National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Rabat is the capital of Morocco and its seventh largest city centre with an urban population of approximately 580,000 and a metropolitan population of over 1.2 million. It is the capital of the Rabat-Salé-Kénitra administrative region, the city is located on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the river Bou Regreg. On the facing shore of the river lies Salé, the main commuter town. Rabat and Salé form a conurbation of over 1.8 million people, silt-related problems have diminished Rabats role as a port, however and Salé still maintain important textile, food processing and construction industries. In addition and the presence of all foreign embassies in Morocco serve to make Rabat one of the most important cities in the country. Once a reputed corsair haven, Rabat served as one of the ports in North Africa for the Barbary pirates. Rabat is accessible by train through the ONCF system and by plane through the nearby Rabat–Salé Airport, the Moroccan capital was ranked at second place by CNN in its Top Travel Destinations of 2013.
It is one of four Imperial cities of Morocco, and the medina of Rabat is listed as a World Heritage Site, Rabat has a relatively modern history compared to the nearby ancient city of Salé. In 1146, the Almohad ruler Abd al-Mumin turned Rabats ribat into a fortress to use as a launching point for attacks on Iberia. In 1170, due to its importance, Rabat acquired the title Ribatu l-Fath, meaning stronghold of victory. Yaqub al-Mansur, another Almohad Caliph, moved the capital of his empire to Rabat and he built Rabats city walls, the Kasbah of the Udayas and began construction on what would have been the worlds largest mosque. However, Yaqub died and construction stopped, the ruins of the unfinished mosque, along with the Hassan Tower, still stand today. Yaqubs death initiated a period of decline, the Almohad empire lost control of its possessions in Spain and much of its African territory, eventually leading to its total collapse. In the 13th century, much of Rabats economic power shifted to Fez, in 1515 a Moorish explorer, El Wassan, reported that Rabat had declined so much that only 100 inhabited houses remained.
An influx of Moriscos, who had expelled from Spain, in the early 17th century helped boost Rabats growth. Rabat and neighboring Salé united to form the Republic of Bou Regreg in 1627, the republic was run by Barbary pirates who used the two cities as base ports for launching attacks on shipping. The pirates did not have to contend with any central authority until the Alaouite Dynasty united Morocco in 1666, the latter attempted to establish control over the pirates, but failed. European and Muslim authorities continued to attempt to control the pirates over many years, but the Republic of Bou Regreg did not collapse until 1818
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
Moorish architecture is the architectural tradition that appeared in the Maghreb region and the Iberian peninsula after the Arab Islamic conquest. Other notable buildings include the palace city of Medina Azahara, the church San Cristo de la Luz in Toledo. The term is used to include the products of the Islamic civilisation of Southern Italy. The Palazzo dei Normanni in Sicily was begun in the 9th century by the Emir of Palermo, there is archeological evidence of an eighth-century mosque in Narbonne, France. Arabic architecture Islamic architecture Arab-Norman culture Islamic influences on Christian art Moorish Revival* Moroccan architecture Mudéjar Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon Curl, a Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The Peace Corps is a volunteer program run by the United States government. The work is related to social and economic development. Each program participant, a Peace Corps Volunteer, is an American citizen, typically with a college degree, Volunteers work with governments, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, and entrepreneurs in education, information technology and the environment. After 24 months of service, volunteers can request an extension of service, from 1961 to 2015, nearly 220,000 Americans have joined the Peace Corps and served in 141 countries. The Peace Corps shows the willingness of Americans to work at the level in order to help underdeveloped countries meet their needs. The Peace Corps has affected the way people of other countries view Americans, how Americans view other countries, following the end of World War II, various members of the United States Congress proposed bills to establish volunteer organizations in developing countries. In that calling, these men would follow the work done by the religious missionaries in these countries over the past 100 years.
In 1952 Senator Brien McMahon proposed an army of young Americans to act as missionaries of democracy, privately funded nonreligious organizations began sending volunteers overseas during the 1950s. The President, knowing how I felt, asked me to introduce legislation for all three, I introduced the first Peace Corps bill in 1957. It did not meet with much enthusiasm, Some traditional diplomats quaked at the thought of thousands of young Americans scattered across their world. Many senators, including liberal ones, thought it silly and an unworkable idea, with a young president urging its passage, it became possible and we pushed it rapidly through the Senate. It is fashionable now to suggest that Peace Corps Volunteers gained as much or more and that may be true, but it ought not demean their work. They touched many lives and made them better, Only in 1959, did the idea receive serious attention in Washington when Congressman Henry S. Reuss of Wisconsin proposed a Point Four Youth Corps. In 1960, he and Senator Richard L.
