The Amiga 1200, or A1200, is a personal computer in the Amiga computer family released by Commodore International, aimed at the home computer market. It was launched on October 21, 1992, at a base price of £399 in the United Kingdom and $599 in the United States; the A1200 was launched a few months after the Amiga 600 using a similar, slimline design that replaced the earlier Amiga 500 Plus and Amiga 500. Whereas the A600 used the 16-bit Motorola 68000 of earlier Amigas, the A1200 was built around a faster, more powerful variant of the Motorola 68020. Physically the A1200 is an all-in-one design incorporating the CPU, disk drives in one physical unit; the A1200 has a similar hardware architecture to Commodore's Amiga CD32 game console. Only 30,000 A1200s were available at the UK launch. During the first year of its life the system sold well, but Commodore ran into cash flow problems and filed for bankruptcy. Worldwide sales figures for the A1200 are unknown, but 95,000 systems were sold in Germany before Commodore's bankruptcy.
After Commodore's demise in 1994, the A1200 disappeared from the market but was relaunched by Escom in 1995. The new Escom A1200 was priced at £399, it came bundled with two games, seven applications and AmigaOS 3.1. It was criticized for being priced 150 pounds higher than the Commodore variant, sold for two years prior, it came with a modified PC floppy disk drive, incompatible with some Amiga software. The A1200 was discontinued in 1996 as the parent company folded; the A1200 offers a number of advantages over earlier lower-budget Amiga models. It is a 32-bit design; the AGA chipset used in the A1200 is a significant improvement. AGA increases the color palette from 4096 colors to 16.8 million colors with up to 256 on-screen colors and an improved HAM mode allowing 262,144 on-screen colors. The graphics hardware features improved sprite capacity and faster graphics performance due to faster video memory. Additionally, compared to the A600 the A1200 offers greater expansion possibilities. Although it is a significant upgrade, the A1200 did not sell as well as the 500 and proved to be Commodore's last lower-budget model before filing for bankruptcy in 1994.
This is because the 1200 failed to repeat the technological advantage over competitors like the first Amiga systems. The AGA chipset was something of a disappointment. Commodore had been working on a much-improved version of the original Amiga chipset, codenamed "AAA", but when development fell behind they rushed out the less-improved AGA, found on the A4000 and CD32 units. While AGA is not notably less capable than its competition, when compared to VGA and its emerging extensions, the Amiga no longer commanded the lead it had in earlier times. Additionally, the Amiga's custom chips cost more to produce than the ubiquitous commodity chips utilized in PCs, making the A1200 more expensive; some industry commentators felt that the 68020 microprocessor was too outdated and that the new system should have been fitted with a 68030 to be competitive. Another issue was that the A1200 never supported high-density floppy disks without a special external drive or unreliable hacks, despite the PC HD drive in Escom models.
The gaming market, a major factor in the A500's popularity, was becoming more competitive with the emergence of more advanced and less expensive fourth generation console gaming systems, multimedia-enabled IBM PC compatibles. As a result, fewer retailers carried the A1200 in North America; the A1200 received bad press for being incompatible with a number of Amiga 500 games. Further criticism was directed at the A1200's power supply, inadequate in expanded systems, limiting upgrade options, popular with earlier Amiga models. Due to fewer sales and short lifetime, not as many games were produced for the A1200 than for the previous generations of Amiga computers; the Amiga 1200 was developed and released during the waning days of the home computer market its manufacturer once dominated. While Commodore never released any official sales figures, Commodore Frankfurt gave a figure of 95,000 Amiga 1200 systems sold in Germany. Worldwide sales of the A1200 would have been less than 1 million units; the A1200 has a Motorola 68EC020 CPU.
