British diaspora in Africa
The British diaspora in Africa is a population group broadly defined as English-speaking white Africans of mainly British descent who live in or come from Sub-Saharan Africa. The majority live in South Africa and other Southern African countries including Zimbabwe, Botswana, Lesotho, there are sizable numbers in Kenya and Ghana. Their first language is usually English, although the majority of white Africans who speak English as a first language are of British and Irish descent. Natal in southeastern Africa was proclaimed a British colony in 1843, following the defeat of the Boers in the Second Boer War in 1902, Britain annexed the Boer Republics of the Transvaal Republic and the Orange Free State. Scottish medical missionary David Livingstone famously explored Africa, and it is believed he was the first European to set eyes on Victoria Falls in 1855 and he is a key character in African history, being one of the first well-known Britons to believe his heart was in Africa. In the late century, the discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand and diamonds in Kimberley encouraged further settlement by the British.
The search for mineral resources drove expansion north, British settlers began expansion into the fertile uplands of British East Africa. A unilateral declaration of independence occurred in 1965, in 1980, the first democratic general election was held in independent Zimbabwe and the country joined the Commonwealth. Subsequently, the white population declined sharply – thousands were intimidated, attacked. Charged with abusing human rights and undermining democracy, President Robert Mugabe and other Zimbabwean individuals, in 2002 Zimbabwe was suspended from the Commonwealth due to human rights abuses and electoral fraud, and in the following year Zimbabwe voluntarily terminated its Commonwealth membership. In 1931 the Statute of Westminster granted the Union full legislative independence from Britain, the Afrikaner-dominated right-wing National Party, which ruled the country from 1948 until 1994, entrenched apartheid, established a republic and withdrew from the Commonwealth. In 1955,33,000 white people in Natal, which had an English-speaking majority of white voters, many of the British diaspora voted No in the 1960 referendum of white voters, which was approved by a narrow margin and led to the establishment of a republic.
The Natal majority voted against the republic and some Natalians even called for secession from the Union after the referendum, in 1994 South Africa held its first universal democratic general election, marking the end of apartheid and white minority rule, and rejoined the Commonwealth. The majority of the British diaspora support the Democratic Alliance, which is the opposition to the ruling African National Congress. The British diaspora population has declined since the early 1990s as a result of a low birth rate relative to that of population groups. Reasons for emigration include crime, poor service delivery and this number is an overstatement as it includes people of other ancestral origins who have assimilated into the white English-speaking population. The English-speaking population is largest in the KwaZulu-Natal province and in such as Johannesburg. Over 200,000 British citizens live in South Africa, including more than 38,000 who are being paid a state pension
The meaning of the word American in the English language varies according to the historical and political context in which it is used. American is derived from America, a term denoting all of the New World. Similar semantic contention exists concerning the use of English words like Spanish, Scandinavian, the word can be used as either an adjective or a noun. In adjectival use, it means of or relating to the United States, for example, in its noun form, the word generally means a resident or citizen of the US, or occasionally someone whose ethnic identity is simply American. The noun is used in American English to refer to people not connected to the United States. When used with a qualifier, the adjective American can mean of or relating to the Americas, as in Latin American or Indigenous American. Less frequently, the adjective can take this meaning without a qualifier, as in American Spanish dialects and pronunciation differ by country, or the name of the Organization of American States. A third use of the term specifically to the indigenous peoples of the Americas, for instance, In the 16th century.
Compound constructions such as African Americans likewise refer exclusively to people in or from the United States of America, as does the prefix Americo-. French, Italian, Hebrew and they generally have other terms specific to U. S. nationals, such as the German US-Amerikaner, French étatsunien, Japanese beikokujin, Arabic amrīkānī, and Italian statunitense. These specific terms may be less common than the term American, Germans use of U. S. -amerikanisch and U. S. -Amerikaner observe said cultural distinction, solely denoting U. S. things and people. Note that these are politically correct terms and that in normal parlance, Portuguese has americano, denoting both a person or thing from the Americas and a U. S. national. For referring specifically to a U. S. as well, in Spanish, americano denotes geographic and cultural origin in the New World, as well as a U. S. citizen, the more common term is estadounidense, which derives from Estados Unidos de América. The Spanish term norteamericano is frequently used to things and persons from the United States.
