The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Amherst is a town in Amherst County, United States. The population was 2,231 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Amherst County. Amherst is part of the Lynchburg Metropolitan Statistical Area. Amherst was founded in 1807. Known as "The Oaks" and "Seven Oaks", it began as a mere stagecoach station on the Charlottesville-Lynchburg road. Once Nelson County was separated from Amherst County in 1807, the community became the seat of Amherst County, it was at this time that the village decided to rename itself in honor of French and Indian War hero Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst. Major-General Amherst had been the hero of the Battle of Ticonderoga and served as the governor of the Colony of Virginia from 1763 to 1768. On April 15, 1910, Amherst was incorporated by the order of the Circuit Court. A charter was granted to the town by the General Assembly in 1950; the official town seal was created by a commercial artist from Dayton, Ohio. His original proposal featured the "sleeping giant", but this was rejected since it represented an area outside the town's limits.
According to town legend, while a group was in the Clerk's office in the town hall engaged in conversation on the topics of the day, looking eastward along E. Court Street, it was suggested that the Amherst courthouse be used as a model for the official seal. During that era, a large letter "A" was attached to a radio antenna tower beside the telephone company building, adjacent to the courthouse; this internally illuminated. Six months Cruea returned to the town and delivered a framed original of a proposed seal, his proposal incorporated the "A" and the town's date of incorporation. Cruea's proposal became Amherst's official seal; the original seal is located on the wall of the town council chambers. One of the main landmarks of Amherst is the roundabout located at the intersection of Main Street and U. S. Route 60. "The Circle," as it is affectionately referred to by Amherst residents, is the oldest traffic circle in the VDOT system. The fountain and the landscaping at the circle were installed and are maintained by the Village Garden Club.
Another landmark of Amherst is the Amherst County courthouse. An original courthouse was built in 1809 but was torn down in 1872, the current courthouse was built shortly thereafter. All Amherst County records have been stored in the courthouse since 1761 when Amherst‑Nelson counties were divided from Albemarle County. Other important sites located in or near the town include the Bear Mountain Indian Mission School, Edgewood, 1818, Edgewood, 1858, Forest Hill, The Glebe, Dulwich Manor, Tusculum; these places are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Amherst is located at 37°34′37″N 79°3′2″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 5.0 square miles, all of it land. Amherst is 25 miles southeast of Lexington, 44 miles southwest from Charlottesville, 20 miles northwest from Appomattox, only 13 miles north of Lynchburg; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,251 people, 940 households, 568 families residing in the town. The population density was 451.3 people per square mile.
There were 1,000 housing units at an average density of 200.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 68.95% White, 29.63% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.04% from other races, 0.76% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.02% of the population. There were 940 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.4% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.5% were non-families. 37.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.84. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.6% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 24.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.3 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $33,000, the median income for a family was $44,181. Males had a median income of $35,714 versus $20,321 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,457. About 13.3% of families and 18.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.1% of those under age 18 and 26.5% of those age 65 or over. Amherst has many public schools which provide secondary education to local children. There are opportunities for higher learning. Amherst County School System operates the public education system in Amherst; the Public schools in the Amherst area are: Amherst Elementary School Central Elementary School Amherst Middle School Amherst County High School In addition, Amherst is served by the women's liberal arts college Sweet Briar College. Central Virginia Community College has a small center in Amherst that serves the community in higher education. Amherst has several places of business and commerce that provide products and jobs for the community.
Major employers in and near the town include: Ambriar Shopping Center Mountainview Shopping Center Clorox Buffalo Air Sweet Briar College Hermle Greif Amherst provides services for the town (and in some cases outside the corp
George Washington and Jefferson National Forests
The George Washington and Jefferson National Forests are U. S. National Forests that combine to form one of the largest areas of public land in the Eastern United States, they cover 1.8 million acres of land in the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky. 1 million acres of the forest are remote and undeveloped and 139,461 acres have been designated as wilderness areas, which eliminates future development. George Washington National Forest was established on May 1918 as the Shenandoah National Forest; the forest was renamed after the first President on June 28, 1932. Natural Bridge National Forest was added on July 22, 1933. Jefferson National Forest was formed on April 21, 1936 by combining portions of the Unaka and George Washington National Forests with other land. In 1995, the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests were administratively combined; the border between the two forests follows the James River. The combined forest is administered from its headquarters in Virginia.
The northern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway, separately administered by the National Park Service, runs through the Forest. Over 2,000 miles of hiking trails, including segments of the Appalachian Trail, go through the forest. Virginia's highest point, Mount Rogers, is located in the Mount Rogers National Recreation Area, part of the forest. Other notable mountains include Elliott Knob, which has one of the last remaining fire lookout towers in the eastern U. S. and Whitetop Mountain. 230,000 acres of old-growth forests. The ghost town of Lignite, Virginia lies within the forest; the deepest gorge east of the Mississippi River, Breaks Interstate Park, is located in the forest. Roaring Run Furnace is the only site on the National Register of Historic Places owned by the Jefferson National Forest; the Forests' vast and mountainous terrain harbors a great variety of plant life—over 50 species of trees and over 2,000 species of shrubs and herbaceous plants. The Forests contain some 230,000 acres of old growth forests, representing all of the major forest communities found within them.