It is noteworthy that, like the 68000, the 68EC020 has a 24-bit address space, allowing for a theoretical maximum of 16 MB of memory. A stock A1200 has 2 MB of in-built "chip RAM".. Up to 8 MB of "fast RAM" can be added in the "trap-door" expansion slot, which doubles the speed of a stock machine. Various CPU upgrades featuring 68020, 68030, 68040, 68060 and PowerPC processors were made available by third-party developers; such upgrades utilize faster and greater capacity memory. The A1200 shipped with Commodore's third-generation Amiga chipset, the Advanced Graphics Architecture, which features improved graphical abilities in comparison to the earlier generations. However, the sound hardware remains identical to the design used in the Amiga 1000, though the AGA chipset allows higher sampling rates for sound playback, either by using a video mode with higher horizontal scan rate or by using the CPU to drive audio output directly. Like earlier models, the A1200 features several Amiga-specific connectors including two DE9M ports for joysticks and light pens, a standard 25-pin RS-232 serial port and a 2
Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows 9x family of operating systems. The first operating system in the 9x family, it is the successor to Windows 3.1x, was released to manufacturing on August 15, 1995, to retail on August 24, 1995. Windows 95 merged Microsoft's separate MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows products, featured significant improvements over its predecessor, most notably in the graphical user interface and in its simplified "plug-and-play" features. There were major changes made to the core components of the operating system, such as moving from a cooperatively multitasked 16-bit architecture to a 32-bit preemptive multitasking architecture, at least when running only 32-bit protected mode applications. Accompanied by an extensive marketing campaign, Windows 95 introduced numerous functions and features that were featured in Windows versions, such as the taskbar, the "Start" button and the ways the user could navigate. Three years after its introduction, Windows 95 was succeeded by Windows 98.
Microsoft ended extended support for Windows 95 on December 31, 2001. The initial design and planning of Windows 95 can be traced back to around March 1992, just around the time before the release of Windows 3.1. At this time, Windows for Workgroups 3.11 and Windows NT 3.1 were still in development and Microsoft's plan for the future was focused on Cairo. Cairo would be Microsoft's next-generation operating system based on Windows NT, featuring a new user interface and an object-based file system, but it was not planned to be shipped before 1994. However, Cairo would ship in late July 1996 in the form of Windows NT 4.0, but without the object-based file system, which would evolve into WinFS. With Windows 3.1's release, IBM started shipping OS/2 2.0. Microsoft realized they were in need of an updated version of Windows that could support 32-bit applications and preemptive multitasking, but could still run on low-end hardware. So the development of Windows "Chicago" was started and, as it was planned for a late 1993 release, became known as Windows 93, known as Windows 4.0.
The decision was made not to include a new user interface, as this was planned for Cairo, only focus on making installation and networking easier. Windows 93 would ship together with MS-DOS 7.0, offering a more integrated experience to the user and making it pointless for other companies to create DOS clones. MS-DOS 7.0 was in development at that time under the code name "Jaguar" and could optionally run on top of a Windows 3.1-based 32-bit protected-mode kernel called "Cougar" in order to better compete with DR-DOS. The first version of Chicago's feature specification was finished on September 30, 1992. Cougar was to become Chicago's kernel. Prior to Windows 95's official release, users in the United States and United Kingdom had an opportunity to participate in the Windows 95 Preview Program. For US$19.95/£19.95, users would receive several 3.5-inch floppy disks that would be used to install Windows 95 either as an upgrade from Windows 3.1x or as a fresh installation. Participants were given a free preview of The Microsoft Network, the online service that Microsoft launched with Windows 95.
During the preview period, Microsoft established various electronic distribution points for promotional and technical documentation on Chicago, including a detailed document for media reviewers describing the new system highlights. The preview versions expired in November 1995, after which the user would have to purchase their own copy of the final version of Windows 95. Windows 95 was designed to be maximally compatible with existing MS-DOS and 16-bit Windows programs and device drivers while offering a more stable and better performing system; the Windows 95 architecture is an evolution of Windows for Workgroups' 386 enhanced mode. The lowest level of the operating system consists of a large number of virtual device drivers running in 32-bit protected mode and one or more virtual DOS machines running in virtual 8086 mode; the virtual device drivers are responsible for handling physical devices, emulating virtual devices used by the virtual machines or providing various system services. The three most important virtual device drivers are: Virtual Machine Manager Responsible for memory management, event handling, interrupt handling and initializing virtual device drivers, creating new virtual machines and thread scheduling.
