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Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 or ADA is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability. It affords similar protections against discrimination to Americans with disabilities as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made discrimination based on race, sex, national origin, other characteristics illegal. In addition, unlike the Civil Rights Act, the ADA requires covered employers to provide reasonable accommodations to employees with disabilities, imposes accessibility requirements on public accommodations. In 1986, the National Council on Disability had recommended the enactment of an Americans with Disabilities Act and drafted the first version of the bill, introduced in the House and Senate in 1988; the final version of the bill was signed into law on July 1990, by President George H. W. Bush, it was amended in 2008 and signed by President George W. Bush with changes effective as of January 1, 2009. ADA disabilities include both physical medical conditions. A condition does not need to be permanent to be a disability.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations provide a list of conditions that should be concluded to be disabilities: deafness, blindness, an intellectual disability or missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair, cancer, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia. Other mental or physical health conditions may be disabilities, depending on what the individual's symptoms would be in the absence of "mitigating measures", during an "active episode" of the condition. Certain specific conditions that are considered anti-social, or tend to result in illegal activity, such as kleptomania, exhibitionism, etc. are excluded under the definition of "disability" in order to prevent abuse of the statute's purpose. Additionally, gender identity or orientation is no longer considered a disorder and is excluded under the definition of "disability".

See US labor law and 42 U. S. C. §§ 12111–12117. The ADA states that a "covered entity" shall not discriminate against "a qualified individual with a disability"; this applies to job application procedures, hiring and discharge of employees, job training, other terms and privileges of employment. "Covered entities" include employers with 15 or more employees, as well as employment agencies, labor organizations, joint labor-management committees. There are strict limitations on when a covered entity can ask job applicants or employees disability-related questions or require them to undergo medical examination, all medical information must be kept confidential. Prohibited discrimination may include, among other things, firing or refusing to hire someone based on a real or perceived disability and harassment based on a disability. Covered entities are required to provide reasonable accommodations to job applicants and employees with disabilities. A reasonable accommodation is a change in the way things are done that the person needs because of a disability, can include, among other things, special equipment that allows the person to perform the job, scheduling changes, changes to the way work assignments are chosen or communicated.

An employer is not required to provide an accommodation that would involve undue hardship, the individual who receives the accommodation must still perform the essential functions of the job and meet the normal performance requirements. An employee or applicant who engages in the illegal use of drugs is not considered qualified when a covered entity takes adverse action based on such use. There are many ways to discriminate against people based on disabilities, including psychological ones. Anyone known to have a history of mental disorders can be considered disabled. Employers with more than 15 employees must take care to treat all employees and with any accommodations needed; when an employee is doing a job exceptionally well, she or he is not no longer disabled. Part of Title I was found unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court as it pertains to states in the case of Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett as violating the sovereign immunity rights of the several states as specified by the Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution.

The Court determined. State employees can, file complaints at the Department of Justice or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, who can sue on their behalf. Title II prohibits disability discrimination by all public entities at the local level, e.g. school district, city, or county, at state level. Public entities must comply with Title II regulations by the U. S. Department of Justice; these regulations cover access to all services offered by the entity. Access includes physical access described in the ADA Standards for Accessible Design and programmatic access that might be obstructed by discriminatory policies or procedures of the entity. Title II applies to public transportation provided by public entities through regulations by the U. S. Department of Transportation, it includes the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, along with all

Lactate dehydrogenase

Lactate dehydrogenase is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells. LDH catalyzes the conversion of lactate to back, as it converts NAD + to NADH and back. A dehydrogenase is an enzyme. LDH exists in four distinct enzyme classes; this article is about the NAD-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. Other LDHs act on D-lactate and/or are dependent on cytochrome c: D-lactate dehydrogenase and L-lactate dehydrogenase. LDH is expressed extensively in body tissues, such as heart muscle; because it is released during tissue damage, it is a marker of common injuries and disease such as heart failure. Lactate dehydrogenase catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate with concomitant interconversion of NADH and NAD+, it converts pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, to lactate when oxygen is absent or in short supply, it performs the reverse reaction during the Cori cycle in the liver. At high concentrations of lactate, the enzyme exhibits feedback inhibition, the rate of conversion of pyruvate to lactate is decreased.

It catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 2-hydroxybutyrate, but it is a much poorer substrate than lactate. LDH in humans uses His as the proton donor, works in unison with the coenzyme, substrate binding residues; the His active site, is not only found in the human form of LDH, but is found in many different animals, showing the convergent evolution of LDH. The two different subunits of LDH both retain the same active site and the same amino acids participating in the reaction; the noticeable difference between the two subunits that make up LDH's tertiary structure is the replacement of alanine with a glutamine. This tiny but notable change is believed to be the reason the H subunit can bind faster, the M subunit's catalytic activity isn't reduced when subjected to the same conditions as the H subunit, whereas the H subunit's activity is reduced fivefold. Lactate dehydrogenase is composed of four subunits; the two most common subunits are the LDH-M and LDH-H protein, encoded by the LDHA and LDHB genes, respectively.

