Amharic is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages. It is spoken as a first language by the Amharas and as a lingua franca by other populations residing in major cities and towns of Ethiopia; the Amharic language originated as result of a pidginization process with a Cushitic substratum and a Semitic superstratum to enable communication between people who spoke a mix of different languages. This pidginization of the new language had enabled the soldiers to create communication means independent of the church which used the Geʽez language; the language serves as the working language of Ethiopia, is the working language of several of the states within the Ethiopian federal system. With 21,811,600 total speakers as of 2007, including around 4,000,000 L2 speakers, Amharic is the second-most spoken Semitic language in the world, after Arabic. Amharic is written left-to-right using a system; the writing system is called Fidäl in Ethiopian Semitic languages.
Fidäl means "alphabet", "letter", or "character" or abugida, from the first four symbols. The modern linguistic term abugida originates from the Ethiopian word. There is no agreed way of romanising Amharic into Latin script; the Amharic examples in the sections below use one system, common, though not universal, among linguists specialising in Ethiopian Semitic languages. Amharic has been the working language of courts, language of trade and everyday communications, the military, since the late 12th century and remains the official language of Ethiopia today; as of the 2007 census, Amharic is spoken by 21.6 million native speakers in Ethiopia and 4 million secondary speakers in Ethiopia. Additionally, 3 million emigrants outside of Ethiopia speak the language. Most of the Ethiopian Jewish communities in Ethiopia and Israel speak Amharic. In Washington DC, Amharic became one of the six non-English languages in the Language Access Act of 2004, which allows government services and education in Amharic.
Furthermore, Amharic is considered a holy language by the Rastafari religion and is used among its followers worldwide. It is the most spoken language in the Horn of Africa; the Amharic ejective consonants correspond to the Proto-Semitic "emphatic consonants" transcribed with a dot below the letter. The consonant and vowel tables give these symbols in parentheses where they differ from the standard IPA symbols; the Amharic script is an abugida, the graphemes of the Amharic writing system are called fidel. Each character represents a consonant+vowel sequence, but the basic shape of each character is determined by the consonant, modified for the vowel; some consonant phonemes are written by more than one series of characters: /ʔ/, /s/, /sʼ/, /h/. This is because these fidel represented distinct sounds, but phonological changes merged them; the citation form for each series is the consonant + ä form. The Amharic script is included in Unicode, glyphs are included in fonts available with major operating systems.
As in most other Ethiopian Semitic languages, gemination is contrastive in Amharic. That is, consonant length can distinguish words from one another. Gemination is not indicated in Amharic orthography, but Amharic readers do not find this to be a problem; this property of the writing system is analogous to the vowels of Arabic and Hebrew or the tones of many Bantu languages, which are not indicated in writing. Ethiopian novelist Haddis Alemayehu, an advocate of Amharic orthography reform, indicated gemination in his novel Fǝqǝr Ǝskä Mäqabǝr by placing a dot above the characters whose consonants were geminated, but this practice is rare. Punctuation includes the following: ፠ section mark ፡ word separator ። full stop ፣ comma ፤ semicolon ፥ colon ፦ preface colon ፧ question mark ፨ paragraph separator Simple Amharic sentencesOne may construct simple Amharic sentences by using a subject and a predicate. Here are a few simple sentences: Like most languages, Amharic grammar distinguishes person and gender.
This includes personal pronouns such as English I, Amharic እኔ ǝne. As in other Semitic languages, the same distinctions appear in three other places in their grammar. Subject–verb agreementAll Amharic verbs agree with their subjects; because the affixes that signal subject agreement vary with the particular verb tense/aspect/mood, they are not considered to be pronouns and are discussed elsewhere in this article under verb conjugation. Object pronoun suffixesAmharic verbs have additional morphology that indicates the person and gender of the object of the verb. While morphemes such as -at in this example are sometimes described as signaling object agreement, analogous to subject agreement, they are more thought of as object pronoun suffixes because, unlike the markers of subject agreement, they do not vary with the tense/aspect/mood of the verb. For arguments of the verb other than the subject or the object, there are two separate sets of related suffixes, one with a benefactive meaning, the other with an adversative or locative meaning.
Morphemes such as -llat and -bbat in these exampl
Menthorpe Gate railway station was a station on the Selby to Driffield Line in North Yorkshire, England serving the village of North Duffield and the hamlets of Menthorpe and Bowthorpe. It appeared first in public timetables in 1851 and kept the "Gate" suffix when it was dropped from many other station names in 1864. In 1881, a station mistress is recorded; the main station building, a two-storey brick building, was at the east end of the up platform, the signal box was on the west side of the level crossing on the down side of the line. The goods yard did not handle livestock; the station closed to passengers on 7 December 1953 as the second of the intermediate stations on the line. It remained open for goods traffic until 27 January 1964. Station building and signalbox were dismantled in the early 1970s, only the crossing keeper's house still stands; the 1881 census shows that Frances Calvert, a widow aged 69, was the "Station Mistress Railway" at Menthorpe Gate. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present.
Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Menthorpe Gate station on navigable 1947 O. S. map
Nico Sturm is a German professional ice hockey forward playing for the Iowa Wild in the American Hockey League as a prospect to the Minnesota Wild of the National Hockey League. Sturm played as a youth in his native Germany, appearing with ESV Kaufbeuren in the German Development League from 2011 to 2014. In order to continue his development, Sturm opted to move to North America, playing in the North American Hockey League with the Corpus Christi IceRays and the Austin Bruins. Sturm was selected by 72nd overall, in the 2015 USHL Entry Draft. On June 30, 2015, Sturm was announced to have signed with the Storm, while committing to play collegiate hockey at Clarkson University of the ECAC. In the 2015–16 season, Sturm recorded 39 points in 57 games with the Tri-City Storm and added 6 points in 5 playoff games to help Tri-City win the Clark Cup. Sturm played his freshman season with the Golden Knights in the 2016–17 season, collecting 21 points in 38 games to earn a selection to the ECAC All-Rookie Team.
In his sophomore year, Sturm continued to realise his potential, increasing his offensive production with 37 points in 40 games. His solid two-way play was noticed as he led the NCAA with a 61.7% face-off win percentage and was named the 2017–18 ECAC Best Defensive Forward. Returning as co-captain for his junior season with Clarkson in 2018–19, Sturm led the team in scoring and assists with 45 points in 39 games. In his standout season for the top ranked Golden Knights, he was named the ECAC Hockey Best Defensive Forward for the second consecutive season, a Top Ten Hobey Baker Award Finalist, a finalist for the ECAC Hockey Player of the Year Award, named to the 2019 ECAC Hockey All-Tournament Team and an ECAC First-Team All-League selection; as an undrafted free agent, Sturm attracted league wide NHL interest following his junior season, opting to forgo his senior year in signing a one-year, entry-level contract for the remainder of the 2018–19 season, with the Minnesota Wild on April 1, 2019.
He joined the out of contention Wild making his NHL debut in a 3–0 defeat to the Boston Bruins on April 4, 2019. Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Eliteprospects.com, or The Internet Hockey Database