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Amerrisque Mountains

The Amerrisque Mountains are the central spine of Nicaragua and part of the Central American Range which extends throughout central Nicaragua for about 700 km from Honduras in the northwest to Costa Rica in the southwest, just a few miles from the Caribbean. The Amerrisques are known as Cordillera Chontaleña at their central range, its coordinates are 12°12'0" N and 85°19'0" W in DMS or 12.2 and -85.3167 and is 329 meters above sea level. Amerrique is the Indian name of the mountains between Juigalpa and Libertad in the Chontales Department in Nicaragua; the Mayan name Amerrique signifies "the country of the wind", "the country where the wind blows constantly". The range is named after the Amerrisque tribe, it is supposed that the Amerrisques were once powerful, but little is known concerning them. The decay of their speech went on for a long time before contact with Europeans, the name by which the people and the mountains are now known is, not improbably, the bare remnant of the original word, which may well have been something like Amerristiquiqque, shortened successively to Amerristique and Amerrisque.

As Nicaragua's divide, the Amerrisques contain some high peaks such as Pataste in Madriz Region, Quiabuc in Estelí Region, Chagüite in Matagalpa Region. At the same time, they are the source of many rivers such as the Segovia, the Siquia-Escondido, while crisscrossed by rivers born at other ranges such as the Grande, the Viejo, etc; the range separates the Great Lakes Xolotlán and Cocibolca in Western Nicaragua, from the Mosquito Coast in Eastern Nicaragua. The Amerrisques boast a rich flora, due to their latitude and altitude, which ranges from sub-alpine, by Honduras, to tropical, by Costa Rica. Species range from unique regionals such as madroño, chilamate to North American species such as pine, oak and terebinth, South Americans such as gumtree and rosewood; the fauna includes mountain lions, ocelots. While the northern parts of the range are pine or oak-clad, the central parts sport dry-to-rainy forests and cattle ranching; the southern heights are covered in thick jungles along the San Juan River.

Some important cities located at the feet of the Amerrisques include Estelí, a cultural and manufacturing center, Juigalpa, a cattle ranching area. The English geologist and naturalist Thomas Belt, in his book The Naturalist in Nicaragua, indicated that the etymology of America came from the Amerrisque range—an important source of gold in the early 16th century; the French-American geologist Jules Marcou, in his work Nouvelles Recherches sur l'Origine du Nom d'Amérique and supported the thesis on the origin of the name America by Belt, who had served as engineer to the Compañía Minera de Chontales between 1868 and 1871 in the gold deposits of Santo Domingo, San Benito, San Antonio. Belt and Marcou were not the first to mention this thesis either. In Tradiciones peruanas, the Peruvian writer Ricardo Palma had mentioned the name's derivation from the mountains of Amerrique. Without citing the source from which he obtained the information, he affirmed that "the name America circulated by oral tradition among the men of Columbus."

The Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana, volume 38, page 537, suggests that Columbus may have heard the name Amerrisque from the Rama people, who lived near the present-day Bluefields, who had originated farther up the Escondido River at its sources in Amerrisque. The Nicaraguan archaeologist Jorge Espinosa expressed that the Amerrisques gave their name to the Western Hemisphere, although he based his thesis, for the University of Louisiana, on historical maps drawn by John Cabot in 1497, where the name Amerrisque appears five years before Christopher Columbus set foot in Nicaragua in 1502


Recombination activating gene 2 protein is a lymphocyte-specific protein encoded by RAG2 gene on human chromosome 11. Together with RAG1 protein, RAG2 forms a VJ recombinase, a protein complex required for the process of VJ recombination during which the variable regions of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes are assembled in developing B and T lymphocytes. Therefore, RAG2 is essential for generation of mature T lymphocytes. RAG2 is a 527-amino acid long protein, its N-terminal part is thought to form a six-bladed propeller in the active core. RAG2 is conserved among all species that carry out VJ recombination and its expression pattern correlates with VJ recombinase activity. RAG2 is expressed in immature lymphoid cells. While amount of RAG1 is constant during the cell cycle, RAG2 accumulates in G0 and G1 phase of cell cycle and it undergoes rapid degradation when the cell enters S phase; this serves as an important regulatory mechanism of VJ recombination and a prevention of genomic instability.

RAG2 is one of the two core components of the RAG complex. RAG complex is a multiprotein complex; this complex can make double-strand breaks by cleaving DNA at conserved recombination signal sequences. The other core component of this complex is RAG1; this protein is thought to possess most of the catalytic activity of the RAG complex. The RAG1 protein is the component that binds to DNA and cleaves it. Unlike RAG1, RAG2 protein does not appear to possess any endonuclease activity or to bind to DNA strand. RAG2 plays a role of an accessory factor, its primary function seems to be to interact with RAG1 protein and activate its endonuclease functions. RAG2 enhances RSS recognition and thereby decreases nonspecific DNA binding by RAG complex; the N-terminal of the recombination activating gene 2 component is thought to form a six-bladed propeller in the active core that serves as a binding scaffold for the tight association of the complex with DNA. A C-terminal plant homeodomain finger-like motif in this protein is necessary for interactions with chromatin components with histone H3, trimethylated at lysine 4.