Among Spanish-speakers, North America generally doesnt include Central America or the Caribbean, in other languages, there is no possibility for confusion. For example, the Chinese word for U. S. national is měiguórén is derived from a word for the United States, měiguó, the name for the American continents is měizhōu, from měi plus zhōu. Thus, a měizhōurén is an American in the continent sense, conversely, in Czech, there is no possibility for disambiguation. Američan and američanka can refer to persons from the United States or from the continents of the Americas, for this reason, the latter meaning is very rarely used, and word američan is used almost exclusively to refer to persons from the United States
Americans are citizens of the United States of America. The country is home to people of different national origins. As a result, Americans do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, although citizens make up the majority of Americans, non-citizen residents, dual citizens, and expatriates may claim an American identity. See Names for United States citizens. S, virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century. It includes influences of African-American culture, westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements, immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics, in addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally.
As many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, the United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Some other race is an option in the census and other surveys, people of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72. 4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the peoples of Europe, the Middle East. Of those reporting to be White American,7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial, with largest combination being white, there are 29,184,290 White Hispanics or Latinos. Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states, there are four minority-majority states, Texas, New Mexico, and Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority, the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the peoples of Europe.
This includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European diaspora, the Spanish were the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years later, Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the Thirteen Colonies to English parents. 8% of the total population, Hispanic or Latino Americans constitute the largest ethnic minority in the United States. They form the second largest group after non-Hispanic Whites in the United States, hispanic/Latino Americans are very racially diverse, and as a result form an ethnic category, rather than a race
Natural history is the research and study of organisms including animals and plants in their environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. It encompasses scientific research but is not limited to it, with articles nowadays more often published in magazines than in academic journals. Grouped among the sciences, natural history is the systematic study of any category of natural objects or organisms. That is a broad designation in a world filled with many narrowly focused disciplines. For example, geobiology has a strong multi-disciplinary nature combining scientists, a person who studies natural history is known as a naturalist or natural historian. The English term natural history is a translation of the Latin historia naturalis and its meaning has narrowed progressively with time, while the meaning of the related term nature has widened. In antiquity, it covered essentially anything connected with nature or which used materials drawn from nature. For example, Pliny the Elders encyclopedia of this title, published circa 77 to 79 AD, covers astronomy, geography and his technology and superstition as well as animals and plants.
Medieval European academics considered knowledge to have two divisions, the humanities and divinity, with science studied largely through texts rather than observation or experiment. In modern terms, natural philosophy roughly corresponded to modern physics and chemistry, natural history had been encouraged by practical motives, such as Linnaeus aspiration to improve the economic condition of Sweden. Similarly, the Industrial Revolution prompted the development of geology to help find useful mineral deposits, the astronomer, William Herschel was a natural historian. Instead of working with plants or minerals he worked with the stars and he spent his time building telescopes to see the stars and the rest of the time watching the stars. In the beginning, he believed there to be a known as a nebulae. Herschel can be considered a natural historian because he observed the natural world, in the process he made charts of all the stars and kept records of all that he saw. S. Wilcove and T. Eisner, The close observation of organisms—their origins, their evolution, their behavior and it encompasses changes in internal states insofar as they pertain to what organisms do.
Some definitions go further, focusing on observation of organisms in their environment. Bartholomew, A student of history, or a naturalist, studies the world by observing plants. A common thread in many definitions of natural history is the inclusion of a component, as seen in a recent definition by H. W. Greene
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans. The English term Germans has historically referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages, before the collapse of communism and the reunification of Germany in 1990, Germans constituted the largest divided nation in Europe by far. Ever since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, of approximately 100 million native speakers of German in the world, roughly 80 million consider themselves Germans. Thus, the number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most often subscribe to their own national identities, the German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic language of the people.