These two subunits can form five possible tetramers: 4H, 4M, the three mixed tetramers. These five isoforms are enzymatically similar but show different tissue distribution: The major isoenzymes of skeletal muscle and liver, M4, has four muscle subunits, while H4 is the main isoenzymes for heart muscle in most species, containing four heart subunits. LDH-1 —in the heart and in RBC, as well as the brain LDH-2 —in the reticuloendothelial system LDH-3 —in the lungs LDH-4 —in the kidneys and pancreas LDH-5 —in the liver and striated muscleLDH-2 is the predominant form in the serum. An LDH-1 level higher than the LDH-2 level suggests myocardial infarction; the use of this phenomenon to diagnose infarction has been superseded by the use of Troponin I or T measurement. There are two more mammalian LDH subunits that can be included in LDH tetramers: LDHBx. LDHC is a testes-specific LDH protein, encoded by the LDHC gene. LDHBx is a peroxisome-specific LDH protein. LDHBx is the readthrough-form of LDHB.

LDHBx is generated by translation of the LDHB mRNA, but the stop codon is interpreted as an amino acid-encoding codon. In consequence, translation continues to the next stop codon; this leads to the addition of seven amino acid residues to the normal LDH-H protein. The extension contains a peroxisomal targeting signal, so that LDHBx is imported into the peroxisome; the family contains L-lactate dehydrogenases that catalyse the conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate, the last step in anaerobic glycolysis. Malate dehydrogenases that catalyse the interconversion of malate to oxaloacetate and participate in the citric acid cycle, L-2-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenases are members of the family; the N-terminus is a Rossmann NAD-binding fold and the C-terminus is an unusual alpha+beta fold. Click on genes and metabolites below to link to respective articles; this protein may use the morpheein model of allosteric regulation. Ethanol is dehydrogenated to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase, further into acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase.

During this reaction 2 NADH are produced. If large amounts of ethanol are present large amounts of NADH are produced, leading to a depletion of NAD+. Thus, the conversion of pyruvate to lactate is increased due to the associated regeneration of NAD+. Therefore, anion-gap metabolic acidosis may ensue in ethanol poisoning; the increased NADH/NAD+ ratio can cause hypoglycemia in an fasting individual, drinking and is dependent on gluconeogenesis to maintain blood glucose levels. Alanine and lactate are major gluconeogenic precursors; the high NADH/NAD+ ratio shifts the lactate dehydrogenase equilibrium to lactate, so that less pyruvate can be formed and, gluconeogenesis is impaired. LDH is regulated by the relative concentrations of its substrates. LDH becomes more active under periods of extreme muscular output due to an increase in substrates for the LDH reaction; when skeletal muscles are pushed to produce high levels of power, the demand for ATP in regards to aerobic ATP supply leads to an accumulation of free ADP, AMP, Pi.

The subsequent glycolytic flux production of pyruvate, exceeds the capacity fo

1893–94 in English football

The 1893–94 season was the 23rd season of competitive football in England. The 1893–94 season saw four of the most famous teams in English Footballing history join the Second Division: Liverpool, Newcastle United, Manchester City, the first team based in London, Woolwich Arsenal. Other teams to join the expanded Second Division of 15 teams were Middlesbrough Ironopolis and Rotherham Town. Middlesbrough Ironopolis disbanded at the end of the season, having only completed one season in the Football League. Liverpool had the most successful season of all the new league clubs, winning the Second Division title and sealing promotion to the First Division by beating Newton Heath in the relegation/promotion test match. England took a team of professionals to Belfast for the 1894 British Home Championship against Ireland on 3 March 1894. Joe Reader made his solitary England appearance in goal, whilst Henry Chippendale earned his single cap at outside right, with his club team-mate Jimmy Whitehead earning his second, last, cap alongside him.

The other débutante was Jimmy Crabtree of Burnley at full-back, who went on to play a total of 14 games for England over the next 8 years. The remainder of the team were experienced internationals, including three members of Aston Villa's championship winning team and were expected to secure a comfortable victory. Despite losing Robert Holmes with an injury after 20 minutes, England took a 2–0 lead by the 55th minute with goals from John Devey and Fred Spiksley. Ireland rallied and with goals in the 70th and 87th minutes, pegged England back to a 2–2 draw For the match against Wales at Wrexham on 12 March 1894 the selectors decided to field a team consisting of players with Corinthian connections, including three players making their international début. Lewis Vaughan Lodge made the first of five appearances at right back. Arthur Topham, a schoolteacher who had gained an Oxford University blue, made his solitary England appearance at left half, whilst his brother, Robert made his second, final, appearance at outside right.