Neuberger of Oregon introduced identical measures calling for a study of the ideas advisability and practicability. Both the House Foreign Affairs Committee and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee endorsed the study, in this form it became law in June 1960. He dubbed the proposed organization the Peace Corps, a brass marker commemorates the place where Kennedy stood. In the weeks after the 1960 election, the group at Colorado State University. Kennedys opponent, Richard M. Nixon, predicted it would become a cult of escapism, others doubted whether recent graduates had the necessary skills and maturity
In diplomacy, a legation was a diplomatic representative office lower than an embassy. Where an embassy was headed by an ambassador, a legation was headed by a Minister, ambassadors outranked Ministers and had precedence at official events. Through the 19th century and the years of the 20th century. An ambassador was considered the representative of his monarch, so only a major power that was a monarchy would send an ambassador. A republic or a monarchy would only send a Minister. Diplomatic reciprocity meant that even a monarchy would only establish a legation in a republic or a smaller monarchy. For example, in the years of the Second French Empire, the North German Confederation had an embassy in Paris, while Bavaria. The practice of establishing legations gradually fell from favor as the embassy became the form of diplomatic mission. The establishment of the French Third Republic and the growth of the United States meant that two of the Great Powers were now republics. The French Republic continued the French Empires practice of sending and receiving ambassadors, in 1893, the United States followed the French precedent and began sending ambassadors, upgrading its legations to embassies.
The last remaining American legations, in Bulgaria and Hungary, were upgraded to embassies in 1966
Government agencies, at the state and local level in the United States, have differing definitions of what constitutes a contributing property but there are common characteristics. Local laws often regulate the changes that can be made to contributing structures within designated historic districts, the first local ordinances dealing with the alteration of buildings within historic districts was in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931. Properties within a district fall into one of two types of property and non-contributing. A contributing property, such as a 19th Century mansion, helps make a historic district historic, while a non-contributing property, such as a medical clinic. The contributing properties are key to a districts historic associations, historic architectural qualities. A property can change from contributing to non-contributing and vice versa if significant alterations take place, the ordinance declared that buildings in the district could not have changes made to their architectural features visible from the street.
By the mid-1930s, other U. S. cities followed Charlestons lead, an amendment to the Louisiana Constitution led to the 1937 creation of the Vieux Carre Commission, which was charged with protecting and preserving the French Quarter in the city of New Orleans. The city passed an ordinance that set standards regulating changes within the quarter. Other sources, such as the Columbia Law Review in 1963, the Columbia Law Review gave dates of 1925 for the New Orleans laws and 1924 for Charleston. The same publication claimed that two cities were the only cities with historic district zoning until Alexandria, Virginia adopted an ordinance in 1946. The National Park Service appears to refute this, in 1939, the city of San Antonio, enacted an ordinance that protected the area of La Villita, which was the citys original Mexican village marketplace. In 1941 the authority of local controls on buildings within historic districts was being challenged in court. In City of New Orleans vs Pergament Louisiana state appellate courts ruled that the design, beginning in the mid-1950s, controls that once applied to only historic districts were extended to individual landmark structures.
The United States Congress adopted legislation that declared the Georgetown neighborhood in Washington, by 1965,51 American communities had adopted preservation ordinances. By 1998, more than 2,300 U. S. towns, contributing properties are defined through historic district or historic preservation zoning laws, usually at the local level. Zoning ordinances pertaining to historic districts are designed to maintain a historic character by controlling demolition and alteration to existing properties. It can be any property, structure or object that adds to the integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, either local or federal. Definitions vary but, in general, they maintain the same characteristics, another key aspect of a contributing property is historic integrity
A medina quarter is a distinct city section found in many North African cities. The medina is typically walled, with narrow and maze-like streets. The word medina itself simply means city or town in modern-day Arabic, Medina quarters often contain historical fountains and mosques. Because of the narrow streets, medinas are generally free from car traffic. The streets can be less than a metre wide and this makes them unique among highly populated urban centres. The Medina of Fes, or Fes el Bali, is considered one of the largest car-free urban areas in the world, some medinas were used to confuse and slow down invaders because of how narrow and winding they are. Algiers, the Casbah of Algiers is a named after its fortress. Benghazi, Libya, is an Ottoman and Italian quarter in the downtown but does not include a historic wall