Locations of old growth include Peters Mountain, Mount Pleasant National Scenic Area, Rich Hole Wilderness, Flannery Ridge, Pick Breeches Ridge, Laurel Fork Gorge, Pickem Mountain, Mount Rogers National Recreation Area. The Ramsey's Draft and Kimberling Creek Wildernesses in particular are old-growth; the black bear is common, enough so that there is a short hunting season to prevent overpopulation. White-tailed deer, bald eagles, weasel and marten are known to inhabit the Forests; the forests are popular hiking, mountain biking, hunting destinations. The Appalachian Trail extends for 330 miles from the southern end of Shenandoah National Park through the forest and along the Blue Ridge Parkway; the forest is within a two-hour drive for over ten million people and thus receives large numbers of visitors in the region closest to Shenandoah National Park. The George Washington National Forest is a popular destination for trail runners, it is the location for several Ultramarathons, including the Massanutten Mountain Trails 100 miler, the Old Dominion 100 miler, the Old Dominion Memorial 100 miler.
George Washington Forest is the venue for Nature Camp, a natural science education-oriented summer camp for youth. The camp is located on national forest land near the town of Virginia, it has operated at this location since the summer of 1953. Note that Jefferson National Forest is located in 22 separate counties, more than any other National Forest except Mark Twain National Forest in Missouri, which lies in 29 counties. Note that Botetourt and Rockbridge counties, at the dividing line between the two forests, include parts of both forests. Thirdly, note that the state of Kentucky has little area, with its two counties bringing up the tail end of Jefferson National Forest. Ranger offices are the Forest Service's public service offices. Maps and other information about the forests can be obtained at these locations; these offices are open Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. The Supervisor's Office in Roanoke is not located in the forest and is an administrative location. District offices are listed from north to south.
Counties are in Virginia. There are 139,461 acres of federally designated wilderness areas in the two forests under the United States National Wilderness Preservation System. All are except as indicated; the largest of these is the Mountain Lake Wilderness, at 16,511 acres. There are 17 wildernesses in Jefferson National Forest, second only to Tongass National Forest, which has 19; the first camp of the Civilian Conservation Corps NF-1, Camp Roosevelt, was established in the George Washington National Forest near Luray, Virginia. It is now the site of the Camp Roosevelt Recreation Area. Great North Mountain Massanutten Mountain Shenandoah Mountain Monongahela National Forest—adjoining forest in West Virginia George Washington and Jefferson National Forests U. S. Forest Service, George Washington National Forest, Dry River District Collection at James Madison University's Special Collections
Madison Heights, Virginia
Madison Heights is a census-designated place in Amherst County, United States. The population was 11,285 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Lynchburg Metropolitan Statistical Area. Fort Riverview, Galt's Mill Complex, Oak Lawn, Hanshill are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Mt. Sinai Baptist Church is a Black church in Madison Heights. In 1974, the pastor was Rev. Roger Ford. Madison Heights is located at 37°26′22″N 79°7′2″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 19.5 square miles, of which 19.2 square miles is land and 0.31 square miles, or 1.67%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 11,584 people, 4,451 households, 3,182 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 600.7 people per square mile. There were 4,656 housing units at an average density of 241.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 77.80% White, 19.57% African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.45% Asian, 0.58% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.89% of the population. There were 4,451 households out of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.2% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.5% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.88. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 21.9% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $32,359, the median income for a family was $39,415. Males had a median income of $30,340 versus $22,009 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $15,589. About 7.2% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.6% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over.
The Central Virginia Training Center is a state education facility in Madison Heights. It was known as the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feebleminded where forced sterilizations were conducted, 8,300 from 1924 to 1972 on those determined to be "unfit". Carrie Buck, the plaintiff in the United States Supreme Court case Buck v. Bell, was sterilized after being classified as "feeble-minded", as part of the state's eugenics program while she was a patient at the Colony; the story of Carrie Buck's sterilization and the court case was made into a television drama in 1994, Against Her Will: The Carrie Buck Story. "Virginia State Epileptic Colony," a song by the Manic Street Preachers on their 2009 album Journal For Plague Lovers, addresses the state's program of eugenics
1790 United States Census
The United States Census of 1790 was the first census of the whole United States. It recorded the population of the United States as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws. In the first census, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214. Congress assigned responsibility for the 1790 census to the marshals of United States judicial districts under an act which, with minor modifications and extensions, governed census taking until the 1840 census. "The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president." Both Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and President George Washington expressed skepticism over the results, believing that the true population had been undercounted.
