Sudan or the Sudan the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, Libya to the northwest, it has a population of 39 million people and occupies a total area of 1,886,068 square kilometres, making it the third-largest country in Africa. Sudan's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and English; the capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the White Nile. Since 2011, Sudan is the scene of ongoing military conflict in its regions South Kordofan and Blue Nile. Sudan's history goes back to the Pharaonic period, witnessing the kingdom of Kerma, the subsequent rule of the Egyptian New Kingdom and the rise of the kingdom of Kush, which would in turn control Egypt itself for nearly a century. After the fall of Kush the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia and Alodia, with the latter two lasting until around 1500.
Between the 14th and 15th centuries much of Sudan was settled by Arab nomads. From the 16th–19th centuries and eastern Sudan were dominated by the Funj sultanate, while Darfur ruled the west and the Ottomans the far north; this period saw Arabization. From 1820 to 1874 the entirety of Sudan was conquered by the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Between 1881 and 1885 the harsh Egyptian reign was met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman; this state was destroyed in 1898 by the British, who would govern Sudan together with Egypt. The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. Independence was proclaimed on January 1, 1956. Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. Under Gaafar Nimeiry, Sudan instituted Islamic law in 1983; this exacerbated the rift between the Islamic north, the seat of the government and the animists and Christians in the south.
Differences in language and political power erupted in a civil war between government forces influenced by the National Islamic Front and the southern rebels, whose most influential faction was the Sudan People's Liberation Army concluding in the independence of South Sudan in 2011. In April 2019, following contentious protests that faced fierce resistance from the Omar al-Bashir regime, the Sudanese military, under the command of Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf, took control of the nation and established a Transitional Military Council; this move dissolved the constitution. The country's place name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa; the name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān, or "the lands of the Blacks". The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants; the term "Sudanese" had a negative connotation in Sudan due to its association with black African slaves.
The idea of "Sudanese" nationalism goes back to the 1930s and 1940s, when it was popularized by young intellectuals. By the eighth millennium BC, people of a Neolithic culture had settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mudbrick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattle herding. During the fifth millennium BC, migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture; the population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed a social hierarchy over the next centuries which became the Kingdom of Kush at 1700 BC. Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that during the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were ethnically, culturally nearly identical, thus evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC; the Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, the Atbarah River and the Nile River.
It was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase. After King Kashta invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians. At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai. Pharaoh Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II; the Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the city. The war that took place between Pharaoh Taharqa and the Assyrian king Sennacherib was a decisive event in western history, with the Nubians being defeated in their attempts to gain a foothold in the Near East by Assyria.
Sennacherib's successor Esarhaddon went further, invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taharqa and driving the Nubians from Egypt entirely. Taharqa fled back to his homeland. Egypt became an Assyrian colony.
Amharas known as Abyssinians, are an ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the northern and central highlands of Ethiopia in Addis Ababa and the Amhara Region. According to the 2007 national census, Amharas numbered 19,867,817 individuals, comprising 26.9% of Ethiopia's population and they are Orthodox Christians members of Ethiopian Orthodox church. They are found within the Ethiopian expatriate community in North America, they speak Amharic, an Afro-Asiatic language of the Semitic branch, a member of the Ethiosemitic group, which serves as the official language of Ethiopia. The present name for the Amharic language and its speakers comes from the medieval province of Amhara; the latter enclave was located around Lake Tana at the headwaters of the Blue Nile, included a larger area than Ethiopia's present-day Amhara Region. The further derivation of the name is debated; some trace it to mehare. The Ethiopian historian Getachew Mekonnen Hasen traces it to an ethnic name related to the Himyarites of ancient Yemen.
Still others say that it derives from Ge'ez ዓም and ሓራ in Hebrew עם הר. The Amharas have inhabited the north and western parts of Ethiopia, have been the politically dominant ethnic group of this region, their origins are thought to have been located near modern day Sayint, Wollo, a place, known as Bete Amhara in the past. The Amhara are one of the two largest ethnic groups in Ethiopia, along with the Oromo, they are sometimes referred to as "Abyssinians" by Western sources. The province of "Amhara" was located in the modern province of Wollo, in the modern sense however the region now known as Amhara in the feudal era was composed of several provinces with greater or less autonomy, which included Gondar, Wollo, Shewa, Semien and Fetegar; the traditional homeland of the Amharas is the central highland plateau of Ethiopia. For over two thousand years they have inhabited this region. Walled by high mountains and cleaved by great gorges, the ancient realm of Abyssinia has been isolated from the influences of the rest of the world.
