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American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers

The American Society of Composers and Publishers is an American non-profit performance-rights organization that protects its members' musical copyrights by monitoring public performances of their music, whether via a broadcast or live performance, compensating them accordingly. ASCAP collects licensing fees from users of music created by ASCAP members distributes them back to its members as royalties. In effect, the arrangement is the product of a compromise: when a song is played, the user does not have to pay the copyright holder directly, nor does the music creator have to bill a radio station for use of a song. In 2012, ASCAP collected over US$941 million in licensing fees and distributed $828.7 million in royalties to its members, with an 11.6 percent operating expense ratio. As of July 2018, ASCAP membership included over 670,000 songwriters and music publishers, with over 11 million registered works. In the United States, ASCAP competes with other PROs, including BMI, SESAC, SoundExchange.

Unlike collecting societies outside the United States, ASCAP contract is non-exclusive, although it is not so simple for a foreign person to join ASCAP, it is possible. ASCAP has an office in the United Kingdom; as the artist agreement is non-exclusive, authors can license using a creative commons license. The ASCAP bill of rights states, "we have the right to choose when and where our creative works may be used for free". If an author is going to use a creative commons license with another's works, this is the only author's rights organisation that has a non-exclusive contract that a foreign person can join. If an author uses a Creative Commons license and is not a member of a performing rights organisation, the works would generate royalties, these royalties are collected and given to publishers and artists that are members of these organisations. ASCAP was founded by Victor Herbert, together with composers George Botsford, Silvio Hein, Louis Hirsch, John Raymond Hubbell, Gustave Kerker, lyricist Glen MacDonough, publishers George Maxwell and Jay Witmark, copyright attorney Nathan Burkan at the Hotel Claridge in New York City on February 13, 1914, to protect the copyrighted musical compositions of its members, who were writers and publishers associated with New York City's Tin Pan Alley.

ASCAP's earliest members included the era's most active songwriters—Irving Berlin, George M. Cohan, Rudolf Friml, Otto Harbach, Jerome Kern, John Philip Sousa, Alfred Baldwin Sloane, James Weldon Johnson, Robert Hood Bowers and Harry Tierney. Subsequently, many other prominent songwriters became members. In 1919, ASCAP and the Performing Rights Society of Great Britain, signed the first reciprocal agreement for the representation of each other's members' works in their respective territories. Today, ASCAP has global reciprocal agreements and licenses the U. S. performances of hundreds of thousands of international music creators. The advent of radio in the 1920s brought an important new source of income for ASCAP. Radio stations only broadcast performers live, the performers working for free. Performers wanted to be paid, recorded performances became more prevalent. ASCAP started collecting license fees from the broadcasters. Between 1931 and 1939, ASCAP increased royalty rates charged to broadcasters more than 400%.

In 1940, when ASCAP tried to double its license fees again, radio broadcasters formed a boycott of ASCAP and founded a competing royalty agency, Broadcast Music Incorporated. During a ten-month period lasting from January 1 to October 29, 1941, no music licensed by ASCAP was broadcast on NBC and CBS radio stations. Instead, the stations played regional music and styles, traditionally disdained by ASCAP; when the differences between ASCAP and the broadcasters were resolved in October 1941, ASCAP agreed to settle for a lower fee than they had demanded. In the late 1930s, ASCAP's general control over most music and its membership requirements were considered to be in restraint of trade and illegal under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act; the Justice Department abandoned the case. The Justice Department sued again in 1941, the case was settled with a consent decree in which the most important points were that ASCAP must set rates and not discriminate between customers who have the same requirements to license music, or "similar standing."

Anyone, unable to negotiate satisfactory terms with ASCAP, or is otherwise unable to get a license, may go to the court in the Southern District of New York overseeing the consent decree and litigate the terms they find objectionable, the terms set by the court will be binding upon the licensee and ASCAP. BMI signed a consent decree in 1941, although the terms were much more favorable to BMI than those applied to ASCAP. ASCAP's membership diversified further in the 1940s, bringing along jazz and swing greats, including Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Benny Goodman, Fletcher Henderson; the movies soared in popularity during the 1930s and 1940s, with them came classic scores and songs by new ASCAP members like Harold Arlen, Johnny Mercer, Cole Porter, Morton Gould, Jule Styne. Classical-music composers Aaron Copland, Igor Stravinsky, Leonard Bernstein brought their compositions into the ASCAP repertory in the 1940s; the rise of rock and roll derived from both country music and rhythm and blues music caused airplay of BMI licensed songs to double that of ASCAP licensed songs.

