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American Samoa

American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Samoa. Its location is centered on 14.2710° S, 170.1322° W. It is east of the International Date Line. American Samoa consists of two coral atolls; the largest and most populous island is Tutuila, with the Manuʻa Islands, Rose Atoll, Swains Island included in the territory. All islands except for Swains Island are part of the Samoan Islands, located west of the Cook Islands, north of Tonga, some 300 miles south of Tokelau. To the west are the islands of the Wallis and Futuna group; as of April 2019 the population of American Samoa is 55,689 people. Most American Samoans can speak English and Samoan fluently; the total land area is 199 square kilometers more than Washington, D. C. American Samoa is the southernmost territory of the United States and one of two U. S. territories south of the Equator, along with the uninhabited Jarvis Island. Tuna products are the main exports, the main trading partner is the United States.

American Samoa has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983. During the 1918 flu pandemic, Governor John Martin Poyer quarantined the territory, because of his actions, American Samoa was one of the few places in the world where no flu-related deaths occurred. American Samoa is noted for having the highest rate of military enlistment of any U. S. state or territory. As of September 9, 2014, the local U. S. Army recruiting station in Pago Pago was ranked first in production out of the 885 Army recruiting stations and centers under the United States Army Recruiting Command. Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century. Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen was the first known European to sight the Samoan Islands in 1722, calling them the "Baumann Islands" after one of his captains; this visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville who named them the "Îles des Navigateurs" in 1768. British explorer James Cook recorded the island names in 1773, but never visited; the 1789 visit by La Perouse ended in an attack and resulted in the death of his second in command Capt. de Langle and several of his crew on a Tutuila water collection expedition.

La Perouse named the island "Massacre Island", the bay near Aasu is still called "Massacre Bay". H. M. S. Pandora, under the command of Edwards, visited the island in 1791 during its search for the H. M. S. Bounty mutineers. Von Kotzebue visited in 1824. Mission work in the Samoas had begun in late 1830 when John Williams of the London Missionary Society arrived from the Cook Islands and Tahiti. By that time, the Samoans had gained a reputation for being savage and warlike, as violent altercations had occurred between natives and European visitors. By the late nineteenth century, British and American vessels stopped at Samoa, as they valued Pago Pago Harbor as a refueling station for coal-fired shipping and whaling; the US Exploring Expedition visited in 1839. In March 1889, an Imperial German naval force entered a village on Samoa, in doing so destroyed some American property. Three American warships entered the Apia harbor and prepared to engage the three German warships found there. Before any shots were fired, a typhoon wrecked both German ships.

A compulsory armistice was called because of the lack of any warships. At the turn of the twentieth century, international rivalries in the latter half of the century were settled by the 1899 Tripartite Convention in which Germany and the United States partitioned the Samoan Islands into two parts: The eastern island group became a territory of the United States and is today known as American Samoa. Forerunners to the Tripartite Convention of 1899 were the Washington Conference of 1887, the Treaty of Berlin of 1889 and the Anglo-German Agreement on Samoa of 1899; the following year, the U. S. formally annexed its portion, a smaller group of eastern islands, one of which contains the noted harbor of Pago Pago. After the United States Navy took possession of eastern Samoa for the United States government, the existing coaling station at Pago Pago Bay was expanded into a full naval station, known as United States Naval Station Tutuila and commanded by a commandant; the Navy secured a Deed of Cession of Tutuila in 1900 and a Deed of Cession of Manuʻa in 1904 on behalf of the US government.

The last sovereign of Manuʻa, the Tui Manuʻa Elisala, signed a Deed of Cession of Manuʻa following a series of U. S. naval trials, known as the "Trial of the Ipu", in Pago Pago, Taʻu, aboard a Pacific Squadron gunboat. The territory became known as the U. S. Naval Station Tutuila. On July 17, 1911, the US Naval Station Tutuila, composed of Tutuila, Aunu'u and Manu'a, was renamed American Samoa. People of Manu'a had been unhappy since they were left out of the name "Naval Station Tutuila". In May 1911, Governor William Michael Crose authored a letter to the Secretary of the Navy conveying the sentiments of Manu'a; the department responded. The traditional leaders chose “American Samoa”, and, on July 7, 1911, the solicitor general of the Navy authorized the governor to proclaim it as the name for the new territory. In 1918, during the final stages of World War I

Cape Breton Centre

Cape Breton Centre is a provincial electoral district in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, that elects one member of the Nova Scotia House of Assembly. Its Member of the Legislative Assembly is Tammy Martin; the district consists of the area around New Waterford, including Dominion, Grand Lake Road, Reserve Mines, Gardiner Mines, Lingan Road, River Ryan, New Victoria, Victoria Mines, South Bar. It was created in 1925 when the counties of Cape Breton and Richmond were divided into three electoral districts. In 2003, it expanded west to include New Victoria. In 2013, it gained South Bar, Lingan Road, part of Grand Lake Road from Cape Breton Nova; this riding has elected the following Members of the Legislative Assembly: Elections Nova Scotia, Summary Results from 1867 to 2011. Retrieved June 28, 2014 Elections Nova Scotia, Complete Results and Statistics. Retrieved June 28, 2014 Elections Nova Scotia, Complete Results and Statistics. Retrieved June 28, 2014 Elections Nova Scotia, Complete Results and Statistics.

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Retrieved June 28, 2014 Elections Nova Scotia, Complete Poll by Poll Results. Retrieved June 28, 2014 Electoral history for Cape Breton Centre 2013 riding profile

Liparis pingxiangensis

Liparis pingxiangensis is a species of orchid discovered in 2013 in Guangxi, China. It is differentiated from related species by its curved column without column wings and its broadly rhombic-elliptic lip with 2 uncinate calli at the base, it has two pollinia attached by long and prominent caudicles, to a distinct sticky disc. Liparis pingxiangensis is a terrestrial orchid, it forms scattered colonies in damp ravines. It occurs in wet to moist soil on steeper slopes, it is found at elevations around 800 m in mixed deciduous forest in southwest China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It flowers in the early spring until late April, it has not been observed in fruit. Liparis pingxiangensis is a rare species, it is only known from a neighboring population. The forest has been experiencing a continuing decline in quality of habitat due to deforestation. Using the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List categories and criteria, L. pingxiangensis should be treated as critically endangered due to its rarity and the threat of disturbance.

More studies at the two nearby localities may shed light on this enigmatic species