The third débutante was John Veitch of Old Westminsters. Wales opened the scoring after 10 minutes, but by half-time England had taken the lead with a goal from John Veitch and an own goal from Everton's Charlie Parry. Veitch scored again early in the second half and completed his hat-trick in the 80th minute, thus joining a select band to score a hat-trick on his début; the fifth goal came from Robert Cunliffe Gosling. The final match of the 1894 British Home Championship was against Scotland on 7 April 1894. England needed to secure a victory in order to retain the Championship for the fifth consecutive year; the match was played at Celtic Park and attracted a world record attendance for a full International of 45,107. The selectors chose an experienced eleven, with the only newcomer being Ernest Needham, the hard-tackling Sheffield United half back. Scotland opened the scoring with a quick reply coming from John Goodall. England managed to keep the Scottish forwards at bay until the 75 minute, when Sandy McMahon was able to get through the England defence.

England equalized through Jack Reynolds with five minutes remaining and managed to hold on for a 2–2 draw. The result meant that Scotland won the British Home Championship for the fifth time outright – plus two shared with England. * England score given first Key A = Home match BHC = British Home Championship Notes = Number in parentheses is the times that club has won that honour. * indicates new record for competition P = Matches played.

Melaleuca idana

Melaleuca idana is a plant in the myrtle family, is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a small shrub with fine, silky hairs covering the new foliage and heads of pink to deep purple flowers in early spring, it is similar to Melaleuca sapientes, differing in the shape of the leaves in cross-section and the length of its styles. M. idana is a shrub growing to 1 m tall. Its leaves are arranged alternately and are 6–22 mm long, 0.7–1.0 mm wide, linear in shape and oblong in cross-section. The flowers are a shade of pink to deep purple, arranged in heads on the ends of branches which continue to grow after flowering; the heads are up to 33 composed of three to six groups of flowers in threes. The petals fall off as the flower ages. Five bundles of stamens are around the flower, each with six to 10 stamens and the styles are 11–13 mm long. Flowering occurs between August and October and is followed by fruit which are woody capsules, 3.5–5 mm long. Melaleuca idana was first formally described in 1999 by Lyndley Craven in Australian Systematic Botany from a specimen collected on the northern boundary of Kalbarri National Park.

The specific epithet is from an Ancient Greek word meaning "fair" or "comely" referring to the attractive flowers. This melaleuca occurs in the Wannoo and Kalbarri districts in the Geraldton Sandplains and Yalgoo biogeographic regions, it grows in dry yellow sand on sandplains. Melaleuca idana is listed as "not threatened" by the Government of Western Australia Department of Parks and Wildlife

USA Gasoline

U Save Automatic is an American oil company which operates in the United States. It was founded as Skypower Gasoline by Peter Moller and his sons Poul and John and changed the name to USA Gasoline in 1968. USA Gasoline operates in 10 states, including Alaska, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming, it became a subsidiary of Tesoro Corporation in 2007, which was, in turn, acquired by Marathon Petroleum in 2018. 1970sIn the 1970s, USA Gas became the first gasoline retailer to experiment with self-service pay at the pump technology and entered into an agreement with Allstate Bank of Southern California allowing banking customers to automatically debit their accounts directly from the pump. Over the course of 1975 and 1976, all UCO Stations became USA Gasoline Stations. Over the course of 1976-1977, all Sears Stations became USA Gasoline Stations.1980s + 1990sFrom 1988 to 1990, USA Petroleum was involved in a lawsuit with ARCO due to fuel prices. In 1992, USA Petroleum moved its headquarters from Santa Monica to Ventura. in 1993, their headquarters were moved again, this time from Ventura to Agoura Hills.

In 1994, Marvin Jay Caukin, the ex-Director of Finance, was sentenced 33 months in prison for embezzling nearly $2.4 million from the company.2000sin 2003, USA Petroleum agreed to pay $325,000 to settle a dispute regarding leaking tanks causing groundwater and soil pollution at 10 USA Gas stations in Ventura County. In July 2006, USA Petroleum announced its plan to sell 122 of its California gas stations to Chevron; the deal was finalized in November. In 2007, Tesoro Corp acquired USA Gasoline, 140 retail stations.2010sin 2011, 51 Albertsons Express stores rebranded as USA Gasoline. As part of the deal, all Mirastar stations were rebranded as USA Gasoline. In 2012, 250 ARCO and Thrifty Oil stations rebranded as USA Gasoline, because BP did not renew the leases for 250 ARCO or Thrifty Stations. Gas stations in the United States Oil companies of the United States Petroleum in California

