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American Revolution

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt which occurred between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War with the assistance of France, winning independence from Great Britain and establishing the United States of America; the American colonials proclaimed "no taxation without representation" starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765. They had no representatives in the British Parliament and so rejected Parliament's authority to tax them. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor and enacting a series of punitive laws which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government. The other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts, a group of American Patriot leaders set up their own government in late 1774 at the Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance of Britain.

Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when King George's forces attempted to destroy American military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict escalated into war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in the Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress which assumed power from the former colonial governments, suppressed Loyalism, recruited a Continental Army led by General George Washington. The Continental Congress declared King George a tyrant who trampled the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Patriots attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76 without success, expecting like-minded colonists in British Canada to rally to the cause.

The newly created Continental Army forced the British military out of Boston in March 1776, but the British captured New York City and its strategic harbor that summer, which they held for the duration of the war. The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to destroy Washington's forces; the Continental Army captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777, France entered the war as an ally of the United States. Britain refocused its war to make France the main enemy. Britain attempted to hold the Southern states with the anticipated aid of Loyalists, the war moved south. Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780, but he failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American and French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire.

The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada, Spain taking Florida. Among the significant results of the Revolution were American independence and friendly economic trade with Britain; the Americans adopted the United States Constitution, establishing a strong national government which included an elected executive, a national judiciary, an elected bicameral Congress representing states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. Around 60,000 Loyalists migrated to other British territories to British North America, but the great majority remained in the United States; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies, Parliament passed the Navigation Acts on October 9 to provide the plantation colonies of the south with a profitable export market. The Acts prohibited British producers from growing tobacco and encouraged shipbuilding in the New England colonies.

Some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the colonial merchants most directly affected were those most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, which the New England colonies fought without any military assistance from England, this contributed to the development of a unique identity separate from that of the British people, but King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in the 1680s in order to regulate trade to more benefit the homeland. The New England colonists fiercely opposed his efforts, the Crown nullified their colonial charters in response. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the consolidated Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England which saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising in New England overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689.

Colonial governments in the former Dominion reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive home governments made no more attempts to restore it. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passi

Black Steel

Black Steel is an Australian heavy metal band, whose career highlights include supporting rock legends Deep Purple, Judas Priest, Zakk Wylde's Black Label Society and appearing at the Metallica-headlined'Big Day Out' Perth show in 2004. They are listed in Garry Sharpe-Young's'The A-Z Of Power Metal', have received international acclaim in the genre. Most notably in'Kerrang!' magazine. With a KKKK rating, and'Power Play' magazine with a 7/10 rating. Iron Maiden lead singer Bruce Dickinson spoke favourably of Black Steel during his BBC radio show'Bruce's Rock Show', playing the track'Slaughterhouse' from the band's 2005 album'Hellhammer'. To date, Black Steel has released the EP'Battle Call', full-length album'Destructor', single'Relentless Force', full-length album'Hellhammer'. All albums were released on CD in Australia and overseas.'Destructor' was released in Russia and the Baltic states on the CD Maximum label, a limited pressing on vinyl of'Hellhammer' was released by Killer Metal Records.

Black Steel recorded a cover of AC/DC's'Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap' for the'AC/DC Hometown Tribute' album. Appearances on other tribute albums include'A Tribute To the Glory Of 80's Metal' for their version of Saxon's'Power & The Glory', Pantera's Dimebag Darrell tribute album'The Art Of Shredding - A Tribute To Dime'. All Black Steel releases have since been made available digitally on iTunes; the original line-up of Black Steel, formed in late 1999, consisted of Dave Harrison on bass, Jamie Page on guitar, Matt Williams on vocals, Jeff Oliver. Andrew Di Stefano joined the line-up as a second guitarist. Prior to recording their debut, the'Battle Call' EP, new drummer Damien Petrilli joined the band; this line-up continued until after the release of their first full-length album'Destructor'. Jamie Page had a break from the band for a year, guitarist Emanuel Rudnicki joined the line-up. Page returned when Di Stefano left the line-up, shortly after the band became a four-piece, consisting of Page, Harrison and new drummer Simon Wisniewski.

