An American comic book is a thin periodical originating in the United States, on average 32 pages, containing comics content. While the form originated in 1933, American comic books first gained popularity after the 1938 publication of Action Comics, which included the debut of the superhero Superman; this was followed by a superhero boom that lasted until the end of World War II. After the war, while superheroes were marginalized, the comic book industry expanded and genres such as horror, science fiction and romance became popular; the 1950s saw a gradual decline, due to a shift away from print media in the wake of television and the impact of the Comics Code Authority. The late 1950s and the 1960s saw a superhero revival and superheroes remained the dominant character archetype throughout the late 20th century into the 21st century; some fans collect comic books. Some have sold for more than US $1 million. Comic shops cater to fans, selling comic books, plastic sleeves and cardboard backing to protect the comic books.
An American comic book is known as a floppy comic. It is thin and stapled, unlike traditional books. American comic books are one of the three major comic book schools globally, along with Japanese manga and the Franco-Belgian comic books; the typical size and page count of comics have varied over the decades tending toward smaller formats and fewer pages. The size was derived from folding one sheet of Quarter Imperial paper, to print 4 pages which were each seven and a half by eleven inches; this meant that the page count had to be some multiple of 4. In recent decades, standard comics have been about six and five-eighths by ten and a quarter inches, 32 pages. While comics can be the work of a single creator, the labor of creating them is divided between a number of specialists. There may be a separate writer and artist, or there may be separate artists for the characters and backgrounds. In superhero comicbooks, the art may be divided between: a writer, who writes the dialogue, also plots the storyline a penciller, working in pencils lays out the panel breakdown on the page, draws the actual artwork in each panel, who at Marvel Comics, may co-plot the storyline an inker, working in ink, who finishes the artwork ready for the printing press.
A colorist, who adds the color to the pages a letterer, who adds the captions and speech balloons. The process begins with the writer coming up with a story idea or concept working it up into a plot and storyline, finalizing it with a script. After the art is prepared, the dialogue and captions are lettered onto the page from the script, an editor may have the final say, before the comic is sent to the printer; the creative team, the writer and artist, may work for a comic book publisher who handles the marketing and other logistics. A wholesale distributor, such as Diamond Comic Distributors, the largest in the U. S. distributes the printed product to retailers. Another aspect of the process involved in successful comics is the interaction between the readers/fans and the creator. Fan art and letters to the editor were printed in the back of the book, until, in the early 21st century, various Internet forums started to replace this tradition; the growth of comic specialty stores helped permit several waves of independently-produced comics, beginning in the mid-1970s.
Some early examples of these - referred to as "independent" or "alternative" comics - such as Big Apple Comix, continued somewhat in the tradition of the earlier underground comics, while others, such as Star Reach, resembled the output of mainstream publishers in format and genre but were published by smaller artist-owned ventures or by a single artist. This so-called "small press" scene continued to grow and diversify, with a number of small publishers in the 1990s changing the format and distribution of their comicbooks to more resemble non-comics publishing; the "minicomics" form, an informal version of self-publishing, arose in the 1980s and became popular among artists in the 1990s, despite reaching an more limited audience than the small presses. The development of the modern American comic book happened in stages. Publishers had collected comic strips in hardcover book form as early as 1842, with The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck, a collection of English-language newspaper inserts published in Europe as the 1837 book Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Rodolphe Töpffer.
The G. W. Dillingham Company published the first known proto-comic-book magazine in the U. S; the Yellow Kid in McFadden's Flats, in 1897. A hardcover book, it reprinted material—primarily the October 18, 1896, to January 10, 1897, sequence titled "McFadden's Row of Flats"—from cartoonist Richard F. Outcault's newspaper comic strip Hogan's Alley, starring the Yellow Kid; the 196-page, square-bound, black-and-white publication, which includes introductory text by E. W. Townsend, measured 5×7 inches and sold for 50 cents; the neolog
George Read is the former leader of the Alberta Greens and a key organizer for the federal Green Party of Canada in Alberta. Read led the provincial and federal Green Parties in Alberta during a period of growth in support for the parties. Prior to his involvement, the Green Party remained well below 1% of the vote in Alberta. Read was elected leader of the Alberta Greens at the provincial convention held in Red Deer on November 1, 2003. Read won the position against incumbent David Parker. Read brought together organizers for the Green Party of Canada who recruited the first full slate of Green candidates in Alberta for the 2004 federal election. In that election, the Green Party of Canada received a higher percentage of votes in Alberta than in other provinces: the party won 6.3% of the popular vote in the province, 10% in the ridings of Calgary Centre-North and Calgary South Centre. Some commentators ascribed this to the weak position of the Liberal Party of Canada and New Democratic Party in Alberta.
