The Chrysler 300 is a rear-wheel-drive, front-engine, full-sized luxury car manufactured and marketed by FCA US as a four-door sedan and station wagon in its first generation and as a four-door sedan in its second and current generation. The second generation 300 was marketed as the Chrysler 300C in the United Kingdom and Ireland and as the Lancia Thema in the remainder of Europe; the 300 debuted as a concept at the 2003 New York International Auto Show with styling by Burke Brown and production starting in January 2004 for the 2005 model year. The Chrysler 300 was designed as a modern interpretation of the Chrysler C-300, featuring a large grille, long hood and low roofline, prominent on those vehicles; the styling retained many elements of the 1998 Chrysler Chronos concept car, such as chrome interior accents and tortoiseshell finishings on the steering wheel and shifter knob. The Chrysler 300 is based on the rear-wheel drive Chrysler LX platform with components derived from the Chrysler LH architecture.
The basic 300 comes with standard 17-inch wheels, wheel covers, four-wheel disc brakes, single disc MP3 player, auxiliary input jack, power driver seat and a four-speed automatic transmission. It uses a 2,736 cc EER V6 making 190 hp. In Canada, it comes standard with the Touring model's 3,518 cc V6 engine; the vehicle comes with available all wheel drive. The basic 300 model remains as the code-name for the platform; the Touring model uses a 3,518 cc V6, producing 250 hp and 250 lb⋅ft of torque, either a 4 or 5spd transmission depending on the year and drive configuration, comes with 17-inch aluminium wheels, AM/FM radio with CD player and auxiliary audio jack, Electronic Stability Program, remote keyless entry, leather trimmed seats, SIRIUS satellite radio. This model was renamed Touring Plus for the 2010 model years; the Limited model included the Touring model's 3.5 L V6 engine, generating 250 hp and 250 lb⋅ft and either a 4 or 5 speed transmission depending on the year and drive configuration.
Additional features included anti-roll bars. The top-of-the-line 300C version uses a 5.7 L Hemi V8. Using the Multidisplacement System, this engine can run on four cylinders when less power is needed in order to reduce total fuel consumption; the USEPA-rated fuel consumption of the 300C is: 15 miles per US gallon city, 23 miles per US gallon highway. When all eight cylinders are needed, the 300C can produce 390 lb ⋅ ft of torque, it uses a five-speed automatic transmission and comes standard with 18-inch chrome-clad alloy wheels, Chrysler's MyGIG Infotainment System in 2008 and SIRIUS Satellite Radio and Backseat Television in 2008. The HEMI cylinder heads necessitate the use of a double rocker arm shaft configuration, with a cam-in-block, overhead valve pushrod design. There are two spark plugs per cylinder to promote efficient fuel/air mixture burn and thereby reduce emissions. In 2009–2010 power output was increased to 360 hp; the SRT-8 model was equipped with a 6.1-liter Hemi engine producing 425 hp at 6,200 rpm and 420 lb⋅ft of torque at 4,800 rpm.
The SRT8 can accelerate from 0–60 mph in 4.9 seconds. The 300C was sold in Europe and Japan as both a four-door notchback sedan and a five-door station wagon; the five-door station wagon was sold as the 300C Touring, which shared much of its sheet metal aft of the C-pillar and wheel designs with the Dodge Magnum. The base Chrysler 300 was not sold in Europe, instead all cars came with the 300C body style/interior and a choice of either V6 diesel or V8 gasoline powerplants; the economical Mercedes-based V6 diesel was popular in Europe. All 300C Touring models, along with European 300C sedans and right-hand drive models were assembled by Magna Steyr in Graz, Austria beginning in June 2005. Steyr insisted on upgrading suspension components to suit European tastes. Dodge Charger/Magnum wheels with Chrysler center caps were used instead of the distinct wheels used on Canada-assembled models; the five-door station wagon bodystyle was discontinued after the first generation. In Europe and Australia, the 300C was available with a Mercedes-Benz 3.0 L diesel V6 engine rated 218 PS at 3800 rpm and 376 lb⋅ft of torque at 1600 rpm.
