The Commodore Amiga 1000 known as the A1000 and simply as the Amiga, is the first personal computer released by Commodore International in the Amiga line. It combines the 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 CPU, powerful by 1985 standards with one of the most advanced graphics and sound systems in its class, runs a preemptive multitasking operating system that fits into 256 KB of read-only memory and shipped with 256 KB of RAM; the primary memory can be expanded internally with a manufacturer-supplied 256 KB module for a total of 512 KB of RAM. Using the external slot the primary memory can be expanded up to 8.5 MB. The A1000 has a number of characteristics that distinguish it from Amiga models: It is the only model to feature the short-lived Amiga check-mark logo on its case, the majority of the case is elevated to give a storage area for the keyboard when not in use, the inside of the case is engraved with the signatures of the Amiga designers; the A1000's case was designed by Howard Stolz. As Senior Industrial Designer at Commodore, Stolz was the mechanical lead and primary interface with Sanyo in Japan, the contract manufacturer for the A1000 casing.
The Amiga 1000 was manufactured in two variations: One uses the NTSC television standard and the other uses the PAL television standard. The NTSC variant was the initial model sold in North America; the PAL model was manufactured in Germany and sold in countries using the PAL television standard. The first NTSC systems lacks the EHB video mode, present in all Amiga models; because AmigaOS was rather buggy at the time of the A1000's release, the OS was not placed in ROM then. Instead, the A1000 includes a daughterboard with 256 KB of RAM, dubbed the "writable control store", into which the core of the operating system is loaded from floppy disk; the WCS is write-protected after loading, system resets do not require a reload of the WCS. In Europe, the WCS was referred to as WOM, a play on the more conventional term "ROM"; the preproduction Amiga released to developers in early 1985 contained 128 KB of RAM with an option to expand it to 256 KB. Commodore increased the system memory to 256 KB due to objections by the Amiga development team.
The names of the custom chips were different. The casing of the preproduction Amiga was identical to the production version: the main difference being an embossed Commodore logo in the top left corner, it did not have the carry handle. The Amiga 1000 has a Motorola 68000 CPU running at 7.15909 MHz or 7.09379 MHz double the video color carrier frequency for NTSC or 1.6 times the color carrier frequency for PAL. The system clock timings are derived from the video frequency, which simplifies glue logic and allows the Amiga 1000 to make do with a single crystal. In keeping with its video game heritage, the chipset was designed to synchronize CPU memory access and chipset DMA so the hardware runs in real time without wait-state delays. Though most units were sold with an analog RGB monitor, the A1000 has a built-in composite video output which allows the computer to be connected directly to some monitors other than their standard RGB monitor; the A1000 has a "TV MOD" output, into which an RF Modulator can be plugged, allowing connection to a TV, old enough not to have a composite video input.
The original 68000 CPU can be directly replaced with a Motorola 68010, which can execute instructions faster than the 68000 but introduces a small degree of software incompatibility. Third-party CPU upgrades, which fit in the CPU socket, use faster successors 68020/68881 or 68030/68882 microprocessors and integrated memory; such upgrades have the option to revert to 68000 mode for full compatibility. Some boards have a socket to seat the original 68000, whereas the 68030 cards come with an on-board 68000; the original Amiga 1000 is the only model to have 256 KB of Amiga Chip RAM, which can be expanded to 512 KB with the addition of a daughterboard under a cover in the center front of the machine. RAM may be upgraded via official and third-party upgrades, with a practical upper limit of about 9 MB of "fast RAM" due to the 68000's 24-bit address bus; this memory is accessible only by the CPU permitting faster code execution as DMA cycles are not shared with the chipset. The Amiga 1000 features an 86-pin expansion port.
This port is used by third-party expansions such as SCSI adapters. These resources are handled by the Amiga Autoconfig standard. Other expansion options are available including a bus expander. Introduced on July 23, 1985, during a star-studded gala featuring Andy Warhol and Debbie Harry held at the Vivian Beaumont Theater at Lincoln Center in New York City, machines began shipping in September with a base configuration of 256 KB of RAM at the retail price of US$1,295. A 13-inch analog RGB monitor was available for around US$300, bringing the price of a complete Amiga system to US$1,595. Before the release of the Amiga 500 and Amiga 2000 models in 1987, the A1000 was called Amiga. In the US, the A1000 was marketed as The Amiga from Commodore, with the Commodore logo omitted from the case; the Commodore branding was retained for the international versions. Additionally, the
In computing, a serial port is a serial communication interface through which information transfers in or out one bit at a time. Throughout most of the history of personal computers, data was transferred through serial ports to devices such as modems and various peripherals. While such interfaces as Ethernet, FireWire, USB all send data as a serial stream, the term "serial port" identifies hardware more or less compliant to the RS-232 standard, intended to interface with a modem or with a similar communication device. Modern computers without serial ports may require USB-to-serial converters to allow compatibility with RS-232 serial devices. Serial ports are still used in applications such as industrial automation systems, scientific instruments, point of sale systems and some industrial and consumer products. Server computers may use a serial port as a control console for diagnostics. Network equipment use serial console for configuration. Serial ports are still used in these areas as they are simple and their console functions are standardized and widespread.