Christian Axumite presence in the Amhara region dates back to at least the 8th century, with the establishment of the Istifanos monastery in Lake Hayq. Several other sites and monuments indicate similar Axumite presences in area such as the Geta Lion statues, located 10 km south of Kombolcha is thought to date as old the 3rd century or further to pre-Axumite times. In 1998, pieces of pottery were found around tombs in Atatiya in Southern Wollo in Habru to the south-east of Hayq and to the north-east of Ancharo; the decorations and symbols on the pottery are reliable archaeological evidence that Aksumite civilization had extended to Southern Amhara beyond Angot. Many more ancient sites had been plentiful but were almost all destroyed by the vengeful reign of Gudit and the Muslim invasions led by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, where Amhara and Angot were ravaged; the first specific mention of the Amhara dates to the early 12th century in the middle of the Zagwe Dynasty, when the Amhara were recorded of being in conflict with the Werjih in 1129.
The Werjih are located to have inhabited the eastern lowlands of Shewa as pastorlists. This indicates that the Amhara not only were existent as a distinct ethnic group, but had made a presence as far as the southern plateau since at least the 12th century, disproving a common proposition put forward by scholars like Mesfin Woldemariam and Takele Tadesse who suggested that the Amhara did not exist as an ethnic group. Following the end of the ruling Agaw Zagwe dynasty, the Solomonic dynasty governed the Ethiopian Empire for many centuries from the 1270 AD onwards with the ascension of Yekuno Amlak, whose political and support base heiled from Shewa and Amhara. From up until the deposing of Haile Selassie in 1974, the Amhara continuously ruled and formed the political core of the Ethiopian Empire expanding its borders and international prestige as well as establishing several medieval royal sites and capitals such as Tegulet, Debre Berhan, Barara and Magdela, the former three of which were located in Shewa In the early 15th century, the Emperors sought to make diplomatic contact with European kingdoms for the first time since Aksumite times.
A letter from King Henry IV of England to the Emperor of Abyssinia survives. In 1428, the Emperor Yeshaq sent two emissaries to Alfonso V of Aragon, who sent return emissaries who failed to complete the return trip; the first continuous relations with a European country began in 1508 with Portugal under Emperor Lebna Dengel, who had just inherited the throne from his father. This proved to be an important development, for when the Empire was subjected to the attacks of the Adal Sultanate General and Imam, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, Portugal assisted the Ethiopian emperor by sending weapons and four hundred men, who helped his son Gelawdewos defeat Ahmad and re-establish his rule; this Ethiopian–Adal War was one of the first proxy wars in the region as the Ottoman Empire and Portugal took sides in the conflict. The Amhara have contributed many rulers including Haile Selassie. Haile Selassie's mother was paternally of Oromo descent and maternall
Tigrayan people are Tigrinya-speaking people in Eritrea and in present day Tigray region. They inhabit the highlands of Eritrea and the Tigray Region of northern Ethiopia, with diaspora communities in many countries. In Eritrea they comprise about 55% of the population, i.e. above three million people, in Ethiopia there are about 4.5 million Tigrayans, according to the 2007 census, most of them in the Tigray Region. Over 90% of Tigrayans are Christians; the great majority are Ethiopian Orthodox Christian and Eritrean Orthodox Christian, but there are minorities of Muslims, Beta Israel, since the 19th century, Protestants in Eritrea and Catholics in Akele Guzay and Agame. Most Tigrayans are traditionally agriculturalists, practicing plough agriculture and keeping cattle and goats, in many areas bees; some Tigrayan groups have a strong local identity and used to have their own traditional, quite autonomous self-organization, sometimes dominated by egalitarian assemblies of elders, sometimes by leading families or local feudal dynasties.
In some areas the meritorious complex played a considerable role in achieving a social status, which led to the creation of local honorary titles and social institutions, to an active involvement in the warfare of Christian Ethiopia. The daily life of Tigrayans are influenced by religious concepts. For example, the Christian Orthodox fasting periods are observed in Tigray. In Tigray the language of the church remains Ge’ez. Tigrayan society is marked by a strong ideal of communitarianism and in the rural sphere, by egalitarian principles; this does not exclude an important role of gerontocratic rules and in some regions such as the wider Adwa area the prevalence of feudal lords, however, still had to respect the local land rights. Tigrayans constitute 6.1% of the population of Ethiopia and are small holding farmers inhabiting small communal villages. They are mainly Christian and members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, with a small minority of Muslims and Protestants; the predominantly Tigrayan populated urban centers in Ethiopia are found within the Tigray Region in towns including Mekelle, Axum and Shire and in Eritrea are Asmara and Keren.