Fuel economy for the 300C diesel is rated at 26.2 mpg‑US City, 42.8 mpg‑US Highway and 34.9 mpg‑US on the combined cycle. It can accelerate from 0–60 mph in 7.9 seconds while the top speed remains the same as the gasoline V6. The 2008 UK models included the 300C SRT-Design model in sedan or Touring body, which included SRT 20-inch alloy wheels and wheel arch spats, chrome mesh grille, MyGIG satellite navigation, SRT-8 steering wheel, SRT-8 leather sports seats and carbon fiber interior details. ASC created a convertible version of the Chrysler 300C, dubbed the ASC Helios 300, unveiled it at the North American International Auto Show in early 2005. Despite rumours, Chrysler confirmed; the Walter P. Chrysler Executive Series 300 was an extended wheelbase version shown at the 2006 New York Auto Show, it added 6 inches to the rear
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Buick Regal is an upscale mid-sized automobile, first introduced by Buick for the 1973 model year. North American production ended in 2004 and began again in 2011. For the 2011 model year, Buick re-introduced the Regal to the North American market, positioned as an upscale sports sedan. Production and sales in China have continued since 1999. For certain model years between 1973 and 2004, the Regal shared bodies and powertrains with the similar Buick Century; the two most recent generations are North American market versions of the Opel Insignia, known as the Vauxhall Insignia in the UK. Buick had been the first GM division to bring a personal luxury car to market with its full-size 1963 Riviera, but was otherwise slow to react to the developing lower-priced mid-size personal luxury market, which Pontiac created with the 1969 Grand Prix and Chevrolet with the Monte Carlo the following year, 1970. At the same time, Oldsmobile added a formal notchback coupé to its intermediate line, the Cutlass Supreme, in 1970 and that model soon became Olds' best selling intermediate.
Buick did not get its own personal luxury coupe until the GM intermediates were redesigned in 1973, the so-called "Colonnade" cars that eliminated hardtop models completely. In a curious name swap, the Skylark name was dropped from Buick's intermediate line and instead the Century nameplate, last used in the 1950s, was revived for them. A trimmed, two-door coupe, the first Regal shared its front and rear styling with its Century parent with distinctions amounting to differing grilles and taillight lenses; the Regal shared the same "Colonnade" pillared hardtop roofline and greenhouse with the Grand Prix, Monte Carlo, Cutlass Supreme as well as the lower-priced Buick Century Luxus coupe. Like its corporate cousins, the Regal featured the newly fashionable opera windows, which were small fixed rear-side windows surrounded by sheetmetal, instead of the traditional roll-down windows. For the first model year in 1973, the Regal nameplate was only used for Buick's version of the GM intermediate personal luxury coupe, but the following year gained a sedan companion.
Regal interiors were more luxurious than lesser Century models with woodgrain trim on dashboard and door panels, along with door-pull straps and bench seats with center armrests with cloth, velour, or vinyl upholstery. Optionally available throughout the run was a 60/40 split bench seat with armrest. For 1976 and 1977, the Regal coupe was available with the S/R option that included reclining bucket seats with corduroy upholstery; the model lasted five years with minimal changes, although there was a substantial facelift in coupes for 1976, which incorporated the recently-legalized rectangular headlights. The Regal coupe sold reasonably well, although it lagged behind the Monte Carlo and Cutlass Supreme which had become the best-selling cars in America by 1976; the Regal was most powered by Buick's 350 in³ V8, standard equipment on all models for 1973 and 1974, optional on coupes but standard on sedans from 1975 to 1977, the larger 455 cu in V8 was optional for 1973 and 1974 models only. Starting in 1975, Regal coupes came standard with Buick's resurrected 231 cu in V6 engine offered on the 1964–1967 Skylark.
For 1975 and 1976, the Century and Regal were the only mid-sized cars in America to offer V6 engines. The bolt pattern for this vehicle is 5×4 3⁄4 inches; the Century designation was dropped from the Regal for 1975. A downsized Regal appeared for the 1978 model year with Buick's new 196 cu in V6 engine as standard equipment and a revised version of the venerable 231 cu in V6 as an option. A 3-speed manual transmission was standard but this was replaced by an automatic; this model lasted 10 years. The base model was equipped with softer-riding luxury suspension, did not offer a manual transmission in years; the 1978 Regal could be equipped with a 3,791 cc Turbocharged V6 engine with automatic transmission and the sedan model was dropped, once again leaving Regals as coupés with the Century nameplate applied to bread-and-butter sedans and station wagons. Non-turbo versions were offered with a 4-bbl carburetor; the Buick LeSabre was available with the turbocharged engine. The only other turbocharged cars available in the U.