Read was the National campaign manager of the Green Party of Canada for the 2006 Federal election. Read participated in a committee to decide staff changes in the GPC as of November 2006. One of the positions it would decide would be the National Campaign Manager. In June 2004, he ran for election as the Green Party of Canada candidate in the federal riding of Calgary Southeast, finishing just behind the NDP candidate, he ran for the provincial Greens in the Calgary-Egmont riding in the 2004 Alberta provincial election. Finishing just behind the Alberta Alliance and ahead of the NDP, he was the Alberta Greens candidate in the June 12, 2007, by-election for the riding of Calgary Elbow. Read was the leader of the Alberta Greens in the Mar 3rd 2008 provincial election, he received 4.95 % of the vote. The Alberta Greens moved from 2.8% of the vote in 2004 to 4.6% of the vote in 2008 under Reads Leadership. The Alberta Greens ran 79 candidates in 2008 up from 49 candidates in 2004. Read was born and raised Feb 29, 1972 in Calgary, Canada.
As a youth, he was a member of Scouts Canada, which he credits with giving him a love of the outdoors. He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science/Management from the University of Calgary, he has been active for many years with the Sierra Club of Canada, in Calgary. List of Green party leaders in Canada Alberta Greens website
Tattershall Castle is a castle in Tattershall, England, about 12 miles north east of Sleaford. It is in the care of the National Trust. Tattershall Castle has its origins in either a stone castle or a fortified manor house, built by Robert de Tattershall in 1231; this was rebuilt in brick, expanded, by Ralph, 3rd Lord Cromwell, Treasurer of England, between 1430 and 1450. Brick castles are less common in England than earth and timber constructions; the trend for using bricks was introduced by Flemish weavers. There was plenty of stone available nearby. About 700,000 bricks were used to build the castle, described as "the finest piece of medieval brick-work in England". Of Lord Cromwell's castle, the 130 foot high Great Tower and moat still remain, it is thought that the castle's three state rooms were once splendidly fitted out and the chambers were heated by immense Gothic fireplaces with decorated chimney pieces and tapestries. It has been said. Cromwell died in 1456, the castle was inherited by his niece, Joan Bouchier, but it was confiscated by the Crown after her husband's demise.
Tattershall Castle was recovered in 1560 by Sir Henry Sidney, who sold it to Lord Clinton Earl of Lincoln, it remained with the Earls of Lincoln until 1693. It passed to the Fortesques, but fell into neglect, it was put up for sale in 1910. Its greatest treasures, the huge medieval fireplaces, were still intact; when an American bought them they were packaged up for shipping. Lord Curzon of Kedleston stepped in at the eleventh hour to buy the castle and was determined to get the fireplaces back. After a nationwide hunt they were returned, he restored the castle and left it to the National Trust on his death in 1925. Lord Curzon had undertaken restorations on it between 1911 and 1914, it remains today one of the three most important surviving brick castles of the mid-15th century. The experience of Tattershall led Lord Curzon to push for heritage protection law in Britain; the plan of the castle is rectangular. The inner enclosure, or Ward, was that of the original 13th-century castle, the original entrance was on the north side towards the west end.
