The American Platinum Eagle is the official platinum bullion coin of the United States. In 1995, Director of the United States Mint Philip N. Diehl, American Numismatic Association President David L. Ganz, Platinum Guild International Executive Director Jacques Luben began the legislative process of creating the Platinum Eagle. After over two years of work, the 99.95% fine platinum coins were released by the United States Mint in 1⁄10, 1⁄4, 1⁄2 and 1 troy oz denominations. In late 2008, the fractional denominations were discontinued, leaving only the one ounce denomination; the Platinum Eagle is authorized by the United States Congress, is backed by the United States Mint for weight and purity. Proof versions of the coins are intended for coin collectors and sold directly to the public whereas the bullion versions are sold only to the Mint's authorized buyers; the proof American Platinum Eagles are unique in the fact that they are the only U. S. bullion coins. Bullion versions are minted with the same design every year.
While minted, the uncirculated Platinum Eagles matched the proof designs and were struck on burnished coin blanks with a "W" mint mark signifying West Point, further distinguishing them from the bullion versions. The 1⁄10, 1⁄4, 1⁄2 troy oz coins are identical in design to the 1 troy oz coin except for the markings on the reverse side that indicate the weight and face value of the coin; as is the case with bullion coins, the face values of these coins are their legal values reflecting their issue and monetized value as coins. They are legal tender for all debts private at their face values; these face values do not reflect their intrinsic value, much greater. The 1 troy oz coin's face value of $100 is the highest to appear on a U. S. coin. The U. S. Government, has taken the position that paying debts with such coins at their face value, where the face value is lower than its intrinsic value, will implicate money laundering and tax evasion statutes; the specifications of each denomination are presented below: All denominations of the proof American Platinum Eagles carry a yearly design.
These coins are the only U. S. bullion coins that change designs every year. Since 1998, each design aside from the 2017 reverse commemorating the 20th anniversary of the program, has been part of a themed series: 1998–2002: The Vistas of Liberty series featured reverse designs depicting a bald eagle in a different landscape of the United States, in a different region of the country. 2006–2008: The Foundations of Democracy series featured reverse designs representing the three branches of government. 2009–2014: The Preamble to the Constitution series explored the core concepts of American democracy by highlighting the Preamble to the United States Constitution. The themes for the reverse designs for this program are inspired by narratives prepared by Chief Justice of the United States, John Roberts, at the request of the United States Mint. 2015–2016: The Torches of Liberty series featured reverse designs from the Artistic Infusion Program which represent the "nation's core values of liberty and freedom".
2018–2020: The Preamble to the Declaration of Independence series features obverse designs portraying Lady Liberty and handwritten single-word inscriptions from the Declaration of Independence in addition to a new common reverse design. It is the first series to vary obverse designs, all created concurrently by the same designer, rather than reverse designs. On November 28, 2007, the U. S. Mint announced the American Eagle 10th Anniversary Platinum Coin Set. Intended to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Platinum Eagle's 1997 launch, the set contained two half-ounce Platinum Eagles, one matching the 2007 proof strike from earlier in the year and the other carrying an enhanced reverse proof finish with the same design; this first offering of a reverse proof version of the Platinum Eagle followed the prior year's release of similar sets for the American Silver Eagle and American Gold Eagle's 20th anniversary. In addition to being accompanied by a certificate of authenticity, the coins were encased in a domed mahogany box designed to display the coins at an angle.
The set's release on December 13, 2007 at a price of $1,949.95 with a seven-day one-set-per-household limit was met with strong collector interest. First week sales reached 14,682 units half of the maximum ordered mintage of 30,000 units. However, due to fluctuations in the price of platinum, the Mint suspended sales on February 13, 2008, resumed sales about a month at $2,649.95. The increased price constituted a larger premium, around $635, above spot; the following months brought a decline in platinum's price below $1,000 per troy oz, precipitating further suspensions and a final price of $1,249.95. When sales were ended in December 31, 2008, over a year after its initial release, the Mint reported total sales of 19,583 units; the figures listed below are the final audited mintages from the U. S. include coins sold both individually and as part of multi-coin sets. Since 2009, only the $100 denomination has been offered. Bullion Platinum Eagles were not issued from 2009 to 2013. In 2015, due to an insufficient quantity of blanks, no bullion Platinum Eagles were issued.
