Old-time music is a genre of North American folk music. It developed along with various North American folk dances, such as square dancing and buck dancing, it is played on acoustic instruments centering on a combination of fiddle and plucked string instruments, as well as the mandolin. Reflecting the cultures that settled North America, the roots of old-time music are in the traditional musics of the British Isles, Europe. African influences include the banjo. In some regions French and German sources are prominent. While many dance tunes and ballads can be traced to European sources, many others are of North American origin. Old-time music represents the oldest form of North American traditional music other than Native American music, thus the term "old-time" is an appropriate one; as a label, however, it dates back only to 1923. Fiddlin' John Carson made some of the first commercial recordings of traditional American country music for the Okeh label; the recordings became hits. Okeh, which had coined the terms "hillbilly music" to describe Appalachian and Southern fiddle-based and religious music and "race recording" to describe the music of African American recording artists, began using "old-time music" as a term to describe the music made by artists of Carson's style.
The term thus originated as a euphemism, but proved a suitable replacement for other terms that were considered disparaging by many inhabitants of these regions. It remains the term preferred by listeners of the music, it is sometimes referred to as "old-timey" or "mountain music" by long-time practitioners. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries tunes originating in minstrel, Tin Pan Alley and other music styles were adapted into the old-time style. While similar music was played in all regions of the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries, in the 20th century it came to be associated with the Appalachian region. Important revivalists include Mike Seeger and Pete Seeger, who brought the music to New York City as early as the 1940s; the New Lost City Ramblers in particular took the revival across the country and featured older musicians in their show. The band was Mike Seeger, John Cohen, Tom Paley; when Tom left the band, he was replaced by Tracy Schwarz. New Lost City Ramblers sparked new interest in old-timey music.
Old-time music is played using a wide variety of stringed instruments. The instrumentation of an old-time group is determined by what instruments are available, as well as by tradition; the most common instruments are acoustic string instruments. The fiddle was nearly always the leading melodic instrument, in many instances dances were accompanied only by a single fiddler, who also acted as dance caller. By the early 19th century, the banjo had become an essential partner to the fiddle in the southern United States; the banjo a fretless instrument and made from a gourd, played the same melody as the fiddle, while providing a rhythmic accompaniment incorporating a high drone provided by the instrument's short "drone string." The banjo used in old-time music is a 5-string model with an open back. Today old-time banjo players most utilize the clawhammer style, but there were several other styles, most of which are still in use, loosely grouped by region; the major styles were clawhammer, two-finger index lead, two-finger thumb lead, a three-finger "fiddle style" that seems to have been influenced in part by late-19th century urban classical style.
Some players prefer to use a pick when playing melodies on tenor banjo. Young players might learn whatever style a parent or older sibling favored, or take inspiration from phonograph records, traveling performers and migrant workers, local guitarists and banjo players, as well as other musicians they met when traveling to neighboring areas. Having a fiddle play the lead melody with a banjo playing rhythmic accompaniment is the most basic form of Appalachian old-time music, this is the instrumentation most Appalachian old-time musicians consider to be "classic." Because playing with more fingers meant being able to put in more notes, three-finger styles intrigued many players. Individualistic three-finger styles were developed independently by such important figures as Uncle Dave Macon, Dock Boggs, Snuffy Jenkins; those early three-finger styles the technique developed by Jenkins, led to the three-finger Scruggs style created by Earl Scruggs in the 1940s, which helped advance the split between the old-time genre and the solo-centric style that became known as bluegrass.
Jenkins developed a three-finger "roll" method that, while part of the old-time tradition, inspired Scruggs to develop the smoother and more complex rolls that are now standard fare in bluegrass music. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, other stringed instruments began to be added to the fiddle-banjo duo. This, along with a Dobro, is considered to be'standard' bluegrass instrumentation, but old-time music tends to focus on sparser instrumentation and arrangements
Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time, it has been contrasted with classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music; this process and period is reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times, but the term folk music has not been applied to the new music created during those revivals; this type of folk music includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, others. While contemporary folk music is a genre distinct from traditional folk music, in U.
S. English it shares the same name, it shares the same performers and venues as traditional folk music; the terms folk music, folk song, folk dance are comparatively recent expressions. They are extensions of the term folklore, coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe "the traditions and superstitions of the uncultured classes"; the term further derives from the German expression volk, in the sense of "the people as a whole" as applied to popular and national music by Johann Gottfried Herder and the German Romantics over half a century earlier. Though it is understood that folk music is music of the people, observers find a more precise definition to be elusive; some do not agree that the term folk music should be used. Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning given is that of "old songs, with no known composers", another is that of music, submitted to an evolutionary "process of oral transmission....
The fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character". Such definitions depend upon " processes rather than abstract musical types...", upon "continuity and oral transmission...seen as characterizing one side of a cultural dichotomy, the other side of, found not only in the lower layers of feudal and some oriental societies but in'primitive' societies and in parts of'popular cultures'". One used definition is "Folk music is what the people sing". For Scholes, as well as for Cecil Sharp and Béla Bartók, there was a sense of the music of the country as distinct from that of the town. Folk music was "...seen as the authentic expression of a way of life now past or about to disappear" in "a community uninfluenced by art music" and by commercial and printed song. Lloyd rejected this in favour of a simple distinction of economic class yet for him true folk music was, in Charles Seeger's words, "associated with a lower class" in culturally and stratified societies.
In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a "schema comprising four musical types:'primitive' or'tribal'. Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre. For example, the Grammy Award used the terms "traditional music" and "traditional folk" for folk music, not contemporary folk music. Folk music may include most indigenous music. From a historical perspective, traditional folk music had these characteristics: It was transmitted through an oral tradition. Before the 20th century, ordinary people were illiterate; this was not mediated by books or recorded or transmitted media. Singers may extend their repertoire using broadsheets or song books, but these secondary enhancements are of the same character as the primary songs experienced in the flesh; the music was related to national culture. It was culturally particular. In the context of an immigrant group, folk music acquires an extra dimension for social cohesion.
It is conspicuous in immigrant societies, where Greek Australians, Somali Americans, Punjabi Canadians, others strive to emphasize their differences from the mainstream. They learn songs and dances that originate in the countries their grandparents came from, they commemorate personal events. On certain days of the year, such as Easter, May Day, Christmas, particular songs celebrate the yearly cycle. Weddings and funerals may be noted with songs and special costumes. Religious festivals have a folk music component. Choral music at these events brings children and non-professional singers to participate in a public arena, giving an emotional bonding, unrelated to the aesthetic qualities of the music; the songs have been performed, by custom, over a long period of time several generations. As a side-effect, the following characteristics are sometimes present: There is no copyright on the songs. Hundreds of folk songs from the 19th century have known authors but have continued in oral tradition to the point where they are considered traditional for purposes of music publishing.
This has become much less frequent since the 1940s. Today every folk song, recorded is credited with an arranger. Fusion of cultures: Because cultures interact and change over time
Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as folk blues. Country music consists of ballads and dance tunes with simple forms, folk lyrics, harmonies accompanied by string instruments such as banjos and acoustic guitars, steel guitars, fiddles as well as harmonicas. Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history. According to Lindsey Starnes, the term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music. In 2009 in the United States, country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, second most popular in the morning commute; the term country music is used today to describe many subgenres. The origins of country music are found in the folk music of working class Americans, who blended popular songs and Celtic fiddle tunes, traditional English ballads, cowboy songs, the musical traditions of various groups of European immigrants.
Immigrants to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America brought the music and instruments of Europe along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was "introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon." The U. S. Congress has formally recognized Bristol, Tennessee as the "Birthplace of Country Music", based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum. Historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. In addition, the Mountain City Fiddlers Convention, held in 1925, helped to inspire modern country music. Before these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a rich musical heritage; the first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlanta's music scene playing a major role in launching country's earliest recording artists. New York City record label Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin' John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, RCA Victor Records in 1927 with the first famous pioneers of the genre Jimmie Rodgers and the first family of country music The Carter Family.
Many "hillbilly" musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. During the second generation, radio became a popular source of entertainment, "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started all over the South, as far north as Chicago, as far west as California; the most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville and continuing to the present day. During the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another country musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become popular as the leader of a "hot string band," and who appeared in Hollywood westerns, his mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, would become known as Western swing. Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had been played at Carnegie Hall, when Johnny Barfield recorded "Boogie Woogie".
The third generation started at the end of World War II with "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass, which emerged when Bill Monroe, along with Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs were introduced by Roy Acuff at the Grand Ole Opry. Gospel music remained a popular component of country music. Another type of stripped-down and raw music with a variety of moods and a basic ensemble of guitar, dobro or steel guitar became popular among poor whites in Texas and Oklahoma, it became known as honky tonk, had its roots in Western swing and the ranchera music of Mexico and the border states. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, honky tonk was played by most country bands. Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music, with Johnny Cash emerging as one of the most popular and enduring representatives of the rockabilly genre. Beginning in the mid-1950s, reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee.