The Outer Ward, between the outer moat and inner moat, housed the stables. The Middle Ward accessed by a bridge from the Outer Ward, housed a gatehouse and guardhouse. Today, access to the castle is via this Middle Ward; the Inner Moat encompasses the Inner Ward, where the kitchens were situated. The tower is about 66 feet across. There are separate entrances to the basement, to the ground floor, to the spiral staircase leading to the upper floors of the tower; this suggests that the basement and ground floor were intended to provide communal accommodation, while the three great upper rooms were an independent private suite or Solar. The design was simple, with four floors increasing in size at each level by reductions in wall thickness; the fireplaces indicate that the rooms were not intended to be subdivided, but were kept as one great room at each level. One of the four corner turrets contains the staircase, but the other three provided extra accommodation rooms at each level; the basement was used to other kitchen items.
It is believed. The ground floor was the Parlour and it was here that local tenants would come to pay their rent. Today, the Parlour is licensed for civil wedding ceremonies for up to 90 guests; the first floor of the private suite was the Hall, which would have been used to entertain and wine and dine guests. The second floor was the Audience Chamber, only the finest of guests would have been admitted here. A brick vaulted corridor led to a small waiting room, before the great hall of the Audience Chamber, which today houses Flemish tapestries bought by Lord Curzon; the third floor would have been the Private Chamber, where the Lord would have retired for the night. Above these are the roof gallery and battlements, which provide good views across the Lincolnshire landscape, as far as Boston to the south, Lincoln to the north, it is not possible today to access the turrets. The brick foundations to the south of the great tower, projecting into the moat, mark the site of the 15th-century kitchens.
Today, the old guardhouse is the gift shop, the grounds are home to a number of peacocks. Notes BibliographyFriar, The Sutton Companion to Castles, Stroud: Sutton Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7509-3994-2 Tattershall Castle information at the National Trust Historic England. "Details from listed building database". National Heritage List for England
Great Bricett Hall is a grade I listed farmhouse in the village of Great Bricett, England. It was built in the mid-13th century as the hall of the Augustinian Priory of St. Leonard, attached to the north side of the Church of St Mary & St Laurence; the Hall was owned by John De Bohan, killed by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn. During the Second World War, it was used to house Italian prisoners. In 1947, it was bought by Percy Cooper, it was home to farmer Rupert Cooper, son of Percy, who died in October 2017, aged 96. It was inherited by his son, Oliver Cooper, the estate, including 415 acres of land, was listed for sale in June 2018 at £4.65 million
Holbrook Blinn was an American stage and film actor. Blinn was born in California, his father was Charles H. Blinn, a Civil War veteran and his mother Nellie Hollbrook was an actress, he appeared on the legitimate stage as a child, played throughout the United States and in London. He appeared in silent films, was the director of popular one-act plays at New York's Princess Theatre. In 1900, he appeared in London in Little Christina, his Broadway stage successes include The Duchess of Dantzic, Salvation Nell in a breakout performance as the brutish husband of Mrs. Fiske, Within the Law, Molière, A Woman of No Importance, The Lady of the Camellias, Getting Together; some of his finest silent screen accomplishments are in McTeague, The Bad Man, Rosita and Janice Meredith, the latter two films both starring Marion Davies. Blinn died from complications of a fall off his horse near Journey's End, his Croton-on-Hudson, New York home, is buried in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Sleepy Hollow, New York; the Butterfly on the Wheel The Ballet Girl McTeague The Weakness of Man Rosita Yolanda Janice Meredith The Unfair Sex The Telephone Girl This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C..
New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Great Stars of the American Stage, Profile #65 by Daniel C. Blum c.1952.
Sonarpur is a community development block that forms an administrative division in the Baruipur subdivision of the South 24 Parganas district in the Indian state of West Bengal. The Sonarpur CD block is located at 22°26′57″N 88°23′29″E, it has an average elevation of 9 metres. The Sonarpur CD block is bounded by Garia neighbourhood of Kolkata in the north, the Bhangar I, Bhangar II and Canning II CD blocks in the east, the Baruipur CD block in the south, the Thakurpukur Maheshtala and Bishnupur I CD blocks in the west; the South 24 Parganas district is divided into two distinct physiographic zones: the marine-riverine delta in the north and the marine delta zone in the south. As the sea receded southwards, in the sub-recent geological period, a large low-lying plain got exposed. Both tidal inflows and rivers have deposited sediments in this plain; the periodical collapse of both the natural Levees and man-made embankments speed up the process of filling up of the depressions containing brackish water wetlands.