S. market in 1978 were imports from Mercedes-Benz and Saab. The Turbo Regal included a firm handling suspension with larger tires and sport wheels. A major facelift for 1981 gave the Regal a much more aerodynamic profile, helping make it possible for the car to compete on the NASCAR racing circuit; the sloping hood and nose of the car made it the favorite of several NASCAR teams. Richard Petty drove one to victory in the 1981 Daytona 500, the car won a majority of the 1981 and 1982 seasons races and won the NASCAR manufacturers title in 1981 and 1982. V8s for street use were still available, but had shrunk to 265 cu in, the V6 was gaining popularity. In January 1982, a new Century appeared on the front-wheel drive A-body, but the former rear-wheel drive Century sedan and wagon were not discontinued and were rebadged as Regals, for the f
The Dodge Shadow and Plymouth Sundance are economical 3-door and 5-door hatchbacks that were introduced for the 1987 model year by the Chrysler Corporation. For 1991, a 2-door convertible variant was added to the Shadow lineup; the 3-door hatchback model replaced the Dodge Charger model, while the 5-door hatchback model replaced the Dodge Omni model. With the 1987 acquisition of American Motors by Chrysler from Renault, the Shadow/Sundance replaced the American Motors-built Renault Alliance sedan and convertible, marking the official withdrawal of Renault from the United States and Canadian markets; the first vehicle rolled out of Sterling Heights Assembly on August 25, 1986. In late 1988, production of the Mexican market version called the Chrysler Shadow began at Toluca Car Assembly; the Shadow/Sundance was sold in Europe from 1988 to 1991 as the Chrysler ES. Production ended on March 1994, with the Shadow/Sundance being replaced by the Chrysler Neon; the Shadow/Sundance employed a variant of the K-car platform, the P-body, based on a combination of the Dodge Daytona's suspension with a shortened version of the Dodge Lancer's body.
While they appeared to have a trunk, it was a hatchback. Chrysler considered this a special feature and advertising literature referred to it as "hidden hatchback versatility"; the Peugeot 309, developed to replace the European Chrysler Horizon used a similar layout. A motorized passenger's side seat belt was added to US-market Shadows/Sundances in 1994, to comply with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 208's requirement for passive restraints; these motorized seat belts did not comply with Canada's safety standards. At the time, the Shadow/Sundance was the lowest-priced car on the market with a standard driver's side airbag, made standard on all US-market domestic Chrysler Corporation cars in 1990, giving them a remarkable crash test rating for a car its size at the time; the Shadow/Sundance was offered with a variety of four-cylinder engines, all with displacements of either 2.2 or 2.5 L, some were turbocharged. Aspirated versions were fuel injected, except those sold in Mexico which were carbureted.
The engines were tuned for torque rather than horsepower, resulting in horsepower and torque numbers that appear to be reversed from competitors such as the Honda Civic. A Mitsubishi-built 3.0 L V6 engine was added replacing the turbocharged engines. All engines were available with a five-speed manual transmission, while a 3-speed automatic was optional on the four cylinder equipped cars and a 4-speed automatic transmission was optional on the V6 powered cars. 1989 - The Shadow/Sundance received a facelift, with the sealed-beam headlamps discarded in favor of more aerodynamic composite units. All-new grilles and tail lights were among the changes as well. 1990 - A driver's side airbag was now standard on all models and the manual transmission was modified to make shifting into reverse easier by moving from the "left of first" position to the " below fifth gear" position. 1991 - A convertible version of the Shadow debuted, the same year the coupe and sedan models' "base" submodel was split into the entry-level "America" or S version and mid-level Highline submodels.
1992 - A Mitsubishi-built 3.0 L V6 was added to the lineup, replacing the turbocharged engines. 1993 - A low pressure Bendix-4 ABS was available. Features varied over the years, but some features included: power windows, power adjustable mirrors, power door locks, power adjustable driver seat, cruise control, tilt steering wheel, variable intermittent delay windshield wipers, overhead console with map lights and compass/temperature display, upgraded "highline" instrument cluster with tachometer, "light package" that added lighting in the trunk, glove box, under-hood mounted light and rear door dome light switches, remote trunk release, rear window defroster, Fog lights, mag wheels, Four wheel disc brakes, Infinity sound system, a cassette player, a sunroof, anti-lock brake systems and on turbocharger equipped cars, there was a vacuum/boost gauge and a message center that monitored four vehicle functions, door ajar, washer fluid level, etc.. Hatchback: Base 1987-1990, 1993-1994 America/S 1991-1992 Highline 1991-1992 ES 1987-1994 RS 1988-1991 Duster 1992-1994 Convertible: ES 1991-1993 Highline 1991-1993 For the Sundance's first year, it was available in a single base model.