The late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. In the aftermath of the British Invasion, many desired a return to the "old values" of rock n' roll. At the same time there was a lack of enthusiasm in the country sector for Nashville-produced music. What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Fourth generation music included outlaw country with roots in the Bakersfield sound, country pop with roots in the countrypolitan, folk music and soft rock. Between 1972 and 1975 singer/guitarist John Denver released a se
Gospel music is a genre of Christian music. The creation, performance and the definition of gospel music varies according to culture and social context. Gospel music is composed and performed for many purposes, including aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Gospel music has dominant vocals with Christian lyrics. Gospel music can be traced with roots in the black oral tradition. Hymns and sacred songs were repeated in a call and response fashion. Most of the churches relied on hand clapping and foot stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Most of the singing was done a cappella; the first published use of the term "gospel song" appeared in 1874. The original gospel songs were written and composed by authors such as George F. Root, Philip Bliss, Charles H. Gabriel, William Howard Doane, Fanny Crosby. Gospel music publishing houses emerged; the advent of radio in the 1920s increased the audience for gospel music. Following World War II, gospel music moved into major auditoriums, gospel music concerts became quite elaborate.
Gospel blues is a blues-based form of gospel music. Southern gospel used all tenor-lead-baritone-bass quartet make-up. Progressive Southern gospel is an American music genre that has grown out of Southern gospel over the past couple of decades. Christian country music, sometimes referred to as country gospel music, is a subgenre of gospel music with a country flair, it peaked in popularity in the mid-1990s. Bluegrass gospel music is rooted in American mountain music. Celtic gospel music infuses gospel music with a Celtic flair, is quite popular in countries such as Ireland. British black gospel refers to Gospel music of the African diaspora, produced in the UK; some proponents of "standard" hymns dislike gospel music of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, with historical distance, there is a greater acceptance of such gospel songs into official denominational hymnals. Gospel music features Christian lyrics; some modern gospel music, isn't explicitly Christian and just utilizes the sound.
Subgenres include contemporary gospel, urban contemporary gospel, Southern gospel, modern gospel music. Several forms of gospel music utilize choirs, use piano or Hammond organ, drums, bass guitar and electric guitar. In comparison with hymns, which are of a statelier measure, the gospel song is expected to have a refrain and a more syncopated rhythm. Several attempts have been made to describe the style of late 19th and early 20th century gospel songs in general. Christ-Janer said "the music was tuneful and easy to grasp... rudimentary harmonies... use of the chorus... varied metric schemes... motor rhythms were characteristic... The device of letting the lower parts echo rhythmically a motive announced by the sopranos became a mannerism". Patrick and Sydnor emphasize the notion that gospel music is "sentimental", quoting Sankey as saying, "Before I sing I must feel", they call attention to the comparison of the original version of Rowley's "I Will Sing the Wondrous Story" with Sankey's version.
Gold said, "Essentially the gospel songs are songs of testimony, religious exhortation, or warning. The chorus or refrain technique is found." According to Yale University music professor Willie Ruff, the singing of psalms in Gaelic by Presbyterians of the Scottish Hebrides evolved from "lining out" – where one person sang a solo and others followed – into the call and response of gospel music of the American South. Coming out of the African-American religious experience, American gospel music can be traced to the early 17th century, with foundations in the works of Dr. Isaac Watts and others. Gospel music has roots in the black oral tradition, utilizes a great deal of repetition, which allows those who could not read the opportunity to participate in worship. During this time and sacred songs were lined and repeated in a call and response fashion, Negro spirituals and work songs emerged. Repetition and "call and response" are accepted elements in African music, designed to achieve an altered state of consciousness we sometimes refer to as "trance", strengthen communal bonds.
Most of the churches relied on foot-stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Guitars and tambourines were sometimes available, but not frequently. Church choirs became a norm only after emancipation. Most of the singing was done a cappella; the most famous gospel-based hymns were composed in the 1760s and 1770s by English writers John Newton and Augustus Toplady, members of the Anglican Church. Starting out as lyrics only, it took decades for standardized tunes to be added to them. Although not directly connected with African-American gospel music, they were adopted by African-Americans as well as white Americans, Newton's connection with the abolition movement provided cross-fertilization; the first published use of the term "Gospel Song" appeared in 1874 when Philip Bliss released a songbook entitled Gospel Songs. A Choice Collection of Hymns and Tunes, it was used to describe a new style of church music, songs that were easy to grasp and more singable than the traditional church hymns, which came out of the mass revival movement starting with Dwight L. Moody, whose musician was Ira D. Sankey, as well as the Holiness-Pentecostal movement.