It is not clear how commonly, if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German, used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of a German emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century. The Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni and it was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century. The word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects, while in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci, originally with a meaning foreigner, the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus. It gradually replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming mostly obsolete by the early 18th century, the Germans are a Germanic people, who as an ethnicity emerged during the Middle Ages.
Originally part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War and these states eventually formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe, the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was significantly increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe, during antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area that is now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, and had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine, in Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, and Roman and Christian traditions intermingled. The adoption of Christianity would become an influence in the development of a common German identity
White people in Zimbabwe
White Zimbabweans are people from the southern African country Zimbabwe who are white. A small number of people of European ethnicity first came to Southern Rhodesia as settlers during the late 19th century, a steady immigration of white people continued for about the next 75 years. The early white settlers came in search of resources, finding deposits of coal, nickel, platinum. They found some of the best farmland in Africa, the central part of Zimbabwe is a plateau which varies in altitude between 900 and 1,500 m above sea level. This gives the area a sub-tropical climate which is conducive to European settlement, over 3000 white soldiers who assisted in the BSAC takeover of the country were given land grants of 1,200 hectares or more, and black people living on the land became tenants. White settlers were attracted to Rhodesia by the availability of tracts of farmland that could be purchased from the state at low cost. This resulted in a feature of the Rhodesian economy—the white farm. The white farm was typically a large mechanised estate, owned by a white family, many white farms provided housing and clinics for black employees and their families.
At the time of independence in 1980, over 40% of the farming land was contained within 5,000 white farms. It was claimed that these farms provided 40% of the countrys GDP, major export products included tobacco, sugar and maize. The minerals sector was important, asbestos and chrome were mined by foreign-owned concerns such as Lonrho and Anglo American. These operations were run by white managers, engineers. The following year, Southern Rhodesians rejected, in a referendum, the country became a self-governing British colony. It never gained full status, although unlike other colonies it was treated as a de facto dominion. In 1891, before Southern Rhodesia was established as a territory and this number grew slowly to around 75,000 in 1945. In the period 1945 to 1955 the white population doubled to 150,000, during that decade,100,000 black people were forcibly resettled from farming land designated for white ownership. For example, in 1947 Wedza white farmer Harry Meade unsuccessfully opposed the eviction of his black neighbour Solomon Ndawa from a 200-hectare irrigated wheat farm, Meade represented Ndawa at hearings of the Land Commission and attempted to protect Ndawa from abusive questioning.
Large-scale white emigration to Rhodesia did not begin until after the Second World War, there were influxes of white immigrants from the 1940s through to the early 1970s
The Confederados were some 10,000 to 20,000 Confederates who immigrated to Brazil, chiefly to the state of São Paulo, from the Southern United States after the American Civil War. Although many eventually returned to the United States after Reconstruction, some remained, the most popular destination for emigration was the Brazilian Empire, where slavery remained legal. Emperor Dom Pedro II wanted to encourage the cultivation of cotton, after the American Civil War, Dom Pedro offered the potential immigrants subsidized transport to Brazil, cheap land, and tax breaks. In addition, Brazil still had slavery, most of the immigrants were from the states of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi and South Carolina. No one has determined how many Americans immigrated to Brazil in the following the end of the American Civil War. As noted in unpublished research, Betty Antunes de Oliveira found in records of Rio de Janeiro that some 20,000 Americans entered Brazil from 1865 to 1885. Other researchers have estimated the number at 10,000, an unknown number returned to the United States when conditions in the South changed, as Reconstruction ended and the Jim Crow era began.
The immigrants settled in places, ranging from the urban areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo to the northern Amazon region, especially Santarém. Most of the Confederados settled in the area to the north of São Paulo, around present-day Santa Bárbara dOeste, the latter name was derived from Vila dos Americanos, as the natives called it. The first Confederado recorded was Colonel William H. Norris of Alabama, the colony at Santa Bárbara DOeste is sometimes called the Norris Colony. Dom Pedros program was judged a success for both the immigrants and the Brazilian government, the settlers quickly gained a reputation for honesty and hard work. The settlers brought modern techniques for cotton, as well as new food crops. Some dishes of the American South were adopted in general Brazilian culture, such as pie, vinegar pie. The early Confederados continued many elements of American culture, for instance, in a change from the South, the Confederados educated slaves and black freedmen in their new schools.
