The American Psychological Association is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with over 118,000 members, including scientists, clinicians and students. It has 54 divisions—interest groups for different subspecialties of psychology or topical areas; the APA has an annual budget of around $115m. The APA has task forces that issue policy statements on various matters of social importance, including abortion, human rights, the welfare of detainees, human trafficking, the rights of the mentally ill, IQ testing, sexual orientation change efforts, gender equality. APA is a corporation chartered in the District of Columbia. APA's bylaws describe structural components that serve as a system of checks and balances to ensure democratic process; the organizational entities include: APA President. The APA's president is elected by the membership; the president chairs the Board of Directors. During his or her term of office, the president performs such duties as are prescribed in the bylaws.
Board of Directors. The board is composed of six members-at-large, the president-elect, past-president, recording secretary, CEO, the chair of the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students; the Board oversees the association's administrative affairs and presents an annual budget for council approval. APA Council of Representatives; the council has sole authority to set policy and make decisions regarding APA's $60 million annual income. It is composed of elected members from state/provincial/territorial psychological associations, APA divisions and the APA Board of Directors. APA Committee Structure: Boards and Committees. Members of boards and committees conduct much of APA's work on a volunteer basis, they carry out a wide variety of tasks suggested by their names. Some have responsibility for monitoring major programs, such as the directorates, the journals and international affairs; the Good Governance Project was initiated in January 2011 as part of the strategic plan to " APA's governance practices and structures are optimized and aligned with what is needed to thrive in a changing and complex environment."
The charge included soliciting feedback and input stakeholders, learning about governance best practices, recommending whether change was required, recommending needed changes based on data, creating implementation plans. The June 2013 GGP update on the recommended changes can be found in the document "Good Governance Project Recommended Changes to Maximize Organizational Effectiveness of APA Governance"; the suggested changes would change APA from a membership-based, representational structure to a corporate structure. These motions will be discussed and voted upon by Council on July 31, 2013 and August 2, 2013. APA comprises an executive office, a publishing operation, offices that address administrative, information technology, operational needs, five substantive directorates: the Education Directorate accredits doctoral psychology programs and addresses issues related to psychology education in secondary through graduate education. APA policy on the use of the title psychologist is contained in the Model Act for State Licensure of Psychologists: psychologists have earned a doctoral degree in psychology and may not use the title "psychologist" and/or deliver psychological services to the public, unless the psychologist is licensed or exempted from licensure under the law.
State licensing laws specify state specific requirements for the education and training of psychologists leading to licensure. Psychologists who are exempted from licensure could include researchers, educators, or general applied psychologists who provide services outside the health and mental health field. Full membership with the APA in United States and Canada requires doctoral training whereas associate membership requires at least two years of postgraduate studies in psychology or approved related discipline; the minimal requirement of a doctoral dissertation related to psychology for full membership can be waived in certain circumstances where there is evidence that significant contribution or performance in the field of psychology has been made. American Psychological Association Services, Inc. was formed in 2018 and is a 501 entity, which engages in advocacy on behalf of psychologists from all areas of psychology. Each year, the APA recognizes top psychologists with the "Distinguished Contributions" Awards.
APA Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Psychology APA Distinguished Scientific Award for the Applications of Psychology Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Practice in the Public Sector APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology APA Award for Lifetime Contributions to Psychology APA International
The Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus was an instrument used in a scientific experiment for detecting tau neutrinos from muon neutrino oscillations. The experiment is a collaboration between CERN in Geneva and the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Gran Sasso and uses the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso neutrino beam; the process started with protons from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN being fired in pulses at a carbon target to produce pions and kaons. These particles decay to produce neutrinos; the beam from CERN was stopped on 3 December 2012, ending data taking, but the analysis of the collected data has continued. OPERA, in Hall C of the Gran Sasso underground labs, was built in 2003–2008; the taus resulting from the interaction of tau neutrinos are observed in "bricks" of photographic films interleaved with lead sheets. Each brick weighs 8.3kg. Each supermodule is followed by a magnetic spectrometer for momentum and charge identification of penetrating particles.
