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American University

The American University is a private research university in Washington, D. C, its main campus spans 90 acres at the former site of Fort Gaines on Ward Circle, in the Spring Valley neighborhood in the northwest of the District. AU was chartered by an Act of Congress in 1893 at the urging of Methodist bishop John Fletcher Hurst, who sought to create an institution that would promote public service and pragmatic idealism. AU broke ground in 1902, opened in 1914, admitted its first undergraduates in 1925. Although affiliated with the United Methodist Church, religious affiliation is not a criterion for admission. American University has eight schools and colleges: the School of International Service, College of Arts and Sciences, Kogod School of Business, School of Communication, School of Professional and Extended Studies, School of Public Affairs, School of Education, the Washington College of Law, it has over 160 programs, including 71 bachelor's degrees, 87 master's degrees, 10 doctoral degrees, as well as JD, LLM, SJD programs.

AU's student body numbers over 13,000 and represents all 50 U. S. states and 141 countries. Its prominent alumni include numerous journalists, media personalities and Congress members. American University is one of the top five feeder schools to the U. S. Foreign Service, Congressional staff, other governmental agencies. In 2018, The Princeton Review ranked American University 1st for Top Colleges with the Most Politically Active Students; the American University was established in the District of Columbia by an Act of Congress on December 5, 1892 due to the efforts of Methodist bishop John Fletcher Hurst, who aimed to create an institution that could train future public servants. Hurst chose the site of the university, which at the time was the rural periphery of the District. After more than three decades devoted principally to securing financial support, the university was dedicated on May 15, 1914, with its first instructions beginning October of that year, when 28 students were enrolled, 19 of whom were graduates and the remainder special students not candidates for a degree.

The First Commencement, at which no degrees were awarded, was held on June 2, 1915. The Second Annual Commencement was held the following year and saw the awarding of the first degrees: one master's degree and two doctor's degrees. AU admitted both women and African Americans, uncommon in higher education at the time. Among its first 28 students were five women, while an African American doctoral student was admitted in 1915. Shortly after these early commencement ceremonies, classes were interrupted by war. During World War I, the university allowed the U. S. military to use some of its grounds for testing. In 1917, the U. S. military divided American University into Camp American University and Camp Leach. Camp American University became the birthplace of the United States' chemical weapons program and the site of chemical weapons testing. Camp Leach was home to advanced research and testing of modern camouflage techniques; as of 2014, the Army Corps of Engineers was still removing ordnance including mustard gas and mortar shells.

Instruction was first offered only at the graduate level, in accordance with the plan of the founders. This changed in 1925 with the establishment of the College of Liberal Arts, which offered the first undergraduate degrees and programs. What is now the School of Public Affairs was founded in 1934 to educate future federal employees in new approaches to public administration introduced by the New Deal. AU's relationship to the U. S. government continued during World War II, when the campus hosted the U. S. Navy Bomb Disposal School and a WAVE barracks. For AU's role in these wartime efforts, the Victory ship SS American Victory was named in its honor; the post-war period saw considerable growth and restructuring of AU. In 1947, the Washington Semester Program was established, pioneering the concept of semester-long internships in the nation's capital. In 1949, the university merged with the Washington College of Law, which had begun in 1896 as the first law school founded by women and the first coeducational institution for the professional study of law in the District.

Shortly thereafter, three departments were reorganized as schools: the School of Business Administration in 1955. In the early 1960s, the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency operated the FFRDC Special Operations Research Office as a think tank at American University; the government abandoned the think tank after its research was criticized as imperialistic by the general public. AU's political involvement was furthered by President John F. Kennedy's Spring 1963 commencement address. In the speech, Kennedy called on the Soviet Union to work with the United States to achieve a nuclear test ban treaty and to reduce the considerable international tensions and the specter of nuclear war during that juncture of the Cold War. From 1965 to 1977, the College of Continuing Education existed as a degree-granting college with responsibility for on- and off-campus adult education programs; the Lucy Webb Hayes School of Nursing provided undergraduate study in Nursing from 1965 until 1988.

In 1972, the School

Bayer filter

A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array for arranging RGB color filters on a square grid of photosensors. Its particular arrangement of color filters is used in most single-chip digital image sensors used in digital cameras and scanners to create a color image; the filter pattern is 50% green, 25% red and 25% blue, hence is called BGGR, RGBG, GRGB, or RGGB. It is named after Bryce Bayer of Eastman Kodak. Bayer is known for his recursively defined matrix used in ordered dithering. Alternatives to the Bayer filter include both various modifications of colors and arrangement and different technologies, such as color co-site sampling, the Foveon X3 sensor, the dichroic mirrors or a transparent diffractive-filter array. Bryce Bayer's patent in 1976 called the green photosensors luminance-sensitive elements and the red and blue ones chrominance-sensitive elements, he used twice as many green elements as blue to mimic the physiology of the human eye. The luminance perception of the human retina uses M and L cone cells combined, during daylight vision, which are most sensitive to green light.

These elements are referred to as sensor elements, pixel sensors, or pixels. At the time Bayer registered his patent, he proposed to use a cyan-magenta-yellow combination, another set of opposite colors; this arrangement was impractical at the time because the necessary dyes did not exist, but is used in some new digital cameras. The big advantage of the new CMY dyes is; the raw output of Bayer-filter cameras is referred to as a Bayer pattern image. Since each pixel is filtered to record only one of three colors, the data from each pixel cannot specify each of the red and blue values on its own. To obtain a full-color image, various demosaicing algorithms can be used to interpolate a set of complete red and blue values for each pixel; these algorithms make use of the surrounding pixels of the corresponding colors to estimate the values for a particular pixel. Different algorithms requiring various amounts of computing power result in varying-quality final images; this can be done in-camera, producing a JPEG or TIFF image, or outside the camera using the raw data directly from the sensor.