Configuration Manager Responsible for implementing Play functionality. Installable File System Manager Coordinates access to supported file systems. Windows 95 shipped with support for FAT12, FAT16, the VFAT extension, ISO 9660 and network redirectors, with releases supporting FAT32. Access requests to physical media are sent to Input/Output Supervisor, a component responsible for scheduling the requests; each physical media has its own device driver: access to the disk is performed by a port driver, while access to a SCSI device is handled by a miniport driver working atop the SCSI layer. Port and miniport drivers perform I/O operations in 32-bit protected mode, bypassing MS-DOS and BIOS, giving a significant performance improvement. In case there is no native Windows driver for a certain storage device, or if a device is forced to run in compatibility mode, the Real Mode Mapper can access it through MS-DOS. 32-bit Windows programs are assigned their own memory segments, which can be adju
King v. Burwell, 576 U. S. 988, was a 6-3 decision by the Supreme Court of the United States interpreting provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The Court's decision upheld, as consistent with the statute, the outlay of premium tax credits to qualifying persons in all states, both those with exchanges established directly by a state, those otherwise established by the Department of Health and Human Services; the petitioners had argued that the plain language of the statute provided eligibility for tax credits only to those persons in states with state-operated exchanges. The Court found the plaintiffs' interpretation to be "the most natural reading of the pertinent statutory phrase." The Court found the statute as a whole to be ambiguous, that "the pertinent statutory phrase" ought to be interpreted in a manner "that is compatible with the rest of the law." The majority opinion stated: "Congress made the guaranteed issue and community rating requirements applicable in every State in the Nation.
But those requirements only work when combined with tax credits. So it stands to reason that Congress meant for those provisions to apply in every State as well." King v. Burwell, Halbig v. Burwell, Pruitt v. Burwell, Indiana v. IRS were federal lawsuits challenging U. S. Treasury regulation, 26 C. F. R. § 1.36B-2, issued under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The challengers argued that the ACA allows for certain subsidies only on state-established exchanges, that the regulation as implemented by the Internal Revenue Service, providing for subsidies on state-run exchanges as well as federal exchanges, exceeded the authority Congress granted to it; the Competitive Enterprise Institute funded the King and Halbig lawsuits. Timothy Jost, a health law professor at the Washington and Lee University School of Law, wrote that if the challenges were successful 5 million Americans who obtained coverage through federal exchanges could have lost their tax credits and, in all likelihood, their health insurance coverage.
According to Jost, the individual and employer mandates might have "disappear or undermined" in states with federal exchanges. Insurers, would still have been required to cover all applicants regardless of pre-existing conditions, which could have destabilized the individual insurance markets in states with federal exchanges and could have led to rapid rises in premiums and the possible collapse of one or more of those markets; the Urban Institute estimated that a decision in favor of King would have resulted in 8.2 million more uninsured people in 34 states. Government figures released June 2, 2015 show that 6.4 million Americans were enrolled in a federal exchange and received a supplement at that time, thus would have lost the subsidy had the court found for the plaintiff. On the benefits side, supporters of the plaintiffs argued that stopping unauthorized government spending was important in its own right, that issuing the subsidies was unlawfully subjecting 57 million Americans to taxes from which they were statutorily exempt, that removing those subsidies "would lend transparency to the PPACA by revealing to millions of Exchange enrollees the full cost of the law’s mandates and regulations."
The American Action Forum estimated a ruling for the plaintiffs would result in a pay increase of up to $940 per affected worker, 237,000 new jobs, nearly 1.3 million workers added to the labor force. As of 2015, sixteen states and the District of Columbia had set up their own exchanges. If the subsidies and the mandates had been struck down in the other 34 states, many thought that the economic foundation of the ACA would have been undermined, putting the entirety of the legislation at risk. Supporters of the plaintiffs, as well as some politicians argued that the effects of striking down the subsidies would have been mitigated by government action; the district court in King, the district court in Halbig both ruled against the plaintiffs. However, on July 22, 2014, the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals in King and the D. C. Court of Appeals in Halbig came to opposite conclusions; when the D. C. appeals court decided to rehear the case en banc, the court vacated its initial ruling, removing the split.
On September 9, 2014, in Pruitt v. Burwell, the U. S. District Court for the Eastern District of Oklahoma ruled for the plaintiffs, invalidating the IRS rule. On November 7, 2014, the Supreme Court granted certiorari in the King case. Oral arguments were heard on March 4, 2015, a decision was handed down on June 25, 2015, with a win for the Obama administration preserving subsidies in states that have not established their own exchange; the ACA legislation includes the language "enrolled in through an Exchange established by the State under 1311". As implemented by the IRS, ACA regulations use a more broad definition encompassing both the state exchanges and the federal exchanges set up under section 1321; the legislation includes the phrase "established by the State under 1311" in nine different locations. Internal Revenue Code section 36B, enacted as part of the ACA, includes the following provision: In the case of an applicable taxpayer, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle for any taxable year an amount equal to the premium assistance credit amount of the taxpayer for the taxable year.
The monthly premiums for such month for 1 or more qualified health plans offered in the individual market within a State which cover the ta