Populations of Tigrayans are found in other large Ethiopian cities such as the capital Addis Ababa and Gondar as well as abroad in the United States. The Tigrayans are, despite a general impression of homogeneity, composed of numerous subgroups with their own socio-cultural traditions. Among these there are the Agame of eastern Tigray, mentioned in the Monumentum Adulitanum in the 3rd century. Many others, sometimes numbering only a few thousands and scattered over several districts, could be listed, they define themselves through common descent, but in some cases as a political confederacy uniting different groups. Assimilation processes, which still continue, have led to the inclusion of other ethnic groups. For example, Agaw settlers in Seraye, the Adkeme Malga became Tigrayans several centuries ago; the subgroups are composed of descent lineages. These are called "Deqqi-...", sometimes "Ad...", after a common ancestor, such as the Deqqi Tesfa of the western lowlands of Seraye or the Ad Deggiyat, a name for the Seazzega dynasty of the Mereb Melash.
In addition, there are ancient, more vague group-designations above the level of subgroups, used by elders as identity-markers: Agaziyan for the inhabitants of Agame and Akkele Guzay, Sabawiyan for the people of Aksum and Yeha. The decline of the Tigrayan population in Ethiopia during Haile Selassie's reign – in particular in districts of the former Tigray province, which are given to the present-day Amhara Region, like Addi Arkay, Kobo & Sanja – is to have been as a result of Haile Selassie's suppression and systematic persecution against non-Amhara ethnic peoples of Ethiopia. For example, on the 1958 famine of Tigray, Haile Selassie refused to send any significant basic emergency food aid to Tigray province despite having the resources to. On, the Mengistu Haile Mariam-led brutal military dictatorship used the 1983–1985 famine in Ethiopia as government policy for counter-insurgency strategy, for "social transformation" in non-insurgent areas. Due to organized government policies that deliberately multiplied the effects of the famine, around 1.2 million people died in Ethiopia from this famine where majority of the death tolls were from Tigray province.
Muslim Tigrayans are usually
Ethiopian National Defense Force
The Ethiopian National Defense Force is the military of Ethiopia. Civil direction of the military is carried out through the Ministry of Defense, which oversees the ground forces, air force, as well as the Defense Industry Sector; the current defense minister is Motuma Mekassa. The size of the ENDF has fluctuated since the end of the Ethiopia-Eritrea war in 2000. In 2002 the Ethiopian Defense Forces had a strength of 400,000 troops; this was the same number maintained during the Derg regime that fell to the rebel forces in 1991. However, that number was reduced, in January 2007, during the War in Somalia, Ethiopian forces were said to comprise about 300,000 troops. In 2012, the IISS estimated that the ground forces had 135,000 personnel and the air force 3,000; as of 2012, the ENDF consists of two separate branches: the Ground Forces and the Ethiopian Air Force. Ethiopia has several defense industrial organisations that produce and overhaul different weapons systems. Most of these were built under the Derg regime.
The ENDF relies on voluntary military service of people above 18 years of age. Although there is no compulsory military service, armed forces may conduct call-ups when necessary and compliance is compulsory. Being a landlocked country, Ethiopia today has no navy. Ethiopia reacquired a coastline on the Red Sea in 1950 and created the Ethiopian Navy in 1955. Eritrea's independence in 1991 left Ethiopia landlocked again, but the Ethiopian Navy continued to operate from foreign ports until it was disbanded in 1996; the Ethiopian army's origins and military traditions date back to the earliest history of Ethiopia. Due to Ethiopia's location between the Middle East and Africa, it has long been in the middle of Eastern and Western politics, has been subject to foreign invasion and aggression. In 1579, the Ottoman Empire's attempt to expand from a coastal base at Massawa was defeated; the Army of the Ethiopian Empire was able to defeat the Egyptians in 1876 at Gura, led by Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV.
Clapham wrote in the 1980s that the "Abyssinians from a'superiority complex' which may be traced to Gundet and Adwa". In accordance with the order of the emperor of Ethiopia, Directly Nikolay Leontiev organized the first battalion of the regular Ethiopian army in February 1899. Leontiev formed the first regular battalion, the kernel of which became the company of volunteers from the former Senegal shooters, which he chose and invited from Western Africa, with training of the Russian and French officers; the first Ethiopian military orchestra was organized at the same time. The Battle of Adowa is the best known victory of Ethiopian forces over invaders, it maintained Ethiopia's existence as an independent state. Fought on 1 March 1896 against the Kingdom of Italy near the town of Adwa, it was the decisive battle of the First Italo–Ethiopian War. Assisted by all of the major nobles of Ethiopia including, Alula Abanega, Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam, Sebhat Aregawi, Ras Makonnen, Ras Mengesha Yohannes, Ras Mikael of Wollo, Emperor Menelek II of Ethiopia struck a powerful blow against the Italians.