For 1988, a higher-end RS model was available. The RS model, which stood for Rally Sport, came with standard features that included two-tone paint, fog lights, a leather-wrapped steering wheel, it was available with a turbocharged 2.2 L I4 engine, other amenities like an Infinity sound system, tinted window glass, dual power mirrors. For 1991, the base model split into two distinct models: entry-level America and mid-level Highline, in addition to the high-end RS; the stripped-down America had been offered for the Plymouth Horizon's final year in 1990. For 1992, the RS model was dropped, in favor of the revival of the Duster name for a performance version of the Sundance; the Duster featured a 3.0 L V6, special alloy wheels, "Duster" graphics, a body-colored grille & trim, as well as other equipment. Although the Sundance was criticized by some as being a poor choice to bear the "Duster" name, the car offered good performance and decent handli
The Porsche 968 is a sports car manufactured by Porsche AG from 1992 to 1995. It was the final evolution of a line of water-cooled front-engined rear wheel drive models begun 20 years earlier with the 924, taking over the entry-level position in the company lineup from the 944 with which it shared about 20% of its parts; the 968 was Porsche's last new front-engined vehicle before the introduction of the Cayenne SUV in 2003. Porsche's 944 model debuted for the 1982 model year, was updated as "944S" in 1987 and as "944S2" in 1989. Shortly after the start of production of the S2 variant, Porsche engineers began working on another set of significant upgrades for the model, as executives were planning a final "S3" variant of the 944. During the development phase, 80% of the 944's mechanical components were either modified or replaced by the engineers, leaving so little of the outgoing S2 behind that Porsche management chose to introduce the variant as a new model, calling it the 968. In addition to the numerous mechanical upgrades, the new model received evolved styling both inside and out, with a more modern, streamlined look and more standard luxury than on the 944.
Production was moved from the Audi plant to Porsche's own factory in Zuffenhausen. Like the 944, the 968 was sold as a convertible; the 968's basic styling was an evolution on that of the outgoing 944, itself based on the earlier 924. In an attempt to create a "family resemblance" between models and associate it with the luxury 928 gran turismo, elements were borrowed from its upscale sibling. Others included a swooping headlamp design inspired by the 959 incorporated in the Type 993 911; the 968 was powered by an updated version of the 944's straight-four engine, now displacing 3.0 L with 104 mm bore, 88 mm stroke and producing 240 PS. Changes to the 968's powertrain included the addition of Porsche's then-new VarioCam variable valve timing system, newly optimized induction and exhaust systems, a dual-mass flywheel, updated engine management electronics among other more minor revisions; the 968's engine was the fourth-largest four-cylinder offered in a production car up to that time. A new 6-speed manual transmission replaced the 944's old 5-speed, Porsche's dual-mode Tiptronic automatic became an available option.
Both the VarioCam timing system and Tiptronic transmission were recent developments for Porsche. The Tiptronic transmission had debuted for the first time only 3 years prior to the debut of the 968, on the 1989 Type 964 911; the VarioCam timing system was first introduced on the 968 and would become a feature of the Type 993 air-cooled six-cylinder engine. Much of the 968's chassis was carried over from the 944 S2, which in itself shared many components with the 944 Turbo. Borrowed components include the Brembo-sourced four-piston brake calipers on all four wheels, aluminium semi-trailing arms and aluminum front A-arms, used in a Macpherson strut arrangement; the steel unibody structure was very similar to that of the previous models. Porsche maintained; the 968 featured numerous small equipment and detail upgrades from the 944, including a Fuba roof-mounted antenna, updated single lens tail lamps, "Cup" style 16" alloy wheels, a wider selection of interior and exterior colors, a updated "B" pillar and rear quarter window to accommodate adhesive installation to replace the older rubber gasket installation.