A serial port requires little supporting software from the host system. Some computers, such as the IBM PC, use an integrated circuit called a UART; this IC converts characters to and from asynchronous serial form, implementing the timing and framing of data in hardware. Low-cost systems, such as some early home computers, would instead use the CPU to send the data through an output pin, using the bit banging technique. Before large-scale integration UART integrated circuits were common, a minicomputer would have a serial port made of multiple small-scale integrated circuits to implement shift registers, logic gates and all the other logic for a serial port. Early home computers had proprietary serial ports with pinouts and voltage levels incompatible with RS-232. Inter-operation with RS-232 devices may be impossible as the serial port cannot withstand the voltage levels produced and may have other differences that "lock in" the user to products of a particular manufacturer. Low-cost processors now allow higher-speed, but more complex, serial communication standards such as USB and FireWire to replace RS-232.
These make it possible to connect devices that would not have operated feasibly over slower serial connections, such as mass storage and video devices. Many personal computer motherboards still have at least one serial port if accessible only through a pin header. Small-form-factor systems and laptops may omit RS-232 connector ports to conserve space, but the electronics are still there. RS-232 has been standard for so long that the circuits needed to control a serial port became cheap and exist on a single chip, sometimes with circuitry for a parallel port; the individual signals on a serial port are unidirectional and when connecting two devices the outputs of one device must be connected to the inputs of the other. Devices are divided into two categories data terminal equipment and data circuit-terminating equipment. A line, an output on a DTE device is an input on a DCE device and vice versa so a DCE device can be connected to a DTE device with a straight wired cable. Conventionally and terminals are DTE while modems and peripherals are DCE.
If it is necessary to connect two DTE devices a cross-over null modem, in the form of either an adapter or a cable, must be used. Serial port connectors are gendered, only allowing connectors to mate with a connector of the opposite gender. With D-subminiature connectors, the male connectors have protruding pins, female connectors have corresponding round sockets. Either type of connector can be mounted on a panel. Connectors mounted on DTE are to be male, those mounted on DCE are to be female. However, this is far from universal. While the RS-232 standard specified a 25-pin D-type connector, many designers of personal computers chose to implement only a subset of the full standard: they traded off compatibility with the standard against the use of less costly and more compact connectors; the desire to supply serial interface cards with two ports required that IBM reduce the size of the connector to fit onto a single card back panel. A DE-9 connector fits onto a card with a second DB-25 connector.
Starting around the time of the introduction of the IBM PC-AT, serial ports were built with a 9-pin connector to save cost and space. However, presence of a 9-pin D-subminiature connector is not sufficient to indicate the connection is in fact a serial port, since this connector is used for video and other purposes; some miniaturized electronics graphing calculators and hand-held amateur and two-way radio equipment, have serial ports using a phone connector the smaller 2.5 or 3.5 mm connectors and use the most basic 3-wire interface. Many models of Macintosh favor the related RS-422 standard using German mini-DIN connectors, except in the earliest models; the Macintosh included a standard set of two ports for connection to a printer and a modem, but some PowerBook laptops had only one combined port to save space. Since most devices do not use all of the 20 signals that are defined by the standard, smaller connectors are used. For example, the 9-pin DE-9 connector is used by most IBM-compatible PCs since the IBM PC AT, has been standardized as TIA-574.
More modular connectors have been used. Most comm
The Motorola 68030 is a 32-bit microprocessor in the Motorola 68000 family. It was released in 1987; the 68030 was the successor to the Motorola 68020, was followed by the Motorola 68040. In keeping with general Motorola naming, this CPU is referred to as the 030; the 68030 features 273,000 transistors with on-chip data caches of 256 bytes each. It has an on-chip memory management unit but does not have a built in floating-point unit; the 68881 and the faster 68882 floating point unit chips could be used with the 68030. A lower cost version of the 68030, the Motorola 68EC030, was released, lacking the on-chip MMU, it was available in both 132 pin QFP and 128 pin PGA packages. The poorer thermal characteristics of the QFP package limited the full 68030 QFP variant to 33 MHz. There was a small supply of QFP packaged EC variants; as a microarchitecture, the 68030 is a 68020 core with an additional 256 byte data cache and a process shrink and an added burst mode for the caches, where four longwords can be placed in the cache without further CPU intervention.