Prior to the meeting of Moody and
New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival
The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival known as Jazz Fest, is an annual celebration of the music and culture of New Orleans and Louisiana. The term "Jazz Fest" refers to the days surrounding the festival and the many shows at unaffiliated New Orleans nightclubs scheduled during the festival weekends. Jazz Fest is held annually on the last weekend of April and the first weekend of May between 11 a.m. and 7 p.m. at the Fair Grounds Race Course, a horse racing track in the middle of New Orleans. The festival is a major tourist destination with economic importance for New Orleans rivaled only by Mardi Gras. Early Jazz Fests featured exclusively local acts; as the event's popularity grew, the festival expanded to include nationally known acts. According to the official website, "the Festival celebrates the indigenous music and culture of New Orleans and Louisiana, so the music encompasses every style associated with the city and the state: blues, R&B, Cajun, Afro-Caribbean, Latin, rap, country and everything in between.
And of course there is lots of jazz, both contemporary and traditional." The Festival features a wide variety of vendors selling local foods and crafts. The official food policy of the Festival is "no carnival food" and there are more than seventy food booths with food items including: Mango Freeze, crawfish beignets, cochon de lait sandwiches, alligator sausage po' boy, boiled crawfish, softshell crab po'boy, Cajun jambalaya, jalapeño bread, fried green tomatoes, Oyster patties, red beans and rice, crawfish Monica. Vegan and vegetarian options are available. All food vendors go through a strict screening process to ensure quality and sanitary food handling practices. In addition, most foods are made with fresh, local ingredients, are prepared by hand. All food vendors are small, locally owned businesses. There are craft booths throughout the grounds; the Congo Square African Marketplace contains pieces from local and international artisans, has the atmosphere of a true marketplace. Many of the artisans utilize ancient crafting techniques.
In the Contemporary Crafts area, one can find handmade clothing, leather goods, paintings and musical instruments, visitors can watch demonstrations of metal, painting and fiber works. Lastly, the Louisiana Marketplace contains baskets, hand-colored photographs and landscape-themed art. One unique aspect of the Festival is the allocation of large areas for dedication to cultural and historical practices unique to Louisiana; these dedications depict many cultures that exist in the state, including both the Cajun culture and the culture of the descendants of native Canary Islanders, the Los Isleños, as well as many others. Some of the areas include the Louisiana Folklife Village, which focuses on state art and culture, the Native American Village, the Grandstand. Many of the folk demonstrators have been recognized by the National Endowment of the Arts for their work. In addition, parades are held throughout the duration of the event, they include parades by the Mardi Gras Indians, marching bands, brass bands, social aid and pleasure clubs.
The Festival has been held annually since 1970 when it was founded by the New Orleans Hotel Motel Association to form "the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Foundation" that owns the Festival. George Wein's Festival Productions was contracted to produce the Festival. Wein produced the Newport Folk Festival in Newport, Rhode Island. To produce the Festival in New Orleans, Wein assembled advisers, among them Ellis Marsalis, Richard B. "Dick" Allen and Harry Souchon. Allen, the curator of Tulane University's Hogan Jazz Archives, recommended Archive employee Allison Miner and intern Quint Davis to Wein to help produce the first festival. Both Miner and Davis knew a great deal about jazz, they went to black clubs to hire performers rather than to Bourbon Street or other tourist destinations because it was at these clubs that live music was being produced. The first person the pair booked was Snooks Eaglin, a street singer who performed at the festival every year. After Wein established the Festival and Davis oversaw operations of Festival Productions Inc.-New Orleans for many years under the supervision of Wein and the Foundation Board.
Quint Davis holds the position of CEO of Festival Productions, Inc.- New Orleans, while Miner is credited with founding the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Foundation Archive. AEG Live became a co-producer of the festival in 2004; the Archive contains recordings from musicians interviewed at the festival, as well as other documents and ephemera related to the Festival and the Foundation's holdings, including early WWOZ 90.7-FM recordings. It contains business records, photographs and audio recordings, as well as other artifacts; the Archive is open to the public by appointment. When Miner died on December 23, 1995, the interviewing stage was renamed in her memory as the Allison Miner Music Heritage Stage. After Hurricane Katrina, the stage was temporarily merged with the Lagniappe Stage, housed in the Grandstand. However, in 2009, it was reinstated as a full stage. Before the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, similar New Orleands jazz festivals were held in the 1960s; the first two were in 1970 and 1971 at Louis Armstrong Park called Beauregard Square, in Congo Square and the adjoining New Orleans Municipal Auditorium.