The Ethiopian army had been able to execute the strategic plan of Menelik's headquarters, despite a feudal system of organization and adverse circumstances. A special role was played by the volunteers of Leontiev's mission; the first problem was the quality of its arms, as the Italian and British colonial authorities were able to sabotage the transportation of 60,000 to 100,000 modern Berdan rifles from Russia into landlocked Ethiopia. Secondly, the Ethiopian army was based on a feudal system of organization, as a result, nearly the entire army was a peasant militia. Russian military experts advising Menelik II suggested trying to achieve full battle collision with Italians, to neutralize the superior firepower of their opponent and nullify their problems with arms and organization, rather than engaging in a campaign of harassment. In the battle that ensued wave upon wave of Menelik's warriors attacked the Italians. After the successful colonial capture of the Sudan and Uganda, the British expansion against Ethiopia became a real danger, which diminished only after the start of the Second Boer War in 1899.
The Ethiopian army became more effective against British colonial forces. The numerous expeditions of Ethiopian forces stopped colonial expansion; as the Russian Alexander Bulatovich, one of the Russian military advisers and a participant in the expedition of the legendary army of Ras Wolde Giyorgis, wrote: "Many consider the Abyssinian army to be undisciplined. They think that it is not in any condition to withstand a serious fight with a well-organized European army, claiming that the recent war with Italy doesn't prove anything. I will not begin to guess the future, will say only this. Over the course of four months, I watched this army closely, it is unique in the world. And I can bear witness to the fact that it is not quite so chaotic as it seems at first glance, that on the contrary, it is profoundly disciplined, though in its own unique way. For every Abyssinian, war is normal business, military skills and rules of army life in the field enter in the flesh and blood of each of them, just as do the main principles of tactics.
On the march, each soldier knows how to arrange necessary comforts for himself and to conserve his strength. You see remarkable expediency in all the skills of this army. Despite such quali
Ras Dejen is the highest mountain in Ethiopia and tenth highest mountain of Africa. Part of Simien Mountains National Park located in the Amhara region, it reaches an elevation of 4,550 metres; the more common form, "Ras Dashen" is a corruption of its Amharic name, "Ras Dejen", used by the system of the Ethiopian Mapping Authority which means "the general who fights in front of the Emperor". According to Erik Nilsson, Ras Dejen is the eastern peak of the rim of "an enormous volcano, the northern half of, cut down about thousand metres by numerous ravines, draining into the Takkazzi River." Its western counterpart is Mount Biuat, separated by the valley of the Meshaha river. The mountain sees violent snowfalls during the night, but given that day and night temperatures vary the snow is completely melted in a few hours, for the temperature may be over 5 degrees Celsius by midday. In winter snow falls since the majority of Ethiopia's yearly rainfall is in the summer, but if it does it lasts for weeks or months.
The first recorded ascent by a Eurasian was by the French officers Ferret and Galinier. There is no verifiable evidence of earlier ascents by locals, but the summit climate and conditions are hospitable, there are nearby high altitude pastoral settlements. A small fort still standing at around 4,300 Meter SRTM data. Detailed trip report "Africa Ultra-Prominences" on Peaklist "Ras Dashen Terara, Ethiopia" on Peakbagger "Ras Dashen" on Summitpost Ras Dashen on Peakware Elevation misquotes Simien Mountains National Park
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, the GNI per capita is higher, it was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report Office. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development", "the HDI can be viewed as an index of'potential' human development"; the index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
The index is based on the human development approach, developed by ul Haq framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, healthy; the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry is quite different from someone, hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme; these were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.
Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but improvements in human well-being. Published on 4 November 2010, the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling A decent standard of living: GNI per capita In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI; the following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index = LE − 20 85 − 20 LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.2. Education Index = MYSI + EYSI 2 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index = MYS 15 Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index = EYS 18 Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.3.