Motorola used the process shrink to pack more hardware on the die. The integration of the MMU made it more cost-effective than the 68020 with an external MMU. However, the 68030 can switch between asynchronous buses without a reset; the 68030 lacks some of the 68020's instructions, but it increases performance by ≈5% while reducing power draw by ≈25% compared to the 68020. The 68030 can be used with the 68020 bus, in which case its performance is similar to 68020 that it was derived from. However, the 68030 provides an additional synchronous bus interface which, if used, accelerates memory accesses up to 33% compared to an clocked 68020; the finer manufacturing process allowed Motorola to scale the full-version processor to 50 MHz. The EC variety topped out at 40 MHz; the 68030 was used in many models of the Apple Macintosh II and Commodore Amiga series of personal computers, NeXT Cube Alpha Microsystems multiuser systems, some descendants of the Atari ST line such as the Atari TT and the Atari Falcon.
It was used in Unix workstations such as the Sun Microsystems Sun-3x line of desktop workstations, laser printers and the Nortel Networks DMS-100 telephone central office switch. More the 68030 core has been adapted by Freescale into a microcontroller for embedded applications. LeCroy has used the 68EC030 in certain models of their 9300 Series digital oscilloscopes including “C” suffix models:87-88 and high performance 9300 Series models, along with the Mega Waveform Processing hardware option for 68020-based 9300 Series models; the 68EC030 is a low cost version of the 68030, the difference between the two being that the 68EC030 omits the on-chip memory management unit and is thus an upgraded 68020. The 68EC030 was used as the CPU for the low-cost model of the Amiga 4000, on a number of CPU accelerator cards for the Commodore Amiga line of computers, it was used in the Cisco Systems 2500 Series router, a small-to-medium enterprise computer internetworking appliance. The 50 MHz speed is exclusive to the plastic' 030 stopped at 40 MHz.
This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later. 68030 images and descriptions at cpu-collection.de Official information about the Freescale MC68030 microcontroller Motorola 68k family data sheets at bitsavers.org
The NewTek Video Toaster is a combination of hardware and software for the editing and production of NTSC standard-definition video. The plug-in expansion card worked with the Amiga 2000 computer and provides a number of BNC connectors on the exposed rear edge that provide connectivity to common analog video sources like VHS; the related software tools support video switching, chroma keying, character generation and image manipulation. Together, the hardware and software provided a low-cost video editing suite for a few thousand U. S. dollars that rivaled the output of professional systems costing ten times as much at the time. It allowed small studios to produce high-quality material and resulted in a cottage industry for video production not unlike the success of the Macintosh in the desktop publishing market only a few years earlier; the Video Toaster won the Emmy Award for Technical Achievement in 1993. Other parts of the original software package were spun off as stand-alone products, notably LightWave 3D, achieved success on their own.
As the Amiga platform lost market share and Commodore International went bankrupt in 1994 as a result of declining sales, the Video Toaster was moved to the Microsoft Windows platform where it is still available. The company produces what is a portable pre-packaged version of the Video Toaster along with all the computer hardware needed, as the TriCaster; these became all-digital units in 2014. The Video Toaster was designed by NewTek founder Tim Jenison in Kansas. Engineer Brad Carvey, built the first wire wrap prototype, Steve Kell wrote the software for the prototype. Many other people worked on the Toaster; the Toaster was announced at the World of Commodore expo in 1987 and released as a commercial product in December 1990 for the Commodore Amiga 2000 computer system, taking advantage of the video-friendly aspects of that system's hardware to deliver the product at an unusually low cost of $2,399. The Amiga was unique among personal computers in that its system clock at 7.16 MHz was double that of the NTSC color carrier frequency, 3.579 MHz, allowing for simple synchronization of the video signal.