The 145-acre New Orleans Fair Grounds and Racetrack began to hold Jazz Fest in 1972. The venue is located at 1751 Gentilly Boulevard ten minutes from the French Quarter; the New Orleans Fair Grounds and Ra
American Top 40
American Top 40 is an internationally syndicated, independent song countdown radio program created by Casey Kasem, Don Bustany, Tom Rounds and Ron Jacobs. The program is hosted by Ryan Seacrest and presented as an adjunct to his weekday radio program, On Air with Ryan Seacrest. A production of Watermark Inc. AT40 is now distributed by Premiere Networks in the United States, Australia, the United Arab Emirates, China, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and several other territories worldwide, it can be heard on iHeartRadio, TuneIn and the official AT40 applications on mobile smartphones and tablets as well as on Xbox 360, Xbox One, PlayStation 4 consoles and the Armed Forces Network. Chevrolet is the main sponsor for the show. Co-creator Casey Kasem hosted the original AT40 from its inauguration on July 4, 1970 until August 6, 1988. Shadoe Stevens took over the program on August 13, 1988 and hosted until January 28, 1995 when the original program came to an end. Three years Kasem teamed up with Premiere's predecessor AMFM Radio Networks to relaunch AT40.
Kasem, who spent nine years hosting his own countdown for Westwood One, returned to hosting his creation on March 28, 1998. Seacrest took over AT40 on January 2004 following Kasem's retirement from the series. AT40 with Seacrest airs in two different formats, with one distributed to Contemporary Hit Radio stations and the other to Hot Adult Contemporary stations. However, there is no distinction made between the two shows on air. There are two classic editions of the original AT40 distributed every weekend, featuring past Kasem-hosted shows from the 1970s and 1980s. In its early years, the AT40 used the Billboard charts to compile the countdown, touting it as "the only source"; the program subsequently switched to being based on Radio and Records airplay data upon its late 1990s return. The current source for the AT40 charts are unpublished mainstream Top 40 and hot adult contemporary charts compiled by Mediabase; as of 2017, the home station for the show is WHTZ in New York City. AT40 was hosted from KIIS-FM, where guest hosts remain.
Here we go with the Top 40 hits of the nation this week on American Top 40, the best-selling and most-played songs from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from Canada to Mexico. This is Casey Kasem in Hollywood, in the next three hours, we'll count down the 40 most popular hits in the United States this week, hot off the record charts of Billboard magazine for the week ending July 11, 1970. In this hour at #32 in the countdown, a song that's been a hit 4 different times in 19 years! And we're just one tune away from the singer with the $10,000 gold hubcaps on his car! Now, on with the countdown! American Top 40 fittingly began on the Independence Day weekend in 1970, on seven radio stations, the first being KDEO in El Cajon, which broadcast the inaugural show the evening of July 3, 1970; the chart data broadcast included the top 40 songs from the week ending July 11, 1970. The first show featured the last time both Elvis Presley and The Beatles had songs in the Top 10, it was distributed by Watermark Inc. and was first presented in mono until February 24, 1973 when the first stereo vinyl copies were distributed.
In early 1982, Watermark was purchased by ABC Radio and AT40 became a program of the "ABC Contemporary Radio Network". The program was co-created by Kasem. Rounds was the marketing director; the show began as a three-hour program written and directed by Bustany, counting down the top 40 songs on Billboard's Hot 100 Singles chart. The show gained popularity once it was commissioned, expanded to a four-hour-program on October 7, 1978, to reflect the increasing average length of singles on Billboard's Hot 100 chart; the producing staff expanded to eight people, some of them still in the business: Nikki Wine, Ben Marichal, Scott Paton, Matt Wilson, Merrill Shindler, Guy Aoki, Ronnie Allen and Sandy Stert Benjamin. By the early 1980s, the show could be heard on 520 stations in the United States and at its zenith, the show was broadcast on 1,000-plus stations in some 50 countries. Kasem eliminate the negative; that is the timeless thing." During Kasem's run as host, the AT40 show had a number of popular and distinguishing features, some of which Kasem had done for some time at stations like KRLA in Los Angeles: Bios & stories: Most segments of the show included two countdown songs.
