Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz. The name comes from the Koine Greek ἀμέθυστος amethystos from ἀ- a-, "not" and μεθύσκω methysko / μεθύω methyo, "intoxicate", a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness; the ancient Greeks wore amethyst and carved drinking vessels from it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication. Amethyst is a semiprecious stone used in jewelry and is the traditional birthstone for February. Amethyst is a purple variety of quartz and owes its violet color to irradiation, impurities of iron and in some cases other transition metals, the presence of other trace elements, which result in complex crystal lattice substitutions; the hardness of the mineral is the same as quartz. Amethyst occurs in primary hues from a light pinkish violet color to a deep purple color. Amethyst may exhibit one or both secondary hues and blue. High quality amethyst can be found in Siberia, Sri Lanka, Brazil and the far East; the ideal grade is called "Deep Siberian" and has a primary purple hue of around 75–80%, with 15–20% blue and red secondary hues.

‘Rose de France’ is defined by its markedly light shade of the purple, reminiscent of a lavender/lilac shade. These pale colors, were once considered undesirable but have become popular due to intensive marketing. Green quartz is sometimes incorrectly called green amethyst, a misnomer and not an appropriate name for the material, the proper terminology being prasiolite. Other names for green quartz are lime citrine. Of variable intensity, the color of amethyst is laid out in stripes parallel to the final faces of the crystal. One aspect in the art of lapidary involves cutting the stone to place the color in a way that makes the tone of the finished gem homogeneous; the fact that sometimes only a thin surface layer of violet color is present in the stone or that the color is not homogeneous makes for a difficult cutting. The color of amethyst has been demonstrated to result from substitution by irradiation of trivalent iron for silicon in the structure, in the presence of trace elements of large ionic radius, and, to a certain extent, the amethyst color can result from displacement of transition elements if the iron concentration is low.

Natural amethyst is dichroic in reddish violet and bluish violet, but when heated, turns yellow-orange, yellow-brown, or dark brownish and may resemble citrine, but loses its dichroism, unlike genuine citrine. When heated, amethyst can result in ametrine. Amethyst can fade in tone if overexposed to light sources and can be artificially darkened with adequate irradiation, it does not fluoresce under either long-wave UV light. Amethyst is produced in abundance from the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil where it occurs in large geodes within volcanic rocks. Many of the hollow agates of southwestern Brazil and Uruguay contain a crop of amethyst crystals in the interior. Artigas and neighboring Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul are large world producers exceeding in quantity Minas Gerais, as well as Mato Grosso, Espirito Santo and Ceará states, all amethyst producers of importance in Brazil, it is found and mined in South Korea. The largest opencast amethyst vein in the world is in Lower Austria. Much fine amethyst comes from Russia from near Mursinka in the Ekaterinburg district, where it occurs in drusy cavities in granitic rocks.

Many localities in south India yield amethyst. One of the largest global amethyst producers is Zambia in southern Africa with an annual production of about 1000 tons. Amethyst occurs at many localities in the United States. Among these may be mentioned: the Mazatzal Mountain region in Gila and Maricopa Counties, Arizona. Amethyst is common in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Nova Scotia; the largest amethyst mine in North America is located in Ontario. Amethyst is the official state gemstone of South Carolina. Several South Carolina amethysts are on display at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. Amethyst was used as a gemstone by the ancient Egyptians and was employed in antiquity for intaglio engraved gems; the Greeks believed amethyst gems could prevent intoxication, while medieval European soldiers wore amethyst amulets as protection in battle in the belief that amethysts heal people and keep them cool-headed. Beads of amethyst were found in Anglo-Saxon graves in England. Anglican bishops wear an episcopal ring set with an amethyst, an allusion to the description of the Apostles as "not drunk" at Pentecost in Acts 2:15.

A large geode, or "amethyst-grotto", from near Santa Cruz in southern Brazil was presented at a 1902 exhibition in Düsseldorf, Germany. In the 19th century, the color of amethyst was attributed to the presence of manganese. However, since it can be altered and discharged by heat, the color was believed by some authorities to be from an organic source. Ferric thiocyanate has been suggested, sulfur was said to have been detected in the mineral. Synthetic amethyst is produced by a synthesis method called hydrothermal growth, which grows the crystals inside a high-pressure autoclave. Synthetic amethyst is made to imitate the best quality amethyst, its chemical and physical properties are the same as that of natural amethyst and it can not be differentiated with absolute certainty without advanced gemmological testing (which is cost-prohib

List of ambassadors of Russia to Myanmar

The Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation to the Republic of the Union of Myanmar is the official representative of the President and the Government of the Russian Federation to the President and the Government of Myanmar. The ambassador and his staff work at large in the Embassy of Russia in Yangon; the post of Russian Ambassador to Myanmar is held by Nikolai Listopadov, incumbent since 1 July 2016. Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and what was known as Burma were first established on 28 February 1948, with an agreement to exhange ambassadors; the first Soviet ambassador, Aleksandr Saveliyev, was appointed on 4 October 1950, presented his credentials on 21 May 1951. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the incumbent Soviet ambassador, Vadim Shabalin, continued as representative of the Russian Federation until 1992