American Gold Eagle American Silver Eagle American Palladium Eagle Eagle Canadian Platinum Maple Leaf Platinum coin Platinum as an investment United States Mint American Eagle Coin Program page United States Mint American Eagle Platinum Bullion Coins page United States Mint American Eagle Proof and Uncirculated Coin Program page United States Mint American Eagle Coin Images page "Broch
Camille Donat is a French professional triathlete and swimmer. In France, Camille Donat represents the swim club AMSL Frejus. In 2009, she took part in the prestigious French Club Championship Series, representing TCG 79 Parthenay, in 2010, she represented Saint-Raphaël Triathlon in the D2 Club Championship Series. In 2011 Donat will represent again Saint-Raphaël Triathlon in the French Club Championship Series. From 2007 on, Camille Donat has taken part in French Championships, placing 30th in 2007, 10th in 2008, 11th in 2009, 4th in 2010. In 2009 Camille Donat won the silver medal at the famous Triathlon EDF Alpe d'Huez, in 2010 she placed 7th. In various minor competitions she could win medals as well, e.g. the bronze medal at Toulon, silver at Paris, bronze at St. Raphael; the following list is based upon the Athlete's Profile Page. Unless indicated otherwise, the following events belong to the Elite category. Donat's club Saint Raphaël in French
Alexander Rzewuski was a Catholic clergyman of Polish-Russian aristocratic background, with a Russian Orthodox background. Alexander descended from a long line of Poles who had played a prominent part in the history of their country. At the last partition of Poland in 1795, they passed over to the service of the Russian Empire. Rzewuski's grandfather was in the personal suite of four Tsars, his father, General Adam Rzewuski, born in Ukraine, was military Governor of the Caucasus region at the time of Alexander's birth there in 1893. Alexander's mother was a Russian from the St Petersburg aristocracy, he was baptised into the Russian Orthodox Church and spent his childhood in the Caucasus and in Ukraine, where a series of French and English governesses educated him and his sisters at home. As an adolescent of 14, he was sent north, far from the mountains of the Caucasus, to school in St Petersburg at the Imperial Alexander Lycée. Schooling completed, he passed on to the University there; as an undergraduate, he was profoundly.
A cast of mind, to stay with him until his student days as a Dominican, was introduced. Rzewuski served during the war as an officer in command of organising fleets of ambulances for the wounded. Two events, one public and universally cataclysmic, the other personal and hidden, set the pattern for his future career; the personal event was his sudden reception into the Catholic Church. One night, towards the end of the war, he knocked at the door of Italian Capuchins in Trebizond demanding to be received into the Catholic Church on the spot; the Italian friar was startled at the demand so peremptorily put by the Russian Imperial Officer. Speaking it was against the law for a Russian Orthodox subject of the Tsar to become a Catholic. To accede to the request could have unhappy repercussions for the small Italian mission. However, Rzewuski must have been persuasive as he left the friary that same night as a member of the Catholic Church. In 1918, just as the Alexander Kerensky government was about to fall, be succeeded by Vladimir Lenin's coup d'état, Rzewuski undertook a dangerous journey to St Petersburg to recoup some of the family's money from the floundering banks.
Successful in this, he threaded his way back south to Kiev. At a family council it was decided that they all should flee to the Italy, where they had members of their wide family. Three weeks after criss-crossing through Poland and Austria, they were all ensconced in the Palazzo Caetani in Rome. However, Alexander was starting his painting career and for this Paris promised greater opportunity than Rome, he soon had won a reputation as a portrait painter and illustrator. This whirl of success came to a sudden halt when he was introduced to the Catholic philosopher Jacques Maritain. One day in conversation with him Maritain said quite simply: "I think that you should see a priest, I recommend Msgr Vladimir Ghika." Convinced of the validity of the Catholic position, he was waiting his mother's agreement to his leaving the Church of his birth: an event she dreaded. This time, unlike Trebizond 10 years before, the effect was definitive; the novitiate and course of studies completed, Rzewuski was ordained in 1932.
His first assignment was to Albertinum at Fribourg in Switzerland as spiritual director to the 200 international seminarians, sent here by their bishops from around the world to study under the Dominicans. Rzewuski was unimpressed with their lack of intellectual passion and their professional ambition to become important in the clerical field of Church politics, he suffered here for 13 years, but he did make some friends, among them the theologian Charles Journet, sought some refreshment at the Charterhouse of Valsainte. He always considered solitude to be his true calling, had friends among the Carthusians; when World War II ended, he returned to France to become novice-master for six years in Toulouse, followed by a time on the Ste Baume, a bare mountain overlooking the Mediterranean, a place of pilgrimage in honour of St Mary Magdalen. At last some measure of solitude was his in this place of retirement; the final decades of his life were passed caring for the contemplative Dominican nuns at Prouilhe, in other parts of the world before his death in 1983.