Income Index = ln − ln ln − ln II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100. The HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices: HDI = LEI ⋅ EI ⋅ II 3. LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling EYS: Expected years of schooling GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio. Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; this methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report. The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme. In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allo
The Blue Nile is a river originating at Lake Tana in Ethiopia. With the White Nile, it is one of the two major tributaries of the Nile; the Blue Nile supplies about 80% of the water in the Nile during the rainy season. The Blue Nile is so-called because floods during the summer monsoon erode a vast amount of fertile soil from the Ethiopian Highlands and carry it downstream as silt, turning the water dark brown or black; the distance of the river from its source to its confluence has been variously reported as being between 1,460 kilometres and 1,600 kilometres. This uncertainty over the length might result from the fact that the river flows through a series of impenetrable gorges cut in the Ethiopian Highlands to a depth of some 1,500 metres —a depth comparable to that of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in the United States. According to materials published by the Central Statistical Agency, the Blue Nile has a total length of 1,450 kilometres, of which 800 kilometres are inside Ethiopia.
The Blue Nile flows south from Lake Tana and west across Ethiopia and northwest into Sudan. Within 30 km of its source at Lake Tana, the river enters a canyon about 400 km long; this gorge is a tremendous obstacle for travel and communication from the north half of Ethiopia to the southern half. The canyon was first referred to as the "Grand Canyon" by the British team that accomplished the first descent of the river from Lake Tana to near the end of the canyon in 1968. Subsequent river rafting parties called this the "Grand Canyon of the Nile"; the power of the Blue Nile may best be appreciated at the Blue Nile Falls, which are 45 metres high, located about 40 kilometres downstream of Lake Tana. Although there are several feeder streams that flow into Lake Tana, the sacred source of the river is considered to be a small spring at Gish Abay, situated at an altitude of 2,744 metres; this stream, known as the Gilgel Abay, flows north into Lake Tana. Other affluents of this lake include, in clockwise order from Gorgora, the Magech River, the Northern Gumara, the Reb River, the southern Gumara River, the Kilte.
Lake Tana's outflow flows some 30 kilometres before plunging over the Blue Nile Falls. The river loops across northwest Ethiopia through a series of deep valleys and canyons into Sudan, by which point it is only known as the Blue Nile. There are numerous tributaries of the Abay between the Sudanese border; those on its left bank, in downstream order, include the Wanqa River, the Bashilo River, the Walaqa River, the Wanchet River, the Jamma River, the Muger River, the Guder River, the Agwel River, the Nedi River, the Didessa River and the Dabus River. Those on the right side in downstream order, include the Handassa, Abaya, Tammi, Shita, Muga, Temcha, Katlan, Chamoga and the Beles. After flowing past Er Roseires inside Sudan, receiving the Dinder on its right bank at Dinder, the Blue Nile joins the White Nile at Khartoum and, as the Nile, flows through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea at Alexandria; the flow of the Blue Nile reaches maximum volume in the rainy season, when it supplies 70-80% of the water of the Nile proper.
The Blue Nile was a major source of the flooding of the Nile that contributed to the fertility of the Nile Valley and the consequent rise of Ancient Egypt and Egyptian mythology. With the completion in 1970 of the Aswan Dam in Egypt, the Nile floods ended for lower Egypt; the Blue Nile is vital to the livelihood of Egypt. The Blue Nile, the most significant tributary of the Nile, contributes more than half of the Nile's streamflow. Though shorter than the White Nile, 59% of the water that reaches Egypt originates from the Blue Nile branch of the great river; the river is an important resource for Sudan, where the Roseires Dam and Sennar Dams produce 80% of the country's power. These dams help irrigate the Gezira Scheme, most famous for its high quality cotton; the region produces wheat and animal feed crops. In November 2012, Ethiopia began a six-year project for the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, a 6000-megawatt hydroelectric dam on the river; the dam is expected to be a boost for the Ethiopian economy.
Sudan and Egypt, voiced their concern over a potential reduction in water available. The first European to have seen the Blue Nile in Ethiopia and the river's source was Pedro Páez, a Spanish Jesuit who reached the river's source 21 April 1613; the Portuguese João Bermudes, the self-described "Patriarch of Ethiopia," provided the first description of the Blue Nile Falls in his memoirs published in 1565, a number of Europeans who lived in Ethiopia in the late 15th century such as Pêro da Covilhã could have seen the river long before Páez, but not reached its places of source. The source of the Blue Nile was reached in 1629 by the Portuguese Jesuit missionary Jerónimo Lobo and in 1770 by James Bruce. Although a number of European explorers contemplated tracing the course of the Blue Nile from its confluence with the White Nile to Lake Tana, its gorge, which begins a few kilometres inside the Ethiopian border, has discouraged all attempts since Frédéric Cailliaud's attempt in 1821; the first serious attempt by a non-local to explore this reach of the river was undertaken by the American W.
W. Macmillan in 1902, assisted by the Norwegian explorer B. H. Jenssen. However, Jenssen's boats were blocked by t