A few newly freed slaves in the United States emigrated alongside their Confederate counterparts, one such former slave, Steve Watson, became the administrator of the sawmill of his former owner, Judge Dyer of Texas. When Dyer returned to the US, due to homesickness and financial failure, Dyer deeded his remaining property, in the area of the Juquia valley there are many Brazilian families with the surname Vassão, the Portuguese pronunciation of Watson. The first generation of Confederados remained an insular community, as is typical, by the third generation, most of the families had intermarried with native Brazilians or immigrants of other origins. Descendants of the Confederados increasingly spoke the Portuguese language and identified themselves as Brazilians, as the area around Santa Bárbara dOeste and Americana turned to the production of sugar cane and society became more mobile, the Confederados moved to cities for urban jobs
Southern United States
The Southern United States, commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States and New Mexico, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia, which separated from Virginia in 1863, commonly is. Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries, while the states of Delaware and Maryland, as well as the District of Columbia permitted slavery prior to the start of the Civil War, they remained with the Union. However, the United States Census Bureau puts them in the South, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles, and cuisines, the Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European and some Native American components.
Since the late 1960s, black people have many offices in Southern states, especially in the coastal states of Virginia. Historically, the South relied heavily on agriculture, and was rural until after 1945. It has since become more industrialized and urban and has attracted national and international migrants, the American South is now among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. Houston is the largest city in the Southern United States, sociological research indicates that Southern collective identity stems from political and cultural distinctiveness from the rest of the United States. The region contains almost all of the Bible Belt, an area of high Protestant church attendance and predominantly conservative, studies have shown that Southerners are more conservative than non-Southerners in several areas, including religion, international relations and race relations. Apart from its climate, the experience in the South increasingly resembles the rest of the nation. The arrival of millions of Northerners and millions of Hispanics meant the introduction of cultural values, the process has worked both ways, with aspects of Southern culture spreading throughout a greater portion of the rest of the United States in a process termed Southernization.
The question of how to define the subregions in the South has been the focus of research for nearly a century, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, the Southern region of the United States includes sixteen states. As of 2010, an estimated 114,555,744 people, or thirty-seven percent of all U. S. residents, lived in the South, the nations most populous region. Other terms related to the South include, The Old South, the New South, usually including the South Atlantic States. The Solid South, region largely controlled by the Democratic Party from 1877 to 1964, before that, blacks were elected to national office and many to local office through the 1880s, Populist-Republican coalitions gained victories for Fusionist candidates for governors in the 1890s. Includes at least all the 11 former Confederate States, Southeastern United States, usually including the Carolinas, the Virginias, Kentucky, Alabama and Florida. The Deep South, various definitions, usually including Louisiana, Mississippi, occasionally, parts of adjoining states are included
Citizenship of the United States
Citizenship in the United States is a status that entails specific rights and benefits. State citizenship may affect tax decisions and eligibility for some state-provided benefits such as higher education, in Article One of the Constitution, the power to establish a uniform rule of naturalization is granted explicitly to Congress. A citizen of another country naturalized as a U. S. citizen may retain their previous citizenship, a U. S. citizen retains U. S. citizenship when becoming the citizen of another country, should that countrys laws allow it. Citizenship can be renounced by American citizens who hold another citizenship via a formal procedure at a U. S. Embassy. United States citizens have the right to reside and work in the United States, certain non-citizens, such as permanent residents, have similar rights, non-citizens, unlike citizens, may have the right taken away. For example, they may be deported if convicted of a serious crime, freedom to enter and leave the United States. United States citizens have the right to enter and leave the United States freely, certain non-citizens, such as permanent residents, have similar rights.