As recombination does not occur in the absence of RAG2, its interactions with RAG1 are thought to be crucial for catalytic function of RAG1 protein. Therefore, presence of both RAG1 and RAG2 is essential for generation of mature T lymphocytes; as mentioned, RAG2 is crucial for maturation of T cells. Therefore, mutations of RAG2 gene can result in severe immune disorders such as SCID or Omenn syndrome. Omenn Syndrom is caused by a hypomorphic mutation of RAG2 gene, which leads to reduced but still present function of the RAG complex. Although patients do not have any circulating B cells, a small number of oligoclonal T cells is developed. Over fifty percent of RAG1 is conserved in humans. Therefore, functionally validating novel genetic findings is crucial for characterising human RAG deficiency. 71 RAG1 and 39 RAG2 variants have been functionally assayed. Variants that are most to occur and present as disease-causing have been predicted. Combined with pathogenicity prediction, this application guides research to test the effect of top candidate variants in preparation for novel disease cases.

In 1992, a RAG2 knockout mice strain was generated. Since it became a used mouse model in immunological research; this mice strain has an inactivated RAG2 gene, therefore homozygous mice are inable to initiate VJ rearrangement and fail to generate mature T and B lymphocytes. As such RAG2 knockout mice represent a valuable research tool used in transplantation experiments, vaccine development and hematopoiesis research; the RAG2 mutation can be combined with other mutations in order to develop further models useful for basic immunology research. Furthermore, methylcholantrene can be used to develop tumors in RAG2 knockout mice; this article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain


Perochirus is a genus of geckos endemic to the Philippines and Japan known as Micronesian geckos, Polynesian geckos, or tropical geckos. The following three species are recognized as being valid. Perochirus ateles – Duméril's tropical gecko, Micronesia saw-tailed gecko Perochirus guentheri Boulenger, 1885 – Günther's tropical gecko, Vanuatu saw-tailed gecko Perochirus scutellatus – shielded tropical gecko, atoll giant geckoNota bene: A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was described in a genus other than Perochirus. Boulenger GA. Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum. Second Edition. Volume I. Geckonidæ... London: Trustees of the British Museum.. Xii + 436 pp. + Plates I-XXXII

Naupactus (weevil)

Naupactus is a genus of beetles in the weevil family Curculionidae, the true weevils. They are known as whitefringed beetles. Many species of the genus are considered pests, both as larvae and as adults; the genus is native to the Americas. Several species have been introduced to the United States and New Zealand; some Naupactus have developed wings, while others have rudimentary or absent wings and are flightless. The females have flexible ovipositors with which they deposit eggs in cracks and crevices, in soil, between leaves, beneath the sepals on fruits; the larvae fall into it upon emergence. There they feed on the roots. In citrus, for example, they physically damage the roots but more significant injury occurs when pathogens such as Phytophthora enter through the wounds; the length of the larval stage varies depending on species and nutrients available. The adults feed on foliage; some species reproduce via parthenogenesis, with young emerging from unfertilized eggs, males of the species have never been observed.

There are at least 150 species in the genus. List of Naupactus species

Mário de Alencar

Mário Cochrane de Alencar was a Brazilian poet, short story writer, journalist and novelist. He was one of the children of famous novelist José de Alencar, he occupied the 21st chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters from 1905 until his death in 1925. Born in Rio de Janeiro, to famous novelist José de Alencar and Georgina Augusta Cochrane, daughter of a British aristocrat, he was the grandson of politician José Martiniano Pereira de Alencar, nephew of diplomat Leonel Martiniano de Alencar, the Baron of Alencar, brother of politician and diplomat Augusto de Alencar. He made his primary studies in the Colégio Pedro II and graduated in Law at the Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de São Paulo, he collaborated for newspapers such as Brasilea, Correio do Povo, Gazeta de Notícias, O Imparcial and A Imprensa, Jornal do Commercio, O Mundo Literário, Renascença, Revista Brasileira and the Official Magazine of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. He wrote under the pen names John Alone in some of those.

Chronicler Carlos Heitor Cony alleges that Mário could have been an illegitimate son of Machado de Assis, since both Mário and Joaquim suffered from epilepsy, while José de Alencar did not. Mário called Machado de Assis "father" in his letters addressed to him; this affair served as inspiration for Assis' famous novel Dom Casmurro. Lágrimas Versos Ode Cívica ao Brasil Dicionário de Rimas Alguns Escritos O Que Tinha Que Ser Se Eu Fosse Político Catulo da Paixão Cearense Contos e Impressões Works by Mário de Alencar Mário de Alencar's biography at the official site of the Brazilian Academy of Letters

List of books about Korea

This is a partial list of notable works about Korea. Old Three Kingdoms 11th century. Samguk Sagi, by Kim Bu-sik, 1145. Samguk Yusa, by Iryeon, 1281. Jewang ungi, by Yi Seung-hyu, 1287. Goryeo-sa, by Jeong Inji, 1451. Dongguk Tonggam, by Seo Geo-jeong, 1485. Annals of Joseon Dynasty, 1392-1863. Dongsa Gangmok, by Ahn Jeong-bok, 1774. Balhaego, by Yu Deuk-gong, 1784. Joseon Sanggosa, by Sin Chae-ho, 1931. Korean History: Discovery of Its Characteristics and Development, by Edited by Korean National Commission for UNESCO, 2004. Korea: Tradition & Transformation, A History of the Korean People, by Andrew C. Nahm, 1985. Hwarang Segi, by Kim Dae-Mun, 8th century. Gyuwon Sahwa, 1675 by Buk-aeja old person. Hwandan Gogi, probable 19th-century forgery. Korea, A Walk Through the Land of Miracles, by Simon Winchester, 1988