During data collection, a neutrino interaction and its corresponding brick are tagged in real time by the scintillators and spectrometers. These bricks are extracted from the walls asynchronously with respect to the beam for film development and for the topological and kinematic search of tau decays. In total, five tau neutrinos were detected. On 31 May 2010, OPERA researchers observed the first tau neutrino candidate event in a muon neutrino beam. On 6 June 2012, OPERA announced the observation of a second tau neutrino event. On 26 March 2013, the experiment caught for the third time a muon neutrino oscillating into a tau neutrino during travel from CERN to LNGS; the fourth one was found in 2014, the fifth was seen in 2015. In September 2011, OPERA researchers observed muon neutrinos traveling faster than the speed of light. In February and March 2012, OPERA researchers blamed this result on a loose fibre optic cable connecting a GPS receiver to an electronic card in a computer. On 16 March 2012, a report announced that an independent experiment in the same laboratory using the CNGS neutrino beam, but this time the ICARUS detector, found no discernible difference between the speed of a neutrino and the speed of light.
In May 2012, the Gran Sasso experiments BOREXINO, ICARUS, LVD and OPERA all measured neutrino velocity with a short-pulsed beam, obtained agreement with the speed of light, showing that the original OPERA result was mistaken. In July 2012, the OPERA collaboration updated their results. After the instrumental effects mentioned above were taken into account, it was shown that the speed of neutrinos is consistent with the speed of light; this was confirmed by a new, improved set of measurements in May 2013. CERN: First Appearance Of Tau Neutrino The appearance of the tau-neutrino OPERA publications
Feedback linearization is a common approach used in controlling nonlinear systems. The approach involves coming up with a transformation of the nonlinear system into an equivalent linear system through a change of variables and a suitable control input. Feedback linearization may be applied to nonlinear systems of the form x ˙ = f + g u y = h where x ∈ R n is the state vector, u ∈ R p is the vector of inputs, y ∈ R m is the vector of outputs; the goal is to develop a control input u = a + b v that renders a linear input–output map between the new input v and the output. An outer-loop control strategy for the resulting linear control system can be applied. Here, consider the case of feedback linearization of a single-input single-output system. Similar results can be extended to multiple-input multiple-output systems. In this case, u ∈ R and y ∈ R; the objective is to find a coordinate transformation z = T that transforms the system into the so-called normal form which will reveal a feedback law of the form u = a + b v that will render a linear input–output map from the new input v ∈ R to the output y.
To ensure that the transformed system is an equivalent representation of the original system, the transformation must be a diffeomorphism. That is, the transformation must not only be invertible, but both the transformation and its inverse must be smooth so that differentiability in the original coordinate system is preserved in the new coordinate system. In practice, the transformation can be only locally diffeomorphic, but the linearization results only hold in this smaller region. Several tools are required to solve this problem; the goal of feedback linearization is to produce a transformed system whose states are the output y and its first derivatives. To understand the structure of this target system, we use the Lie derivative. Consider the time derivative of, which can be computed using the chain rule, y ˙ = d h d t = d h d x x ˙ = d h d x f + d h d x g u Now we can define the Lie derivative of h along f as, L f h = d h d x f, the Lie derivative of h along g as, L g h = d h d x g. With this new notation, we may express y ˙ as, y ˙
Preservation Park is located in Oakland, California. The park includes sixteen historic buildings, five of which stand in their original location, eleven of which were moved from elsewhere in Oakland to avoid demolition; the sixteen houses are arranged to resemble a late 19th-century Oakland neighborhood. The sixteen buildings are: Queen Anne style. Pierre Remillard was a brickyard owner, his bricks were used in the construction of the nearby First Unitarian Church of Oakland. Lilly Remillard tutored Jack London at the home. Ginn House, English Arts and Crafts style. Frederick Burrell Ginn and wife Mary Crocker commissioned architect A. Page Brown to design the home. Brown worked on the San Francisco Ferry Building. Nile Club, Craftsman style; the Nile Club, a members-only group of Oakland's male elite, built a theater next to Ginn House. It was used as a USO facility. Designed by Charles W. Dickey, who worked on the Claremont Hotel. Thornton House, Queen Anne style. Thornton was a capitalist; the home was built when the Sather Garden occupied the lot across the street.