Digital mobile radio

Digital mobile radio is a limited open digital mobile radio standard defined in the European Telecommunications Standards Institute Standard TS 102 361 parts 1–4 and used in commercial products around the world. DMR, along with P25 phase II and NXDN are the main competitor technologies in achieving 6.25 kHz equivalent bandwidth using the proprietary AMBE+2 vocoder. DMR and P25 II both use two-slot TDMA in a 12.5 kHz channel, while NXDN uses discrete 6.25 kHz channels using frequency division and TETRA uses a four-slot TDMA in a 25 kHz channel. DMR was designed with three tiers. DMR tiers I and II were first published in 2005, DMR III was published in 2012, with manufacturers producing products within a few years of each publication; the primary goal of the standard is to specify a digital system with low complexity, low cost and interoperability across brands, so radio communications purchasers are not locked into a proprietary solution. In practice, given the current limited scope of the DMR standard, many vendors have introduced proprietary features that make their product offerings non-interoperable with other brands.

The DMR interface is defined by the following ETSI standards: TS 102 361-1: Air interface protocol TS 102 361-2: Voice and General services and facilities TS 102 361-3: Data protocol TS 102 361-4: Trunking protocolThe DMR standard operates within the existing 12.5 kHz channel spacing used in land mobile frequency bands globally, but achieves two voice channels through two-slot TDMA technology built around a 30 ms structure. The modulation is 4-state FSK, which creates four possible symbols over the air at a rate of 4,800 symbols/s, corresponding to 9,600 bit/s. After overhead, forward error correction, splitting into two channels, there is 2,450 bit/s left for a single voice channel using DMR, compared to 4,400 bit/s using P25 and 64,000 bit/s with traditional telephone circuits; the standards are still under development with revisions being made as more systems are deployed and improvements are discovered. It is likely that further refinements will be made to the standard, which will necessitate firmware upgrades to terminals and infrastructure in the future to take advantage of these new improvements, with potential incompatibility issues arising if this is not done.

DMR covers the RF range 30 MHz to 1 GHz. There are DMR implementations, that operate as low as 66 MHz The DMR Association and manufacturers claim that DMR has superior coverage performance to analogue FM. Forward error correction can achieve a higher quality of voice when the receive signal is still high. In practice, digital modulation protocols are much more susceptible to multipath interference and fail to provide service in areas where analogue FM would otherwise provide degraded but audible voice service. At a higher quality of voice, DMR outperforms analogue FM by about 11 dB, but at a lower quality of voice, analogue FM outperforms DMR by about 5 dB. Where digital signal processing has been used to enhance the analogue FM audio quality analogue FM outperforms DMR in all situations, with a typical 2–3 dB improvement for "high quality" voice and around 5 dB improvement for "lower quality" voice. Where digital signal processing is used to enhance analog FM audio, the overall "delivered audio quality" is considerably better than DMR.

However DSP processing of analog FM audio does not remove the 12.5 kHz requirement so DMR is still more spectrally efficient. DMR Tier I products are for licence-free use in the European PMR446 band. Tier I products are specified for non-infrastructure use only; this part of the standard provides for consumer applications and low-power commercial applications, using a maximum of 0.5 watt RF power. Note that a licence free allocation is not present at this frequency outside of Europe, which means that PMR446 radios including DMR Tier I radios can only be used in other countries once an appropriate radio licence is obtained by the operator; some DMR radios sold by Chinese manufacturers have been mis-labelled as DMR Tier I. A DMR Tier I radio would only use the PMR446 licence free frequencies, would have a maximum transmitted power of 0.5 W as required by law for all PMR446 radios. Although the DMR standard allows Tier I DMR radios to use continuous transmission mode, all known Tier I radios use TDMA, the same as Tier II.

This is due to the battery savings that come with transmitting only half the time instead of continuously. DMR Tier II covers licensed conventional radio systems and hand portables operating in PMR frequency bands from 66–960 MHz; the ETSI DMR Tier II standard is targeted at those users who need spectral efficiency, advanced voice features and integrated IP data services in licensed bands for high-power communications. A number of manufacturers have DMR Tier II compliant products on the market. ETSI DMR specifies two slot TDMA in 12.5 kHz channels for Tier II and III. DMR Tier III covers trunking operation in frequency bands 66–960 MHz. Tier III supports voice and short messaging handling similar to TETRA with built-in 128 character status messaging and short messaging with up to 288 bits of data in a variety of formats, it supports packet data service in a variety of formats, including support for IPv4 and IPv6. Tier III compliant products were launched in 2012. In 2005, a memorandum of understanding was formed with potential DMR suppliers including Tait Communications, Fylde Micro, Motorola, Sanchar Communication, Vertex Standard and Icom to establish common standards and interoperability.

While the DMR standard does