Unlike permanent residents, U. S. citizens do not have an obligation to maintain residence in the U. S. – they can leave for any length of time, voting for federal office in all fifty states and the District of Columbia is restricted to citizens only. States are not required to extend the franchise to all citizens, for example, several states bar citizen felons from voting, even after they have completed any custodial sentence. The United States Constitution bars states from restricting citizens from voting on grounds of race, previous condition of servitude, failure to pay any tax, or age. Historically, many states and local jurisdictions have allowed non-citizens to vote, citizens are not compelled to vote. Freedom to stand for public office, most states have similar requirements, for example California requires that legislators have been citizens for three years, and the Governor have been a citizen for five years, upon taking office. Constitution requires that one be a natural born Citizen and a U. S.
resident for fourteen years in order to be President of the United States, the Constitution stipulates that otherwise eligible citizens must meet certain age requirements for these offices. Jury duty is imposed upon citizens. Johns Hopkins University political scientist Benjamin Ginsberg writes, The professional military has limited the need for citizen soldiers, in the United States today, everyone except those whose income is derived from tax-exempt revenue is required to file a federal income tax return. American citizens are subject to income tax on worldwide income regardless of their country of residence. Consular protection outside the United States, while traveling abroad, if a person is arrested or detained by foreign authorities, the person can request to speak to somebody from the U. S. Embassy or Consulate. Consular officials can provide resources for Americans incarcerated abroad, such as a list of attorneys who speak English
New Zealanders, colloquially known as Kiwis, are citizens of New Zealand. New Zealand is a society, and home to people of many national origins. New Zealand had a resident population of around 4.47 million as of June 2013. While most New Zealanders live in New Zealand, there is a significant diaspora, of these,360,000, over three-quarters of the New Zealand-born population residing outside of New Zealand, live in Australia. This diaspora has reportedly surged as of 2010, with well over 650,000 New Zealanders living abroad, according to the Australian Department of Immigration and Border Protection, an estimated 640,770 New Zealanders lived in Australia on 30 June 2013. The majority of New Zealanders or their ancestors immigrated within the past three centuries, with the exception of the Māori population who settled New Zealand from Eastern Polynesia and it includes influences of Māori culture. Large-scale immigration in the 20th and 21st centuries from Asia such as Chinese, the Māori people are most likely descended from people who emigrated from Taiwan to Melanesia and travelled east through to the Society Islands.
Some researchers have suggested an earlier wave of arrivals dating to as early as AD 50–150, over the following centuries the Polynesian settlers developed into a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū which would cooperate, compete, at some point a group of Māori migrated to the Chatham Islands where they developed their distinct Moriori culture. Due to New Zealands geographic isolation,500 years passed before the phase of settlement. Only did the inhabitants need to distinguish themselves from the new arrivals. The establishment of British colonies in Australia from 1788 and the boom in whaling and sealing in the Southern Ocean brought many Europeans and Americans to the vicinity of New Zealand, some settled—for economic, religious or personal reasons. People of European descent constitute the majority of the 4.2 million people living in New Zealand, the table above shows the broad ethnic composition of New Zealand population at the 1961 and the most recent 2013 census.
Europeans include all persons of European - Maori — quarter castes, the residual others ethnic group consists largely of Asians and Pacific Islanders. Most European New Zealanders are of British and Irish ancestry, with percentages of other European ancestries such as Croatians, Poles, Dutch, Scandinavian. In the 1961 census, over 90% self-identified as people of European descent, the first Europeans known to have reached New Zealand were Dutch explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman and his crew in 1642. Māori killed several of the crew and no more Europeans went to New Zealand until British explorer James Cooks voyage of 1768–71, Cook reached New Zealand in 1769 and mapped almost the entire coastline. Following Cook, New Zealand was visited by numerous European and North American whaling and trading ships and they traded European food and goods, especially metal tools and weapons, for Māori timber, food and water
The Dutch, occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, Nederlanders—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They share a culture and speak the Dutch language. The high degree of urbanization characteristic of Dutch society was attained at an early date. During the Republic the first series of large scale Dutch migrations outside of Europe took place, despite the small size of the Netherlands, the Dutch left behind a legacy in excess of their mere numbers. The traditional art and culture of the Dutch encompasses various forms of music, architectural styles and clothing. Internationally, Dutch painters such as Rembrandt and Van Gogh are held in high regard, the dominant religion of the Dutch is Christianity, although in modern times the majority is no longer religious. Significant percentages of the Dutch are adherents of humanism, atheism or individual spirituality, as with all ethnic groups the ethnogenesis of the Dutch has been a lengthy and complex process.