Jane Sather is the donor of UC Berkeley's Sather Sather Tower. The home was purchased by Orrin Gowell, who became an architect in the office that designed the 1923 Tribune Tower. Higgins House, Italianate style. Elisha Higgins was a San Francisco lumber dealer. White House, Italianate style. Owned by Ellen Gould White and James White. Together, they worked within the Seventh Day Adventist church, they launched a paper called the "Sign of the Times." This building now houses the Preservation Park offices, the Rio California cafe. Knox-Buckley House, Italianate Villa. Henry Knox was a San Francisco dentist; the house was located on what is now 28th Street in what is now called "Pill Hill." The house was owned by John and Catherine Buckley. This was the last home moved to Preservation Park. Bartling House, Italianate Row House. Stood at what is now the 14th Street freeway overpass. Owned by William Bartling, partner in a San Francisco bookbinding firm. Park House, Italianate Villa. Charles O. Park painted train cars for the Central Pacific Railroad.
This house stood at 7th and Grove. This home was moved twice. Robinson House, Queen Anne Cottage style. Owned by Gertrude and W. H. Robinson. Built in Fruit Vale, or what is now called Fruitvale. Standeford House, Shingle style. Built for Miss Stella Standeford, her father worked at the San Francisco Mint. She married John F. Conners, who became the owner and publisher of the Oakland Enquirer. Bauske House, Queen Anne Cottage. Built by Reinhold Bauske, for his wife, Hazel; the home was located near Glen Echo Creek. Trowbridge House, Stick Style. Built by multimillionaire Frederick William Delger for his daughter and her new husband, Henry Trowbridge; this home was located behind the Fox Oakland Theater. Jacobs House, Queen Anne style rowhouse with two interior units. Jacobs was a Prussian-trained tailor, his house was located on 16th Street near Jefferson, where the next-door neighbor was pianist and painter Pauline Powell Burns. Raymond House, Colonial Revival style. William J. Raymond was a professor of physics at the University of California, which, at that time, was located between 12th and 14th Streets between Franklin and Harrison Streets.
Jacobs House stood on 16th Street. Hunt House, Queen Anne Cottage style. George C. Hunt handled horses, with his brother, he owned the City Hall Livery Stables; the home was owned by saloonkeeper Charles Appedorn. In addition, there are two other significant structures: the bandstand and the Latham-Ducel Fountain; the cast iron fountain was forged in Paris and features the moon goddess Diana with acanthus leaf ornament. It stood at Latham House and Gardens located at what is now 17th and Jackson Streets; the park is open to the public during the day, areas are rented out for parties and weddings. Many non-profits have offices here; the park is bordered by 12th Street, Castro Street, 14th Street and Martin Luther King, Jr. Way. 13th Street ends at the Latham-Ducel Fountain. Preservation Park Way, a one-way street, starts at the fountain, ends at 12th Street. Prentice, Helaine Kaplan. Brubaker, Andrew. Marvin, Betty. Oakland Redevelopment Agency.. Through These Doors: Discovering Oakland at Preservation Park.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 95-072811. ISBN 0-9650265-0-7. Official website Rio California website
Richard West was an English churchman and academic, was archdeacon of Berkshire from 1710. He was born at Creaton and educated at Uppingham School, he matriculated at St John's College, Cambridge, in 1688. He graduated B. A. in 1691, M. A. in 1694. He received the Lambeth degree of D. D. in 1708. West served as chaplain to Gilbert Burnet, he was vicar of Inglesham from 1702, canon of Winchester Cathedral from 1706. He became archdeacon of Berkshire in 1710, was rector of East Hendred, from 1713. West published editions of Theocritus. A sermon of 1700 for the Sons of the Clergy was printed; the tract The True Character of a Churchman was printed under West's name in the Somers Tracts. At the time of its appearance it was attributed by some to William Lloyd the bishop of Worcester, who made political use of it in Worcestershire against the Tory Sir John Pakington, 4th Baronet, in 1702. Lloyd denied the authorship, in the course of a parliamentary complaint brought by Pakington. West at this time crossed swords in pamphleteering with Henry Sacheverell, whose The character of a Low-Church-man was a reply to West, at the period when High Church and latitudinarian were emerging concepts.
