The American white ibis is a species of bird in the ibis family, Threskiornithidae. It is found from Virginia via the Gulf Coast of the United States south through most of the coastal New World tropics; this particular ibis is a medium-sized bird with an overall white plumage, bright red-orange down-curved bill and long legs, black wing tips that are only visible in flight. Males have longer bills than females; the breeding range runs along the Gulf and Atlantic Coast, the coasts of Mexico and Central America. Outside the breeding period, the range extends further inland in North America and includes the Caribbean, it is found along the northwestern South American coastline in Colombia and Venezuela. Populations in central Venezuela interbreed with the scarlet ibis; the two have been classified by some authorities as a single species. Their diet consists of small aquatic prey, such as insects and small fishes. Crayfish are its preferred food in most regions, but it can adjust its diet according to the habitat and prey abundance.
Its main foraging behavior is probing with its beak at the bottom of shallow water to feel for and capture its prey. It does not see the prey. During the breeding season, the American white ibis gathers in huge colonies near water. Pairs are predominantly monogamous and both parents care for the young, although males tend to engage in extra-pair copulation with other females to increase their reproductive success. Males have been found to pirate food from unmated females and juveniles during the breeding season. Human pollution has affected the behavior of the American white ibis via an increase in the concentrations of methylmercury, released into the environment from untreated waste. Exposure to methylmercury alters the hormone levels of American white ibis, affecting their mating and nesting behavior and leading to lower reproduction rates; the American white ibis was one of the many bird species described by Carl Linnaeus in the 1758 10th edition of his Systema Naturae, where it was given the binomial name of Scolopax albus.
The species name is the Latin adjective albus "white". Alternative common names that have been used include white curlew. English naturalist Mark Catesby mistook immature birds for a separate species, which he called the brown curlew. Local creole names in Louisiana include bec petit flaman. Johann Georg Wagler gave the species its current binomial name in 1832 when he erected the new genus Eudocimus, whose only other species is the scarlet ibis. There has long been debate on whether the two should be considered subspecies or related species, the American Ornithologists' Union considers the two to be a superspecies as they are parapatric; the lack of observed hybrids was a large factor in the view. However, in a field study published in 1987, researchers Cristina Ramo and Benjamin Busto found evidence of interbreeding in a population where the ranges of the scarlet and white ibises overlap along the coast and in the Llanos region of Colombia and Venezuela, they observed individuals of the two species mating and pairing, as well as hybrid ibises with pale orange plumage, or white plumage with occasional orange feathers.
Hybrid ibises have been recorded in Florida, where the scarlet ibis has been introduced into wild populations of American white ibis. Birds of intermediate to red plumage have persisted for generations. Ornithologists James Hancock and Jim Kushlan consider the two to be a single species, with the differences in plumage, skin coloration and degree of bill darkening during breeding season forming the diagnostic characters, they have proposed the populations recontacted in northwestern South America after a period of separation, that the color difference is due to the presence of an enzyme that allows uptake of pigment in the diet. They have questioned whether white-plumaged birds of South America are in fact part of the ruber rather than the albus taxon, acknowledge that more investigation is needed to determine this; the white plumage and pink facial skin of adult American white ibises are distinctive. Adults have black wingtips that are only visible in flight. In non-breeding condition the long downcurved bill and long legs are bright red-orange.
During the first ten days of the breeding season, the skin darkens to a deep pink on the bill and an purple-tinted red on the legs. It fades to a paler pink, the tip of the bill becomes blackish, it is difficult to determine the sex of an adult American white ibis from its external appearance, since the sexes have similar plumage. However, there is sexual dimorphism in size and proportion as males are larger and heavier than females and have longer and stouter bills. A study of the American white ibis in southern Florida yielded weight ranges of 872.9 to 1,261 g for males and 592.7 to 861.3 g for females, with average weights of 1,036.4 g for males and 764.5 g for females. The length of adult female and male birds ranges from 53 to 70 cm with a 90 to 105 cm wingspan. Among standard measurements, American white ibis measure 20.5–31 cm along each wing, have a tail measurement of 9.3–12.2 cm, a tarsus of 6.75–11.3 cm and a culmen of 11–16.9 cm. The newly hatched American white ibis is covered with violet down feathers, deepening to dark brown or black on the head and wings.
The chest is bare and there can be a white tuft on the head. The irises are brown; the exposed skin is pi
Catherine Anne Taber is an American actress. She is known for voicing Padmé Amidala in Star Wars: The Clone Wars and Lori Loud on The Loud House. In 2000, the Georgia native made her feature film debut starring alongside Soleil Moon Frye and Wil Wheaton in the coming of age dramedy The Girls' Room, where she and Frye play college roommates with contrasting lifestyles. Taber got her break into video game voice-overs in Knights of the Old Republic in 2003, where she played Mission Vao, she voiced Penelo in Final Fantasy XII, for which she was nominated for a National Academy of Video Game Trade Reviewers Award for Supporting Role in a Drama in 2006. She was the voice of Padmé Amidala in the Star Wars: The Clone Wars animated film and television series that aired on Cartoon Network from 2008 to 2014. Although she auditioned for the part, she credits her video game roles in the Star Wars universe as helping her become a fan and landing the part, she voiced Amidala in the related Star Wars video games, as well as the character Vette in Star Wars: The Old Republic.