All My Love (Major Lazer song)

"All My Love" is a song by American electronic music project Major Lazer featuring vocals from American singer Ariana Grande. It was released on 13 November 2014 as the fifth song from the soundtrack for The Hunger Games: Mockingjay, Part 1 by Republic Records; the song was written by Grande, Ella Yelich-O'Connor, Karen Ørsted with production handled by Boaz van de Beatz, Jr Blender and Diplo, a member of Major Lazer. It is an electropop song with elements of dancehall, it received positive reviews from music critics. Commercially, the track charted in France and the United Kingdom. A remix of the song featuring vocals from Grande and soca singer Machel Montano was released on 21 January 2015 and appears as the final track on Major Lazer's third studio album Peace Is the Mission, it features an interpolation of Aqua's 1997 song "Lollipop". This version performed modestly in Belgium and charted in Canada, peaking at 15 and 87, respectively. "All My Love" was written by Lorde, Ariana Grande and Karen Ørsted, while production of the song was handled by Boaz van de Beatz, Jr Blender and Diplo, a member of Major Lazer.

Leaked on 13 November 2014 before the official release date, "All My Love" was included as the fifth track for the soundtrack album of the 2014 film The Hunger Games: Mockingjay, Part 1. Lorde's desire to include "All My Love" on the film's soundtrack led Diplo to rush the production process of the song. In an annotation posted to Genius that Diplo wrote, he mentioned that he was on vacation in London at the same time Grande was there, he managed to communicate with her and go "back and forth with certain mixes." Diplo said that he was willing to "screw around" and surprise people with "this kind of collaboration."Diplo first mentioned the track on 16 October 2014 via Twitter. However, he deleted the tweet afterwards; when the album's official track list was announced on 21 October 2014, the song was listed as "Track 5". Lorde, who curated the film's soundtrack, said on Twitter that the song was not excluded for "secrecy's sake" but because it was "not quite finished". A week Grande revealed in a livestream that she was included in the film's soundtrack.

She described the song as "very interesting" and "very different." Lorde announced the track's title via Twitter on 3 November 2014. "All My Love" is dance-pop song, with elements of dancehall. Stereogum's Tom Breihan compared it to Grande's previous single, "Break Free", featuring Russian-German DJ Zedd. Bradley Stern from Idolator described its production as having "rich, tribal" sounds and "’90’s-leaning dance floor pulsations". Exclaim writer Alex Hudson called the track an "electronic banger with in-your-face beats and a manic breakdown." Hudson said that the juxtaposition of the song's "freaky beats" with Grande's vocals build a "rather tame pop foundation". Complex writer Edwin Ortiz called the song an "electronic pop cut" with a "heart-pulsing backdrop". Brennan Carley of Spin noted that the song features "yelping, punctuated beats and synthesizers pierce the air". Critics described Grande's vocals on the track as "sweet", "smooth", "angelic"."All My Love" received positive reviews from music critics.

Michelle Geslani from Consequence of Sound called the song a "Grade A electropop banger." Geslani praised both artists, stating that "Diplo’s dancehall alter ego doles out breezy yet bouncy island rhythms while Grande’s angelic croon soars high above the seas." In a review of the soundtrack, Nick Levine of NME stated that both artists sounded like they were "holding a rave in the rainforest". In a mixed review of the soundtrack, Jim Farber of New York Daily News called Grande's inclusion in the song a "commercial move", stating that her vocals proved "too mainstream for an album meant to project something sinister." "All My Love" was moderately successful in Belgium, where it peaked within the top 40 in both the Flanders and Wallonia chart components. It reached number 194 in the United Kingdom. On 21 January 2015, a remix version featuring vocals from Ariana Grande and soca singer Machel Montano was released, it appears as the ninth track on Major Lazer's third studio album, Peace Is the Mission.

Thomas Pentz, a member of Major Lazer, co-wrote the song with producers Boaz de Jong, Philip Meckseper, Gamal Doyle and featured artist Machel Montano. According to Pitchfork writer Claire Lobenfeld, the song features an interpolation of Aqua's "Lollipop" and has a "dancehall-inflected festival dubstep". Matt Medved from Billboard labelled it as "soca/house mash". Rolling Stone's Jon Dolan called the remix a "weapons-grade sun splash". Commercially, the remix of the song charted at number 87 on the Billboard Canadian Hot 100 chart and peaked at number 15 on the US Dance/Electronic Songs chart at number 66. Recording and management Recorded at Air Lyndhurst Published by Because Music, Mad Decent and Warner Music Group Personnel Credits adapted from the liner notes of The Hunger Games: Mockingjay, Part 1 and Peace Is the Mission. All personnel contributed except where noted. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics "All My Love" on YouTube