Demosaicing can be performed in different ways. Simple methods interpolate the color value of the pixels of the same color in the neighborhood. For example, once the chip has been exposed to an image, each pixel can be read. A pixel with a green filter provides an exact measurement of the green component; the red and blue components for this pixel are obtained from the neighbors. For a green pixel, two red neighbors can be interpolated to yield the red value two blue pixels can be interpolated to yield the blue value; this simple approach works well in areas with constant color or smooth gradients, but it can cause artifacts such as color bleeding in areas where there are abrupt changes in color or brightness noticeable along sharp edges in the image. Because of this, other demosaicing methods attempt to identify high-contrast edges and only interpolate along these edges, but not across them. Other algorithms are based on the assumption that the color of an area in the image is constant under changing light conditions, so that the color channels are correlated with each other.

Therefore, the green channel is interpolated at first the red and afterwards the blue channel, so that the color ratio red-green respective blue-green are constant. There are other methods that make different assumptions about the image content and starting from this attempt to calculate the missing color values. Images with small-scale detail close to the resolution limit of the digital sensor can be a problem to the demosaicing algorithm, producing a result which does not look like the model; the most frequent artifact is Moiré, which may appear as repeating patterns, color artifacts or pixels arranged in an unrealistic maze-like pattern A common and unfortunate artifact of Color Filter Array interpolation or demosaicing is what is known and seen as false coloring. This artifact manifests itself along edges, where abrupt or unnatural shifts in color occur as a result of misinterpolating across, rather than along, an edge. Various methods exist for removing this false coloring. Smooth hue transition interpolation is used during the demosaicing to prevent false colors from manifesting themselves in the final image.

However, there are other algorithms. These have the benefit of removing false coloring artifacts from the image while using a more robust demosaicing algorithm for interpolating the red and blue color planes; the zippering artifact is another side effect of CFA demosaicing, which occurs along edges, is known as the zipper effect. Put, zippering is another name for edge blurring that occurs in an on/off pattern along an edge; this effect occurs when the demosaicing algorithm averages pixel values over an edge in the red and blue planes, resulting in its characteristic blur. As mentioned before, the best methods for preventing this effect are the various algorithms which interpolate along, rather than across image edges. Pattern recognition interpolation, adaptive color plane interpolation, directionally weighted interpolation all attempt to prevent zippering by interpolating along edges detected in the image; however with a theoretically perfect sensor that could capture and distinguish all colors at each photosite, Moiré and other artifacts could still appe

Greg Mills (footballer)

Gregory Adam Mills is an English footballer who plays for Southern League Premier Division Central side Bromsgrove Sporting, where he plays as a midfielder. Mills was born in Leicestershire, he progressed through the ranks at Derby County and was a regular member of the reserve team in the 2009–10 pre-season. After playing in a 4–0 win away to Shrewsbury Town's reserves in the Central League Division One Central Section in August 2009, Mills moved to Conference North club Solihull Moors on loan for a month, he scored four goals in four matches, the loan was extended for a second month, but was cut short due to an injury crisis at Derby, he was named amongst the substitutes for the first team's visit to Leicester City in the Championship on 18 October 2009. He remained unused on that occasion, but did make his debut three days as a 79th-minute replacement for Gary Teale in a 2–0 defeat away to Middlesbrough, he returned to Solihull for six weeks on 19 November, on 29 January 2010 joined Macclesfield Town of League Two on a month's loan.

He made only one appearance as a substitute in a 2 -- 1 away defeat against Bury. After impressing in a pre-season fixture for AFC Telford United against Hednesford Town, which Telford won 2–0, Mills joined the Conference North club in August on a month's loan. After hitting three goals in his first six games, the loan was extended until January 2011, he returned to Derby for two weeks before rejoining Telford on 31 January for the remainder of the campaign. Four days after Derby confirmed that Mills would be released at the end of the season, he played for an hour in the Conference North play-off final in the 3–2 victory over Guiseley that brought Telford promotion to the Conference National. On 15 August, Mills rejoined AFC Telford United on a one-year contract. Mills scored on his second debut for his first Conference National match, he was released by Telford in January 2012. Mills signed for Worcester City of the Conference South until the end of the season, he was unable to find a Conference Premier club, so rejoined Worcester for 2012–13.

In March 2013 he moved on to Conference North Boston United, agreed to stay on for 2013–14, but work commitments took him to the Manchester area and he signed for Barrow of the Conference North. He made eight appearances for Barrow spent a month on loan with King's Lynn Town of the Northern Premier League Premier Division before joining Southern League Corby Town on loan. After 46 goals from 113 appearances in league competition, helping his team gain promotion to the National League North as 2014–15 Southern League champions, he left the club following their relegation after one season at that level. Mills spent the first few months of the 2016–17 season with Tamworth of the National League North before moving on in January 2017 to Nuneaton Town where he was reunited with his former manager at Corby Town, Tommy Wright. After Wright took over as manager of yet another National North club, Mills followed him in November 2017, he made 16 appearances in all competitions, was released at the end of the season.

He signed for Southern League Premier Central club Stourbridge in May 2018, went on to score for them, but after a "difference of opinion" with the manager about his role, he left Stourbridge in October 2019 for divisional rivals Bromsgrove Sporting. As of end of 2017–18 season Greg Mills at Soccerbase Greg Mills at Soccerway