ASCAP officials decided. So ASCAP spearheaded a congressional investigation into the practice of payola in 1959. In the 1950s and 1960s


La Tur was a Mexican airline that operated from 1988 until 1992 when it was taken over by TAESA. Set up in 1988 to help develop the tourist market, La Tur began charter operations using McDonnell Douglas MD-83 aircraft. One year the Airbus A300-600 was introduced for flights to Europe and Asia. Plans were made to replace the MD-83s with Airbus A320 and Airbus A321, but the financial situation did not allow it. By 1992, La Tur had too much capacity and the A300 was leased out; the fall of the Mexican peso and the deregulation of Mexican air transport led to the take over by TAESA. 5 McDonnell Douglas MD-83 1 McDonnell Douglas MD-87 1 Airbus A300B4-620 F-ODTK 1 Airbus A300B4-622R F-ODSX This is a list of airports that La Tur used to fly scheduled service to before it ceased operations in 1992. Hong Kong - Kai Tak International Airport Acapulco - General Juan N. Álvarez International Airport Cancun - Cancún International Airport Mexico City - Benito Juarez International Airport Puerto Vallarta - Lic.

Gustavo Díaz Ordaz International Airport Amsterdam - Schiphol International Airport Atlanta - William B. Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport New York - John F. Kennedy International Airport Fleet and Code information Hengi, B. I.. Airlines Remembered. Hersham, England, UK: Midland Publishing. ISBN 978-1857800913

St. Paul's Church (Owego, New York)

St. Paul's Church is a historic Episcopal church located at Owego in Tioga County, New York, it is a High Victorian Gothic style structure built of rough cut bluestone trimmed with orange brick and terra cotta. The church is composed of a small entry vestibule, the gabled main block housing the nave and chancel, a shallow transept lying opposite a semicircular Lady Chapel, a tower, an arcaded porch and a sacristy, it was designed by architect William Halsey Wood and was built in 1893-1894. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997. St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Owego, NY

Coat of arms of Tristan da Cunha

The coat of arms of Tristan da Cunha was granted on 20 October 2002. The arms consist of a shield featuring four albatrosses in a blue-and-white mirror image design; the central diamond-shaped charge is based on a charge from the arms of the da Cunha family to which Admiral Tristão da Cunha belonged, after whom the island is named: "cunha" in Portuguese means "wedge", blue wedges feature in the da Cunha arms as a canting charge. The two supporters are Tristan rock lobsters; the crest features a Tristan da Cunha longboat. The motto is “Our faith is our strength”; the arms feature on the flag of Tristan da Cunha, granted on the same date as the arms, on the defaced Union Flag used by the Administrator. Prior to 2002, as a dependency of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha used their coat of arms. Tristan da Cunha Government website List of coats of arms of the United Kingdom and dependencies

Theodore the Sacristan

Theodore the Sacristan was a sixth-century sacristan in the Church of St. Peter in Rome, he is mentioned in the writings of Gregory the Great, was venerated as a saint. What is known of Theodore's life comes from Gregory the Great's Dialogues, where he appears in Book III, Chapter 24. There, Gregory records that Theodore once rose early in the morning in order to tend the lamps that hung by the door of the basilica, he was up on a ladder that he used when refilling the lamps with oil, when Saint Peter appeared to him vested in a white stole. The saint asked him, "Theodore, why have you risen so early?" and disappeared. Theodore was afterwards struck by great fear, in his shock was unable to rise from his bed for the next several days. Gregory goes on to editorialize on the encounter, saying that the apparition was a sign of Saint Peter's favor towards Theodore: "The blessed Apostle wished to show those who served him that whatever they did for his honor, he always and unceasingly observed it, for the recompense of their reward."

When the interlocutor of the Dialogues, Peter the Deacon, questions why Theodore would have been shocked and sickened by having seen Saint Peter, Gregory replies with a citation from Scripture in which the prophet Daniel is shocked into illness by a troubling vision: "And I Daniel languished, was sick for some days: and I was astonished at the vision, there was none that could interpret it". Gregory mentions Theodore alongside another saintly sacristan of Abundius. Theodore died in 560, his body is believed to have been laid to rest in the basilica where he served, although the precise place is not known. Theodore is commemorated in the Roman Martyrology on December 26, which records the following: An 1805 source, lists his feast day on February 11, noting that the feast was kept on that day at St. Peter's Basilica. Before the new basilica was built, there used to be an image of him in one of the chapels in front of the portico. McCready, William David. Signs of sanctity: miracles in the thought of Gregory the Great.

Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. ISBN 9780888440914

Kemper Street station

Kemper Street station known as Lynchburg station, is an intermodal transit station in Lynchburg, Virginia. It serves Amtrak as well as Greater Lynchburg Transit Greyhound buses, it is located at 825 Kemper Street. Kemper Street station was built in 1912 by the Southern Railway to house their passenger and freight operations in the Lynchburg area. A three-story structure built into a hillside, the top floor fronts Kemper Street while on the opposite side the track level ground floor fronts the rail platforms. Included but removed was an elevated walkway extending from a street level passenger lobby across the tracks. Stairs descended from the walkway to the platforms, two stories below. A freight depot was located in the ground floor; as it was not the city's only railway facility, the "Kemper Street" name was used to identify it among Lynchburg's other train stations. Over many decades to follow, the station was a stop for Southern Railway passenger trains; when Southern Railway discontinued passenger services in 1979, the operation of their passenger routes and stations, including Kemper Street station, was relinquished to Amtrak.

After years of continued use and neglect the signs of disrepair at the station were becoming apparent. The Lynchburg City Council determined that renovations would be necessary to save the city-owned facility and ensure its future use, they spearheaded a redevelopment project budgeted at over $3 million, funding for, provided by the city and federal government sources including Amtrak. Extensive work began in 2000 to update the facility, but with an emphasis on maintaining period lighting and finishes, preserving the station's historic character. In April, 2002, the city of Lynchburg celebrated the opening of the newly restored Kemper Street station; the restoration allowed the facility to take on the new role of intermodal station, housing both rail and bus services. Amtrak operations were moved to the ground-floor platform level, left vacant since the station no longer serviced freight trains; this allowed for Greyhound Lines to establish a bus terminal in the vacated street-level passenger facility, thus centralizing Lynchburg's primary services for intercity passenger travel under one roof.

The restored station features brick construction with arched accents of painted metal. An arched sign over Kemper Street near Park Avenue reads "Kemper Street Station". Of note are the numerous lights which illuminate the station's exterior; these are of particular importance to the station since most of the trains serving Lynchburg are scheduled either late in the evening or in the early morning before sunrise. The year 2012 marked the 100 year anniversary of passenger train service at Lynchburg-Kemper Street station. Today, as the only passenger train station still operating in Lynchburg, it is serviced by four Amtrak trains daily; the rail line upon which the station is situated belongs to Southern Railway's corporate descendant, Norfolk Southern Railway, which owns both the track and the adjacent platforms. The Crescent is a long-distance, overnight service operating daily between New York City and New Orleans, LA; the Crescent stops at Lynchburg-Kemper Street station on its southbound runs.

The northbound train arrives just before the morning rush, the southbound train arrives in the middle of the night. This train had serviced Lynchburg during the old Southern Railway days, was known as the Southern Crescent for most of the 1970s. For the better part of three decades, the Crescent was the only passenger train serving Lynchburg. October, 2009 saw the introduction of Northeast Regional daily round-trip service between Lynchburg and Boston, MA's South Station; the route to Lynchburg was extended from its previous southern terminus in Washington, DC. This extension is operated through a partnership between Amtrak and the Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation, under the guise of Amtrak Virginia, it provided daylight service to Lynchburg for the first time in three decades. In June, 2016, it was announced that Amtrak plans to add an additional daily round-trip service as part of the Northeast Regional; this is planned to begin at some point in the future after service was extended to Roanoke on October 31, 2017.

The addition of this service would increase service to Lynchburg to six trains per day from the current four. Amtrak's station code for Lynchburg is LYH; the station features restrooms, an enclosed waiting area, a ticket office staffed by Amtrak personnel. Services from this location include a Quik-Trak ticketing kiosk. Greyhound Lines supplies intercity bus service from its street level passenger terminal at the station. Street level access is located along Kemper Street on the side of the station facing away from the railway platform, two stories below at the bottom of the hillside; the company offers their "Greyhound PackageXpress" shipping service from the Kemper Street terminal. Connections for local buses operated by the Greater Lynchburg Transit Company are available at street level GLTC bus stops adjacent to the station; the Greater Lynchburg Transit Company has selected the immediate area of Kemper Street station as its top choice of site upon which to build the new transfer center for their network of public buses.

They are interested in a property directly across Kemper Street from the station, which would provide the greatest ease of intermodal connections between GLTC buses and Amtrak or Greyhound services. The project is awaiting final government approval and funding, is expected to be completed around 2013. Lynchburg, VA – Amtrak Lynchburg Great American Stations Lynchburg Amtrak Station (USA RailGuide -- Trai