The hardware component is a full-sized card, installed into the Amiga 2000's unique single video expansion slot rather than the standard bus slots, therefore cannot be used with the A500 or A1000 models. The card has several BNC connectors in the rear, which accepts four video input sources and provided two outputs; this initial generation system is a real-time four-channel video switcher. One feature of the Video Toaster is the inclusion of LightWave 3D, a 3D modeling and animation program; this program became so popular and useful in its own right that in 1994 it was made available as standalone product separate from the Toaster systems. Aside from simple fades and cuts, the Video Toaster has a large variety of character generation and complex animated switching effects; these effects are in large part performed with the help of the native Amiga graphics chipset, synchronized to the NTSC video signals. As a result, while the Toaster was rendering a switching animation, the computer desktop display is not visible.
While these effects are unique and inventive, they cannot be modified. Soon Toaster effects were seen everywhere, advertising the device as the brand of switcher those particular production companies were using; the Toaster hardware requires stable input signals, therefore is used along with a separate video sync time-base corrector to stabilize the video sources. Third-party low-cost time-base correctors designed to work with the Toaster came to market, most of which were designed as standard ISA bus cards, taking advantage of the unused Bridgeboard slots; the cards do not use the Bridgeboard to communicate, but as a convenient power supply and physical location. As with all video switchers that use a frame buffer to create DVEs, the video path through the Toaster hardware introduced delays in the signals when the signal was in "digital" mode. Depending on the video setup of the user, this delay could be quite noticeable when viewed along with the corresponding audio, so some users installed audio delay circuits to match the Toaster's video-delay lag, as is common practice in video-switching studios.
A user still needs at least three VTRs and a controller to perform A/B roll linear video editing, as the Toaster serves as a switcher, as the Toaster itself has no edit-controlling capabilities. The frame delays passing through the Toaster and other low-cost video switchers make precise editing a frustrating endeavor. Internal cards and software from other manufacturers are available to control VTRs. A Non-linear editing system product was added with the invention of the Video Toaster Flyer, though the product has never worked to professional standards because it cannot play video without jitters; as a result, the Flyer never caught on as a viable product. Although offered as just an add-on to an Amiga, the product was soon available as a complete turn-key system that included the Toaster and sync generator; these Toaster systems became popular because at a cost of around $5,000 US, they could do much of what a $100,000 professional video switcher (such as an Evans
The Motorola 68020 is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, released in 1984. It is the successor to the Motorola 68010 and is succeeded by the Motorola 68030. A lower cost version was made available, known as the 68EC020. In keeping with naming practices common to Motorola designs, the 68020 is referred to as the "020", pronounced "oh-two-oh" or "oh-twenty"; the 68020 had 32-bit internal and external data and address buses, compared to the early 680x0 models with 16-bit data and 24-bit address buses. The 68020's ALU was natively 32-bit, so could perform 32-bit operations in one clock, whereas the 68000 took two clocks minimum due to its 16-bit ALU. Newer packaging methods allowed the'020 to feature more external pins without the large size that the earlier dual in-line package method required; the 68EC020 lowered cost through a 24-bit address bus. The 68020 was produced at speeds ranging from 12 MHz to 33 MHz; the 68020 added many improvements over the 68010 including a 32-bit arithmetic logic unit, 32-bit external data and address buses, extra instructions and additional addressing modes.
The 68020 had a proper three-stage pipeline. Though the 68010 had a "loop mode", which sped loops through what was a tiny instruction cache, it held only two short instructions and was thus little used; the 68020 replaced this with a proper instruction cache of 256 bytes, the first 68k series processor to feature true on-chip cache memory. The previous 68000 and 68010 processors could only access word and long word data in memory if it were word-aligned; the 68020 had no alignment restrictions on data access. Unaligned accesses were slower than aligned accesses because they required an extra memory access; the 68020 has a coprocessor interface supporting up to eight coprocessors. The main CPU recognizes "F-line" instructions, uses special bus cycles to interact with a coprocessor to execute these instructions. Two types of coprocessors were defined, the floating point unit and the paged memory management unit. Only one PMMU can be used with a CPU. In principle multiple FPUs could be used with a CPU, but it was not done.
The coprocessor interface is asynchronous, so it is possible to run the coprocessors at a different clock rate than the CPU. Multiprocessing support was implemented externally by the use of a RMC pin to indicate an indivisible read-modify-write cycle in progress. All other processors had to hold off memory accesses. Software support for multiprocessing included the CAS and CAS2 instructions. In a multiprocessor system, coprocessors could not be shared between CPUs. To avoid problems with returns from coprocessor, bus error, address error exceptions, it was necessary in a multiprocessor system for all CPUs to be the same model, for all FPUs to be the same model as well; the new instructions included some minor improvements and extensions to the supervisor state, several instructions for software management of a multiprocessing system, some support for high-level languages which did not get used much, bigger multiply and divide instructions, bit field manipulations. While the 68000 had'supervisor mode', it did not meet the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements due to the single instruction'MOVE from SR' being unprivileged but sensitive.