Sacheverell wrote of latitude. West came back implying. In January 1710 the Winchester MPs Lord William Powlett and George Rodney Brydges together organised support in Parliament, to thank West for a sermon in which he had stated that in the English Civil War the faults were on both sides, it had proved controversial in its views, required a vote in Parliament before it was printed. J. P. Kenyon writes that West's sermon was in fact moderate in its Whiggism, in comparison with that of William Stephens on the same occasion ten years before, but the vote on it, at 124 to 105, was close. Despite his reputation as an intemperate Whig who had defended the execution of Charles I, West continued to preach on public occasions. West married Maria, eldest daughter of Sir Richard Temple, 3rd Baronet. Temple West was their son, their daughter Mary married Sir Alexander Hood. WorldCat page
The 1972–73 season was Port Vale's 61st season of football in the Football League, their third successive season in the Third Division. Their promotion efforts ended with a sixth-place finish, whilst in the two cup competitions they lost out to Newcastle United and West Ham United. Opposition managers condemned the players as overly physical, whilst off the pitch there were sporadic scenes of violence as football hooliganism gripped the club, the sport in general; the pre-season saw. The most significant was the signing of Ray Williams from Stafford Rangers, who had scored 47 goals for the non-league club the previous season. Williams was on a wage of £ 40 a week. Arriving was midfielder Freddie Goodwin. Ticket prices were raised to between 40 and 60 pence, whilst season tickets were priced between £8 and £10; the season opened with six victories in eight league games, though the third match was a huge 7–0 defeat at Millmoor to Rotherham United – the defeat was blamed on Boswell. After mid-September the "Valiants" struggled to score, recorded six draws in eight games, though they remained in the top three.
The club spent £8,500 on new floodlights and a public address system, however attendances dropped off from the crucial 6,000 break-even number. Lee complained about the lack of support, said "the people here are not genuinely interested in league football". Offered the management position at Shrewsbury Town, he rejected the offer as he believed the club'lacked potential' and that he had a'feeling of loyalty towards the players'. Going into the Christmas period Brian Horton was struck by injury, the team struggled, heading down the league with inconsistent play. In January, Lee sold John James to Chester for £5,000, Ray Harford to Colchester United for £1,750, Keith Lindsey to Gillingham for £750. To keep up the promotion bid, in February he spent £2,250 to bring'pacey' striker John Woodward from Walsall. Vale began to pick up wins, though their 2–1 win over Blackburn Rovers led to them being branded by Rovers manager Ken Furphy as'a brutal and physical side'. Vale lifted themselves into third place, though were out of the race after a'shattering' 5–0 defeat to Southend United at Roots Hall.
Their final home game of the season was a 2–2 draw with champions Bolton Wanderers, in which'frenzied scenes' included police dogs separating the two sets of fans at the Bycars End, two attempted pitch invasions, the referee kicked to the ground at the final whistle. They finished in sixth spot with 53 points, four short of promoted Notts County; the 69 goals conceded. On the financial side, a £14,304 profit was made after donations of £16,029 from the Sportsmen's Association and the Development Fund. Gate receipts had risen massively from £36,323 to £67,202; the wage bill stood at £59,663, whilst the club's debt was at £44,721, along with £57,860 owed to the directors. At the end of the season Freddie Goodwin was let go, he joined Macclesfield Town. In the FA Cup, Vale progressed past Fourth Division Southport and Third Division Wrexham with home victories. In the Third Round they faced Second Division West Ham United at Vale Park, where the "Hammers" won'an epic battle' 1–0 in front of a season-best crowd of 20,619.
The match raised £8,600, but the issue of violence, as two Londoners were stabbed, two policemen assaulted, thirty fans ejected from the stadium. West Ham manager Ron Greenwood claimed that the Vale players attempted'the most blatant calculated intimidation I have seen anywhere in the world'. In the League Cup, the club recorded their first away victory in the competition with a 1–0 win over Tranmere Rovers at Prenton Park; the Second Round held a home tie with First Division Newcastle United, the "Magpies" left Stoke-on-Trent having won 3–1 in front of 10,370 spectators. P = Matches played; the Port Vale Record 1879-1993. Witan Books. ISBN 0-9508981-9-8