Challenge Cup and the 1980–81 League Cup. They finished the season in 3rd place and were promoted to the top tier of professional rugby league in the UK. In 1980, Fulham Football Club chairman Ernie Clay, set up a rugby league team at Craven Cottage, with the intention of creating another income stream for the football club. Warrington director Harold Genders, who had helped to persuade Clay of the benefits of starting a rugby league club in the capital, resigned from the Warrington board to become managing director of Fulham R. L. F. C; the Rugby Football League, keen to encourage the expansion of the sport beyond its traditional Northern heartland, accepted the new club with 26 clubs voting in favour, with three abstentions at the League's AGM. One of the game's leading players, Reg Bowden, was recruited by Genders to act as player-coach.

He cost the club £25,000 at a time when the world record transfer fee was £40,000. The club's first signing was Roy Lester on a free transfer from Warrington. Within nine weeks and Bowden had assembled a team of experienced players approaching retirement, together with a few promising youngsters. Nearly 10,000 Londoners turned up for the opening game at Craven Cottage to see the newly formed side convincingly beat regarded Wigan 24–5; the new Fulham RL team proved to be competitive and went on to win promotion at the end of their inaugural season. Rugby League Project

Severance Hall

Severance Hall is a concert hall in the University Circle neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio. Opened in 1931, it has remained the home venue of the Cleveland Orchestra, it is named after patrons John L. Severance and his sister Elisabeth Severance Allen Prentiss, the son and daughter of oilman and philanthropist Louis Severance. Severance Hall is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Wade Park District; the Cleveland Orchestra first performed in the much smaller Grays Armory in downtown Cleveland, moved two miles east to the Masonic Auditorium for concerts throughout the 1920s. However, both buildings were used for a variety of presentations. Most famously, the Orchestra twice had to arrange alternative concert locations from Grays Armory on short notice due to a scheduling conflict with a poultry exhibition; the Orchestra's administration came to recognize the advantages that having its own hall could bring to the ensemble's performances through consistent availability of such a hall for rehearsals, radio broadcasts, other musical purposes.

After much encouragement from the orchestra's founder Adella Prentiss Hughes and its Music Director Nikolai Sokoloff, plans for Severance Hall materialized using land offered from Western Reserve University at $1 per year and funds from public fundraising and local philanthropists. The conceiver and biggest funder of the project was industrial magnate and philanthropist John Long Severance, who donated $1 million towards development and named the hall after his deceased wife Elisabeth Dewitt Severance. Despite the economic difficulties of the Great Depression, construction began in 1929 and finished in 1931. Designed by local firm Walker and Weeks, the steel framed stone-clad building is placed on the diagonal facing the intersection of Euclid Avenue and East Boulevard; the front portion housing the grand entry lobby is in the form of a domed rotunda, the auditorium and service spaces spread in a fan shape behind. The restrained classical exterior, designed to complement the nearby Neoclassical Cleveland Museum of Art, features a prominent ionic Neoclassical portico, approached by flights of stairs, with an Art Deco pediment bas relief by New York sculptor Henry Hering.

In interiors of Severance Hall are some of America's greatest examples of Art Moderne or Art Deco design, sumptuously decorated with stylised Egyptian Revival elements. The Grand Foyer, set above the former driveway drop-off below, is a double-height oval room, defined by surrounding rose-coloured marble columns. Stylised papyrus and lotus flower patterns in a variety of forms are used to decorate all elements, from the terrazzo floor and ceiling patterns to the light fixtures and delicately cast brass doors, highlighted by gold leaf; the auditorium of Severance Hall in contrast glistens with silvery aluminium leaf, a defining modern material of the Art Deco period. The shallow domed ceiling is patterned by undulating, flowing leafy tendrils and swirls inspired by Elizabeth Point Duchesse lace wedding dress, fanning up in giant stylised papyrus shapes either side of the proscenium, from stalks around the top tier of seating. Recessed lighting makes the whole ceiling glow; some acoustic problems were soon observed in Severance Hall shortly after its opening.

These were attributed in part to the use of velvet curtains for the boxes, thick carpeting throughout much of the hall, the fact that the stage, designed for theatrical productions, had a large, sound-absorbing fly space above it. In addition, the removable stage shells created for the orchestra to play within were constructed of non-sound-reflective materials, which allowed sound from the hall's original organ to be heard from its position above the stage's fly space; the 6,025-pipe Ernest M. Skinner organ was a massive instrument for its day, but its positioning outside the auditorium itself was something of an experiment and limited choices for addressing the auditorium's dry acoustics. In 1958, at the instigation of Music Director George Szell, a complete acoustical redesign of the hall was undertaken. To make the auditorium more resonant, the original proscenium and blue velvet drapes were removed and the placement of carpet was reduced to a minimum. On the stage a permanent acoustical shell was built.

The new shell consisted of thick wooden walls surrounding the orchestra in a series of convex curves. The heavy wood walls were further filled with sand to heights of up to nine feet to make them less absorbent and more reflective of sound; the result was a new, vibrant-sounding space which complemented the refined, brilliant sound of the orchestra under Szell's direction. Visually, the severe new Modernist stage clashed with the elegant Art Deco design of the auditorium. In addition, the organ's pipe chambers were sealed off from the auditorium by the new shell; this made the organ all but non-functional, its sound being transferred into the auditorium via microphones and speakers. In 1970 the building's drive-through street-level entrance paved with tile was closed as the use of taxis and chauffeured vehicles had declined. A dining area was set up in the resulting space. On, one of the access corridors on the ground floor was closed off to create space for a dressing room for women orchestra members.

Beginning in 1998, the Hall underwent expansion. The renovated building reopened in January 2000; the project archite