From 1993 through 1995, Porsche offered a lighter-weight "Club Sport" version of the 968 designed for enthusiasts seeking increased track performance. Much of the 968's luxury-oriented equipment was taken off the options list. In addition, Porsche installed manually adjustable lightweight Recaro racing seats rather than the standard power-operated leather buckets, a revised suspension system optimized and lowered by 20 mm for possible track use, 17-inch wheels rather than the 16-inch as found on the Coupe and wider tires, 225 front and 255 rears rather than 205 and 225 respectively; the four-spoke airbag steering wheel was replaced with a thicker-rimmed three-spoke steering wheel with no airbag, heated washer jets were replaced with non heated, vanity covers in the engine bay were deleted, as was the rear wiper. The Club Sport has no rear seats, unlike the 2+2 Coupé. Club Sports were only available in Grand Prix White, Speed yellow, Guards red, Riviera blue or Maritime blue. Seat backs were colour-coded to the body.
Club Sport decals were standard in either black, red or white but there was a'delete' option. All Club Sports had black interiors with the 944 S2 door cards. Due to the reduction in the number of electrical items the wiring loom was reduced in complexity which saved weight and the battery was replaced with a smaller one, again reducing weight. With the no frills approach meaning less weight, as well as the optimising of the suspension, Porsche could focus media attention on the Club Sport variants fast road and track abilities; this helped to bolster the flagging sales figures in the mid-1990s. The Club Sport variant achieved a'Performance Car Of The Year' award in 1993 from Performance Car magazine in the UK. Club Sport models were only available in the UK, Japan & Australia, although "grey market" cars found their way elsewhere; the declared weight of the 968 CS is 1,320 kg
The BMW Z models are a line of roadsters manufactured by German automaker BMW. The Z stands for zukunft, has been produced in four different series with five generations consisting of roadster, coupé, sports car, concept variants; the introduction of the M Coupé and M Roadster in the Z3 line marked the first of the Z series to have a high-performance BMW M variant. The first generation Z4 continued to offer M Coupé and M Roadster vehicles, before being discontinued in the third generation E89 Z4; the BMW Z1 is a two-seat roadster developed by BMW and was produced from March 1989 to June 1991. The Z1 featured unusual doors which, instead of opening outward or upward, dropped down into the door sills. Only 8,000 examples of the Z1 were produced; the Z3 was the first modern mass-market roadster produced by BMW. The Z3 was introduced as a 1996 model year vehicle shortly after being featured in the James Bond movie, GoldenEye, more than 15,000 roadsters were sold out by the time the car was introduced.
The Z3 underwent a facelift in 1999 and featured revised styling, before the end of its production run in 2002. It was assembled in Spartanburg, South Carolina; the Z8 was produced from 2000 to 2003 and was the production variant of the 1997 Z07 concept car, designed by Danish Henrik Fisker at BMW's DesignworksUSA. The Z07 was designed as a styling exercise to celebrate the BMW 507, the overwhelming popularity of the concept spurred BMW's decision to produce a limited production model called the Z8. 5,703 Z8s were built half of which were exported to the United States. The first-generation BMW Z4 was known as the E85 in roadster E86 in coupé form, it was designed by Danish BMW-designer Anders Warming. The Z4's design addressed many criticisms of the preceding Z3; the Z4 was only available as a roadster, but a coupé version was launched in 2006. The last model rolled off the assembly line on 27 August 2008 at the Spartanburg plant; the second-generation Z4 was announced on 13 December 2008 and debuted at the 2009 North American International Auto Show in Detroit the following month.
It is the first Z Series model to use a retractable hardtop and meant that there were no longer separate roadster and coupé versions of the car. The top takes 20 seconds to operate. Manufacturing was moved from United States to Regensburg, Germany; the G29 Z4 is the third and current generation Z4 and was unveiled at the Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance on 23 August, 2018. It reuses the soft-top convertible roof found on the E85 Z4 instead of a retractable hardtop; the G29 Z4 shares its platform with the fifth generation Toyota Supra. The following are the production and sales figures for Z models, excluding the Z1: The BMW Z9 is a concept coupé introduced at the 1999 Frankfurt Auto Show, with a convertible variant unveiled at the 2000 Paris Auto Show; the vehicle features unique gull-wing doors that opened like a conventional hinged door and innovations such as an early concept of BMW's iDrive system, called the Intuitive Interaction Concept, were incorporated into other production vehicles.