The second song in the segment would be introduced by Kasem with a brief story connected with the song, which could be about its performer, its composer, or a random bit of trivia. Kasem would lead into the commercial break preceding the segment with a brief preview of the story, sometimes giving away the song title or artist; the top-ranking song on the chart always was introduced with one of these stories, which would be followed with a drum roll and the final reveal. Here is an example from the week of October 8, 1983: A stunning achievement for 33-year-old New York-born Jim Steinman. Jim started writing songs when he was going to Amherst College in Massachusetts, not just your basic r
Blackfoot music is the music of the Blackfoot people. Singing was accompanied only by percussion. Bruno Nettl proposes that Blackfoot music is an "emblem of the heroic and the difficult in Blackfoot life", with performance practices that distinguish music from the rest of life. Singing is distinguished from speech and many songs contain no words, those with texts describe important parts of myths in a succinct manner. Music is associated with warfare and most singing is done by men and much by community leaders. "The acquisition of songs as associated with difficult feats—learned in visions brought about through self-denial and torture, required to be learned sung with the expenditure of great energy, sung in a difficult vocal style—all of this puts songs in the category of the heroic and the difficult." Blackfoot music is vocal, using few instruments, only percussion and voice, few words. By far the most important percussion instruments are drums, with rattles and bells being associated with the objects, such as sticks or dancers legs, they are attached to rather than as instruments of their own.
Singing consists of vocables, though recordings and reports from the early 1900s and prior indicate there were a great deal more lyrics or vocal texts. Blackfoot people see the profusion of words in European American music and African American music as lessening the importance and meaning of both words and music. Blackfoot music is not based on instruments or texts, singing is not supposed to sound like talking. Songs which contain texts are short and not repetitive, such as: "It's a bad thing to be an old man", or the lengthy, "Yonder woman, you must take me. I am powerful. Yonder woman, you must take me, you must hear me. Where I sit is powerful.". When the text takes up most of the melody with fewer vocables the melodies are short; the vocables used, as in Plains Indian singing, are the consonants h, y, w, vowels. They avoid c and other consonants. I and e tend to be higher in pitch, a, o, u lower. Solo singing may have been more prominent, or the norm, in the past, but group singing has increased in prominence, with singing/drumming groups called "drums".
Vocal blending is not required in ensemble singing. The leader may begin the head motive or phrase of a song, be repeated or "raised" by another singer the second singer. In pan-Indian powwow terminology, stanzas to a song are called "push-ups"; the vocal style is similar to other Plains Indians with: "high-pitched beginnings, vocal narrowness. Nasality." "Pulsations on longer tones, the audible effects of tension, substantial rasp, some ornamentation are characteristic." Though this may have become "exaggerated" through influence from Plains Indian music and pan-Indian music, Blackfoot singing is "more intense and uses a higher tessitura", than most Plains Indian music. From comparison of recordings one would agree with older consultants in the latter 1900s: "These younger fellows, they sing higher and louder than we used to." Experimentation with European influenced instrumentation and harmony happen but are rare, the vocal style is the element least tampered with it being considered essential to "sound like Indian songs".
Though the European influenced concept of meter may be inapplicable to Blackfoot music as it is characterized by the relationships between phrases of irregular length, the beat level equals the rate at which vocal pulsations occur. Singing without drums is rare and considered inappropriate; the drum accompaniment to songs is rhythmically independent to the singing but in perfect unison, "slightly off the beat", "often related by the proportion of 2:3", to the vocal pulse or beat level. Another change in Blackfoot music is increased relatedness of the drum part to the song now than in the past. Drumming over repeated sections that comprise a song begins with players striking the rim of the bass drum; the tempo increases. At some point "hard beats", loud strokes off the rhythm by an individual, sometimes the leader, beats may be omitted. Drumming may finish loudly; when playing the stick game, players drum upon a plank, the drumming is more to coincide with vocal beats, but less accurate unison playing.
Rattles are no longer used. Drumming has increased in prominence since 1900, now being required because of the influence of pan-tribal culture, the decreased use of rattles and other percussion, or the decrease in frequency of songs texts; the use of the term "drumming" for musician/singer increased between the 1960s and the 1980s. Traditionally, songs are considered to be given, completed, to individual Blackfoot people in visions or dreams. Thoug