The text below hence focuses on the history of the Dutch ethnic group, for Dutch national history, for Dutch colonial history, see the article on the Dutch Empire. Following the end of the period in the West around 500, with large federations settling the decaying Roman Empire. In the Low Countries, this began when the Franks, themselves a union of multiple smaller tribes. Eventually, in 358, the Salian Franks, one of the three main subdivisions among the Frankish alliance settled the areas Southern lands as foederati, Roman allies in charge of border defense. On a political level, the Frankish warlords abandoned tribalism and founded a number of kingdoms, the population make-up of the Frankish Empire, or even early Frankish kingdoms such as Neustria and Austrasia, was not dominated by Franks. Though the Frankish leaders controlled most of Western Europe, the Franks themselves were confined to the Northwestern part of the Empire, the current Dutch-French language border has remained virtually identical ever since, and could be seen as marking the furthest pale of gallicization among the Franks.
The medieval cities of the Low Countries, which experienced major growth during the 11th and 12th century, were instrumental in breaking down the already relatively loose local form of feudalism, as they became increasingly powerful, they used their economical strength to influence the politics of their nobility. While the cities were of political importance, they formed catalysts for medieval Dutch culture. The various city guilds as well as the necessity of water boards in the Dutch delta and it is around this time, that ethnonyms such as Diets and Nederlands emerge. This process marked a new episode in the development of the Dutch ethnic group, as now political unity started to emerge, consolidating the strengthened cultural, despite their linguistic and cultural unity, and economic similarities, there was still little sense of political unity among the Dutch people. However, the centralist policies of Burgundy in the 14th and 15th centuries, at first violently opposed by the cities of the Low Countries, had a profound impact and changed this
United States nationality law
Article I, section 8, clause 4 of the United States Constitution expressly gives the United States Congress the power to establish a uniform rule of naturalization. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 sets forth the requirements for the acquisition of. Felons can vote in over 40 states, and in at least 2 while incarcerated, felons can serve jury duty if approved. Some U. S. citizens have the obligation to serve in a jury, if selected, citizens are required to pay taxes on their total income from all sources worldwide, including income earned abroad while living abroad. U. S. taxes payable may be reduced by credits for foreign income taxes regardless of the length of stay abroad. The United States Government insists that U. S. citizens travel into and out of the United States on a U. S. passport, regardless of any other nationality they may possess. Male U. S. citizens from 18–25 years of age are required to register with the Selective Service System at age 18 for possible conscription into the armed forces.
Although no one has been drafted in the U. S. since 1973, armed Forces, and will perform work of national importance under civilian direction. In some cases, the USCIS allows the oath to be taken without the clauses regarding the first two of these three sworn commitments, there are various ways a person can acquire United States citizenship, either at birth or on in life. In the case of United States v. Wong Kim Ark,169 U. S, as of 2015, the United States includes all inhabited territories except American Samoa and Swains Island. INA301 and INA301 state, and one of whom has had a residence, the FAM states no amount of time specified. A persons record of birth abroad, if registered with a U. S. consulate or embassy, is proof of citizenship and they may apply for a passport or a Certificate of Citizenship as proof of citizenship. A person born on or after November 14,1986, is a U. S. citizen if all of the following are true, a persons record of birth abroad, if registered with a U. S. consulate or embassy, is proof of citizenship.
Such a person may apply for a passport or a Certificate of Citizenship to have a record of citizenship. Such documentation is often useful to prove citizenship in lieu of the availability of an American birth certificate, different rules apply for persons born abroad to one U. S. citizen before November 14,1986. United States law on this subject changed multiple times throughout the century. A person who was not born a U. S. citizen may acquire U. S. citizenship through a known as naturalization. Also during those 60 months if the permanent resident was outside of the U. S. for a continuous period of 6 months or more they are disqualified from naturalizing