The marine delta in the south is formed of interlacing tidal channels. As non-saline water for irrigation is scarce, agriculture is monsoon-dominated; some parts of the wetlands are still preserved for raising fish. The Sonarpur CD block has an area of 120.63 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 11 gram panchayats, 156 gram sansads, 75 mouzas and 65 inhabited villages, as per the District Statistical Handbook, South Twenty-four Parganas. Sonarpur police station serves this block. Headquarters of this CD block is at Sonarpur. Gram panchayats of Sonarpur CD block/panchayat samiti are Bonhugly I, Bonhugly II, Kalikapur I, Kalikapur II, Kheadaha I, Kheadaha II, Polghat and Sonarpur II. According to the 2011 Census of India, Sonarpur CD block had a total population of 219,863, of which 175,713 were rural and 44,150 were urban. There were 107,625 females. There were 22,880 persons in the age range of 0 to 6 years; the Scheduled Castes numbered 116,950 and the Scheduled Tribes numbered 3,069. According to the 2001 Census of India, the Sonarpur CD block had a total population of 167,348, out of which 86,012 were males and 81,336 were females.
The Sonarpur CD block registered a population growth of -41.56% during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the South 24 Parganas district was 20.89%. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84%. The Scheduled Castes at 99,567 formed more than one-half the population; the Scheduled Tribes numbered 4,348. Census Towns in the Sonarpur CD block: Radhanagar, Ramchandrapur, Kalikapur, Chak Baria and Sahebpur. Large villages in the Sonarpur CD block: Atghara, Bhagabanpur, Khurigochhi, Mali Puuria, Mathurapur, Joykrishnapur Chairi, Banhugli and Raypur. Other villages in the Sonarpur CD block include: Paighat and Langalber; as per the 2011 census, the total number of literates in the Sonarpur CD block was 156,911 out of which males numbered 86,132 and females numbered 70,779. The gender disparity was 12.19%. In the South 24 Parganas district, literacy was 77.51%. Literacy in West Bengal was 77.08% in 2011. Overall literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%. In the 2001 Census of India, the Sonarpur CD block had a total literacy of 70.74% for the 6+ age group.
While male literacy was 79.87%, female literacy was only 61.07%. The South 24 Parganas district had a total literacy rate of 69.45%, male literacy being 79.19% and female literacy being 59.01%. See – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate In the 2001 census, Bengali was the mother tongue for 97.9% of the population of the district, followed by Hindi with 1.5%, Urdu 0.3%, Odia and Telugu. The West Bengal Official Language Bill, 2012, included Hindi, Santhali and Punjabi as official languages if it is spoken by a population exceeding 10 per cent of the whole in a particular block or sub-division or a district. Subsequently, Kamtapuri and Kurmali were included in the list of minority languages by the West Bengal Official Language Bill, 2018. However, as of 2019, there is no official / other reliable information about the areas covered. In the 2011 Census of India, Hindus numbered 179,174 and formed 81.49% of the population in the Sonarpur CD block. Muslims formed 15.92 % of the population.
Others formed 2.59 % of the population. Amongst the others, Christians numbered 3,562; the proportion of Hindus in the South Twenty-four Parganas district has declined from 76.0% in 1961 to 63.2% in 2011. The proportion of Muslims in the South Twenty-four Parganas district has increased from 23.4% to 35.6% during the same period. Christians formed 0.8% in 2011. As per the Human Development Report for the South 24 Parganas district, published in 2009, in the Sonarpur CD block the percentage of households below poverty line was 23.36%, a moderate level of poverty, second highest in the north-west portion of the district after the Budge Budge II CD block. According to the rural household survey in 2005, the proportion of households in the South 24 Parganas with poverty rates below poverty line was 34.11%, way above the state and national poverty ratios. The poverty rates were high in the Sundarban settlements with all the thirteen CD blo