She voiced Princess Leia in the Star Wars: Force Unleashed video games, provided voices during production of the now cancelled animated comedy series Star Wars Detours. Meanwhile, in live-action roles, she had a starring role in the horror movie The Morningside Monster which screened at the Phoenix Film Festival in April 2014. Outside of science fiction films and games, she voiced Ginger the Pig in A Pig's Tail, an animated 2012 short film made by Aardman Animations for The Humane Society, she runs a charity website called Games for Soldiers where she collects video game donations for U. S. soldiers overseas. Taber does the voice of the eldest of the siblings, on Nickelodeon's The Loud House. Taber voiced female Jesse in both seasons of the video game Minecraft: Story Mode, first released by Telltale Games on October 12, 2015. Gods in Alabama Star Wars: Empire & Rebellion: Razor's Edge Gray Mountain Official website Catherine Taber on IMDb
White Bread Black Beer is the fifth studio album by British pop band Scritti Politti, released in the UK on 28 May 2006 by Rough Trade Records, in the US on 25 July 2006 by Nonesuch Records. It is a solo album by the group's only permanent member, Green Gartside, as it was written and recorded at his home in Dalston in east London and he sang and played all the instruments on the album; the album was Green's first for Rough Trade since leaving them in somewhat acrimonious circumstances in 1983, following the release of Scritti Politti's debut album Songs to Remember. Since Scritti Politti had been signed to Virgin Records and the previous three albums have been known for their highly-produced sound. White Bread Black Beer, marks a return to a more minimalist style; the album was nominated for the 2006 Mercury Music Prize and has been critically regarded as one of 2006's finest, leading Gartside to perform his first worldwide gigs in 25 years. A single, was released ahead of the album. Containing references throughout to hip hop music and ending with a recital of the titles of the tracks on Run DMC's debut album, according to Green the song is about the difference "between being in love with something and being unhealthily addicted to it".
It was listed as the 412th best song of the 2000s by Pitchfork. A second double A-sided single, "Snow in Sun"/"Robin Hood", was only released as an iTunes download. To promote the album Green embarked on his first live dates in 26 years, beginning with a low-key support slot ahead of the record's release at the Brixton Windmill on 7 January 2006; the band were billed as "Double G and the Traitorous Three", the "Traitorous Three" being his bandmates, all of whom were recruited by Green after meeting them in his local pub in Dalston. Green had suffered from stage fright since the early days of Scritti Politti, had given up playing live after suffering a severe panic attack following a performance in 1980: he said of his return, "It was a kind of experiment to see if I would get the panic attacks again, and I didn't, so I guess I'm over it." The sleeve design is based on a stitch pattern created by Green's wife Alys. Pitchfork said "The production is ambitious—soft and spacious as ever—and Gartside's writing is complex, always plotting out the classiest and most striking shifts in the chord structures and harmonies.
But all this sophistication doesn't feel like some grand, expensive endeavor, like pop–soul always did in the 80s. It's gorgeous, but it's the opposite of grand, I'm beginning to think it's one of the smartest records—musically and lyrically—we'll hear all year." Uncut claimed that "White Bread Black Beer could well be the best record of this restlessly self-critical career... What gives the record its real kick is the lure of emotional engagement... It may have taken 30 years of philosophical investigations, but... Green Gartside sounds free." Q said "engagingly rambling, there are snatches of all sorts of things here, from the Beach Boys' layered melancholy to Paul McCartney's jolly solo albums. There's a little too much going on, resulting in a few sketchy moments as the album washes pleasantly past. Overall, Gartside remains intriguing, still ploughing his own furrow and still coming up with the goods."The Observer said that "White Bread Black Beer marks a welcome return to the more specific intellectual concerns of his earlier lyrics, a simultaneous rediscovery of the pure pop sensibility which made his more mainstream work so addictive.
The best of the songs here... might be the work of a post-structuralist Brian Wilson." However, its sister paper The Guardian was unimpressed, feeling that White Bread Black Beer "is more flawed than masterpiece", concluded that Green "always worked better with a creative foil. Left to his own devices, the music seems an afterthought and it's disappointing to hear this former rhythm master turn in such pedestrian beats." Spin was critical, describing the album as "wordy but somnambulant laptop-pop observations" and calling Green "more cryptic than when he was making a name for himself in the'80s as Top 40's biggest Jacques Derrida fan". All tracks composed by Green Gartside. "The Boom Boom Bap" – 4:18 "No Fine Lines" – 1:43 "Snow in Sun" – 3:36 "Cooking" – 2:44 "Throw" – 3:20 "Dr. Abernathy" – 6:33 "After Six" – 2:13 "Petrococadollar" – 3:24 "E Eleventh Nuts" – 2:53 "Window Wide Open" – 3:12 "Road to No Regret" – 3:28 "Locked" – 4:17 "Mrs. Hughes" – 6:01 "Robin Hood" – 3:10 The sleeve notes give thanks to David Gamson and Fred Maher, who were the other two main players within the band's line-up for both the Cupid & Psyche 85 and Provision albums