Much of the styling found on the E63 6 Series is derived from the Z9
The Porsche 944 is a sports car manufactured by German automobile manufacturer Porsche from 1982 to 1991. A front-engine, rear-wheel drive mid-level model based on the 924 platform, the 944 was available in coupé or cabriolet body styles, with either aspirated or turbocharged engines. Intended to be produced into the 1990s, major revisions planned for a 944 "S3" model morphed into the 968, which became its replacement. Over 163,000 cars were produced in total, making it the most successful sports car in Porsche's history until the introductions of the Boxster and 997 Carrera; the Porsche 924 had been a project of VW-Porsche, a joint Porsche/Volkswagen company created to develop and produce the 914, sold in Europe badged as both a Porsche and a Volkswagen. In 1972, a replacement for the Volkswagen version of the 914, code named; the model was to be sold as an Audi as part of the VW-Audi-Porsche marketing arrangement. Porsche was to manufacture its own version of the car. At one point, VW head Rudolf Leidig declared the EX-425 was going to be a VW thus denying Porsche's version of the 914's replacement.
Although testing had begun in the Spring of 1974, Volkswagen cancelled the EX-425 program, the reason being significant financial losses due to declining sales and rising development costs for new vehicles as well as the departure of Leidig. The released Volkswagen Scirocco was expected to fill the sports coupé market segment; the cancellation of the EX-425 program led Porsche to market an entry level car to replace the 912E, a US-only stop-gap model for 1976, their version of the 914, discontinued in 1975. Porsche purchased the design and the finished development mule with a Bosch K-Jetronic mechanical fuel injection system from Volkswagen; the vehicle, dubbed the 924, received positive reviews, but was criticized by Porsche enthusiasts for its Audi-sourced 2.0 L engine. In 1979, Porsche introduced a Turbocharged version of the 924 to increase performance, but this model carried a high price. Rather than scrapping the model from its line-up, Porsche decided to develop the 944, as they had done with generations of the 911.
The replacement of the 924 debuted at LeMans in 1981, an unusual strategy implemented by Porsche at the time. Dubbed the 924 GTP LeMans, the car was based on the 924 Carrera GT LeMans that competed in the event prior to the GTP's introduction; the most noticeable change in the new race car was the departure from the Audi sourced 2.0 L inline-4 engine in favour of the 2.5 L engine developed by Porsche. The new engine was mounted at an angle of 45 degree to the right and utilised a dual overhead camshaft along with counter rotating balance shafts, an unusual and unique feature for its time that provided better weight distribution and ensured smooth power delivery by eliminating inherent vibrations resulting the engine to last longer. A single KKK turbocharger producing 15.5 psi enabled the engine to generate a maximum power output of 420 PS at 6,800 rpm. The engine utilised Bosch's prototype Motronic engine management system to control ignition timing, fuel injection and boost pressure; the new race car proved to be much more fuel efficient than its predecessor, stopping only 21 times in 24 hours for fuel.
The 924 GTP managed seventh position overall behind the race winning 936 in 1981 before being retired and stored in the Porsche museum. In 1982, Porsche debuted the production road legal version of the race car, dubbed the 944, the car utilised many technologies that its race bred sibling had utilised, including the balance shafts and the engine management system but power was toned down for safety purposes; the new all-alloy 2,479 cc inline-four engine, with a bore of 100 mm and stroke of 78.9 mm, was in essence, half of the 928's 5.0 L V8 engine, although few parts were interchangeable. Not typical in luxury sports cars, the four-cylinder engine was chosen for fuel efficiency and size, because it had to be fitted from below on the Neckarsulm production line. To overcome roughness caused by the unbalanced secondary forces that are typical of inline four-cylinder engines, Porsche included two counter-rotating balance shafts running at twice the engine speed. Invented in 1904 by British engineer Frederick Lanchester, further developed and patented in 1975 by Mitsubishi Motors, balance shafts carry eccentric weights which produce inertial forces that balance out the unbalanced secondary forces, making a four-cylinder engine feel as smooth as a six-cylinder engine.
Porsche spent some time trying to develop their own system, but when they realised that they could not improve on the system developed by Mitsubishi, they chose to pay the licensing fees rather than come up with a variation just different enough to circumvent the patent. The licensing fees was about US$7–8 per car, which translated to about US$100 for the consumer to pay; the engine was factory-rated at 150 hp in its U. S. configuration. Revised bodywork with wider wheel arches, similar to that of the 924 Carrera GT, a fresh interior and upgrades to the braking and suspension systems rounded out the major changes. Porsche introduced the 944 for MY 1982, it was faster, was better equipped and more refined than the 924. The factory-claimed a 0–97 km/h acceleration time of less than 9 seconds; the factory-claimed top speed of 210 km/h was pessimistic, Autocar ha