This line-up recorded the three-track single'Relentless Force' in 2004, after which Petrilli returned as the band's drummer to record the'Hellhammer' album. Following the release of'Hellhammer', guitarist Adrian Pertrache joined as second guitarist, returning Black Steel's twin-guitar attack sound to the ensuing live performances. After a hiatus of nearly two years, the original recording line-up of Black Steel re-united for a support slot with Judas Priest during that band's 2008'Nostradamus' tour, at Challenge Stadium in Perth, Western Australia; the current line-up of Black Steel is Matt Williams Jamie Page Andrew Di Stefano Dave Harrison Damien Petrilli. Former members include Adrian Pertrache, Simon Wisniewski, Emmanuel Rudnicki, Jeff Oliver. Jamie Page has since recorded the guitar instrumental tracks,'Escape 666' and'SS Rejected', the former of which featured on a guitar compilation album. In 2009, Matt Williams released the classic rock inspired, self-titled EP'Humungous D' both digitally and on CD, as well as a ballad entitled'Angel' digitally.

Damien Petrilli formed the progressive metal band'Evolution Machine' featuring former Black Steel guitarist Emanuel Rudnicki. The band was launched in February 2010. Andrew Di Stefano formed an original band'Engine Of Reason'. In 2011, Matt Williams re-formed'Project X' with that band's co-founder Rick Lovett, released the 13 track album'D Generation' under'Project X Australia'. Williams, Jamie Page and Dave Harrison all appeared on the album, released independently both digitally and on CD that same year. Hellhammer - LP album Hellhammer - CD album Relentless Force - CD single Destructor - CD album Destructor - CD album Battle Call - CD EP

Ciudadela Market

The Ciudadela Market is a traditional style Mexican market which specializes in the sale of Mexican handcrafts and folk art, located in the southwest corner of the historic center of Mexico City. The market is the first of its kind in the country, established just before the 1968 Summer Olympics to promote this aspect of Mexico’s cultural heritage, it is home to over 350 vendors small operators selling to Mexican and foreign tourists. The market is located in the Ciudadela neighborhood, in the southwest corner of the historic center of Mexico City, 15-minuteswalk from the Alameda Central, near Metro Balderas; the market and neighborhood are named Ciudadela after a building, constructed in the late 18th and early 19th century, influenced the austere architecture of the area. The building was constructed to be the Real Fábrica de Tabaco, a tobacco factory under the control of the Spanish monarchy. Designed by a military architect and during the Mexican War of Independence, the factory was made a citadel in 1816, used to imprison rebels such as José María Morelos y Pavón and kept its military function into the early 20th century.

During the Mexican Revolution, it and its adjoining plaza were the scene for various events of the Decena Trágica and afterwards it was declared a national monument in 1931. The building was converted to its current use, as the Library of Mexico in 1944 named after José Vasconcelos, remodeled in 1987 and 2011; the neighborhood maintains much of its traditional architecture, with the plaza hosting various markets and danzon dancing to live music on Sundays. The plaza and surrounding streets are known to be an area for men and women looking to casual sex at night, despite efforts by the city to discourage the practice; the handcraft and folk art market is a more recent addition to the neighborhood, located on a 1.6 hectare site on the north side of the Ciudadela Plaza, an area known as the Plaza de San Juan. The market is home to over 350 vendors from twenty two states of Mexico. Most of these are small operators, many accept only cash, they represent the nearly twelve million people in Mexico that depend on crafts for their livelihood, many of them women.

It was the first market of its type in Mexico, with the purpose of promoting crafts as part of Mexico’s cultural heritage. It is visited by both Mexican and foreign tourists, doing most of its business during vacation periods, it has one of the most complete selections of Mexican handcrafts in the country. Wares include clothes, furniture, glass, ceramics, tile-framed mirrors, cartonería, trays from Olinalá, sombreros and musical instruments; the market was established in 1965 as part of preparations for the 1968 Summer Olympics, when the Mexican government convened artisans from all over the country to bring their handcrafts to the city to demonstrate them for the event at the site. For the 1970 FIFA World Cup, the same site was used to promote souvenir sales; the success of both of these ventures led to the construction of a permanent market. While many of the vendors have been at the site for decades, the legal status of the building is in question. In the 1960s, the site belonged to the Chamber of Deputies, with Mexican president Gustavo Díaz Ordaz ordering that the land be used for the market for the Olympics.

The site was administered by the Mexican Senate which turned the market over to the government of Mexico City, which still administers it. As of the 2010s, sales at the market have fallen by as much as sixty percent, according to vendors, because of a falloff in tourism in Mexico. In 2011, the Mexican Senate considered selling the land, valued at between 100 and 120 million pesos, to raise money for the new Senate building; these have prompted vendors at the market to press for judicial turnover of the building and land to the vendors themselves, to have the Mexico City government renovate the site, making it more attractive to tourists. 19°25′49.41″N 99°8′55.04″W