If there was indeed an undercount, possible explanations for it include dispersed population, poor transportation links, limitations of contemporary technology, individual refusal to participate. Although the Census was proved statistically factual, based on data collected, the records for several states were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830. One third of the original census data have been lost or destroyed since their original documentation; these include some 1790 data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont. No microdata from the 1790 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves.
Under the direction of the current Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, marshals collected data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory. The census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. At 17.8 percent, the 1790 Census's proportion of slaves to the free population was the highest recorded by any census. Media related to 1790 United States Census at Wikimedia Commons Historic US Census data 1790 Census of Population and Housing official reports Population of 24 Urban Places: 1790
Campbell County, Virginia
Campbell County is a United States county situated in the south central part of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Located in the Piedmont region of Virginia, Campbell borders the Blue Ridge Mountains; the county seat is Rustburg. Grounded on a tobacco cash crop economy, Campbell County was created in 1782 from part of Bedford County; the county was named in honor of hero of the American Revolutionary War. Campbell County is part of VA Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the county population is 54,842. The number of residents has grown in every census after 1930, the total population has more than doubled since that time; the Native American tribes of the Monacan and Cherokee were the original inhabitants of the Campbell County area, but were forced west due to the settlers' progress. Governor Willaim Gooch in 1727 created a couple of "inducements" in order to lure settlers to the Campbell County area; these inducements were that if one settled on the Staunton River "in the bounds of the newly formed County of Brunswick" they would be freed from paying levies for ten years.
The second "inducement" was that the settler could claim 400 acres by building a cabin on the land and by "planting a patch of grain". The inducement's attempt to draw settlers was not vastly successful with the exception of a few new settlers, the Governor soon took mention of his inducements to the ocean ports in which immigrants were arriving in America, as well as to the ports back in their homelands; this great difficulty in gaining new settlers for Campbell County is one of the reasons that the Governor allowed the Scoth-Irish immigrants with Presbyterian beliefs to gain religious freedom, in order to secure as many new settlers as possible for the newly founded county. The area that would become Campbell County was first settled by Europeans Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, in the late 1730s. After nearly fifty years of immigration and development, the newly formed county was established in 1782 from part of Bedford County, was the first county formed after the American Revolution. Campbell County was named for Revolutionary War hero, General William Campbell, known for the 1780 Battle of Kings Mountain.
The independent city of Lynchburg, Virginia was subsequently formed from the county's land in 1786. Jeremiah Rust donated the land; the towns of AltaVista and Brookneal were created due to their business advantages as well as the "intersection of trails". Altavista was planned by a group of businessmen in 1907, due to its "strategic" location and "potential" as a new location for a railroad. From its earliest days, the county relied on tobacco as the primary cash crop and basis for the economy, though it developed early manufacturing operations. Brookneal, with its strategic location on the Staunton River, was long an important tobacco and textile hub. However, the departure of manufacturing and the changing tobacco market has forced Campbell to transform from a agricultural area into a mixture of suburban and rural communities. Campbell County was an iron manufacturer and begun operations Pre-Revolutionary War and continued operations in Oxford Iron Works until it was closed in 1875; the building still remains standing to today.
Campbell County opened its first public school in 1871 after the Civil War. In 1878, Campbell County and Lynchburg became two separate entities when Lynchburg was recognized as an independent city; the first school fair was held in Rustburg, the county seat, in 1908. This was the first school fair held in Virginia and was started by the Virginia Federation of Women's Club, "with the aid of J. S. Thomas school examiner in the district, with the agreement of the Van Dyke League to help in Campbell." This fair was a showcase of "training," as well as each child's best work. Campbell County and its residents have given aid in many wars, they have had soldiers involved in the American Revolution, Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, Vietnam War, Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan. The three main religions in Campbell County's origin was Quakerism and Presbyterian; each of these religions and those who practiced them came to Campbell County in order to gain religious freedom, they migrated from many places, but most migrated from around the area of Colonial Williamsburg where the Episcopal Church reigned and made practicing other religions difficult.
The Quakers gained a foothold within the Campbell County area due to Sarah Clark Lynch, wife of Charles Lynch, the founder of the ferry boat service across the James River and mother of John Lynch, the founder of Lynchburg. Due to Sarah Lynch's influence their application for a meeting house was approved, the South River Friends Meeting House was built; the Quakers migrated from the area due to disagreements with the other Campbell County populace over issues such as slavery and the American Revolution. The Quakers maintain pacifist beliefs and as such during the American Revolution when much of America was fighting for its independence from Great Britain their Quaker neighbors apparent refusal to aid them in their fight for independence angered many and created a wedge between the Quakers and the Non-Quakers. Another issue of contention that the Campbell County populace had with the Quakers was their adamant belief in the abolition of slavery as the Virginian Quakers had freed all of their slaves in 1817, as such preached how slavery was wrong and should be disallowed, which created tension with their slave-holding neighbors and caused many Quakers to leave the Campbell County area and to move West.
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government