Under the 68010 and this was made privileged, to better support virtualization software. The new addressing modes added scaled indexing and another level of indirection to many of the pre-existing modes, added quite a bit of flexibility to various indexing modes and operations. Though it was not intended, these new modes made the 68020 suitable for page printing; the 68020 had a small 256-byte direct-mapped instruction cache, arranged as 64 four-byte entries. Although small, it still made a significant difference in the performance of many applications; the resulting decrease in bus traffic was important in systems relying on DMA. The 68020 was used in the Apple Macintosh II and Macintosh LC personal computers, Sun 3 workstations, Commodore Amiga 1200, the Hewlett-Packard 8711 Series Network Analyzers and members of the HP 9000/300 family and the Alpha Microsystems AM-2000; the 68020 was an alternative upgrade to the Sinclair QL computer's 68008 in the Super Gold Card interface by Miracle Systems.
The Amiga 2500 and A2500UX was shipped with the A2620 Accelerator using a 68020, a 68881 floating point unit and the 68851 Memory Management Unit. The 2500UX shipped with Amiga Unix, requiring an'020 or'030 processor. A number of digital oscilloscopes from the mid-80s to the late-90s used the 68020, including the LeCroy 9300 Series and the earlier LeCroy 9400 series, along with certain Tektronix TDS Series models.. The HP 54520, 54522, 54540 and 54542 use the 68020, together with a 68882 math coprocessor, it is the processor used on board TGV trains to decode signalling information, sent to the trains through the rails. It is further being used in the flight control and radar systems of the Eurofighter Typhoon combat aircraft; the Nortel Networks DMS-100 telephone central office switch used the
A memory card, flash card or memory cartridge is an electronic flash memory data storage device used for storing digital information. These are used in portable electronic devices, such as digital cameras, mobile phones, laptop computers, tablets, PDAs, portable media players, video game consoles, electronic keyboards, digital pianos. PC Cards were the first commercial memory card formats to come out, but are now used in industrial applications and to connect I/O devices such as modems. Since 1994, a number of memory card formats smaller than the PC Card arrived, the first one was CompactFlash and SmartMedia and Miniature Card; the desire for smaller cards for cell-phones, PDAs, compact digital cameras drove a trend that left the previous generation of "compact" cards looking big. In digital cameras SmartMedia and CompactFlash had been successful. In 2001, SM alone captured 50% of the digital camera market and CF had captured the professional digital camera market. By 2005 however, SD/MMC had nearly taken over SmartMedia's spot, though not to the same level and with stiff competition coming from Memory Stick variants, as well CompactFlash.
In industrial and embedded fields the venerable PC card memory cards still manage to maintain a niche, while in mobile phones and PDAs, the memory card has become smaller. Since 2010, new products of Sony and Olympus have been offered with an additional SD-Card slot; the format war has turned in SD-Card's favor. PCMCIA ATA Type I Card PCMCIA Type II, Type III cards CompactFlash Card, CompactFlash High-Speed CompactFlash Type II, CF+, CF3.0 Microdrive CFexpress MiniCard SmartMedia Card xD-Picture Card, xD-Picture Card Type M Memory Stick, MagicGate Memory Stick. MU-Flash C-Flash SIM card Smart card UFC FISH Universal Transportable Memory Card Standard Intelligent Stick SxS memory card, a new memory card specification developed by Sandisk and Sony. SxS complies to the ExpressCard industry standard. Nexflash Winbond Serial Flash Module cards, size range 2 mb and 4 mb. Many older video game consoles used memory cards to hold saved game data. Cartridge-based systems used battery-backed volatile RAM within each individual cartridge to hold saves for that game.
Cartridges without this RAM wouldn't save progress at all. The Neo Geo AES, released in 1990 by SNK, was the first video game console able to use a memory card. AES memory cards were compatible with Neo-Geo MVS arcade cabinets, allowing players to migrate saves between home and arcade systems and vice versa. Memory cards became commonplace when home consoles moved to read-only optical discs for storing the game program, beginning with systems such as the TurboGrafx-CD and Sega-CD; until the sixth generation of video game consoles, memory cards were based on proprietary formats. Home consoles now use hard disk drive storage for saved games and allow the use of generic USB flash drives or other card formats via a memory card reader to transport game saves and other game information, along with cloud storage saving, though most portable gaming systems still rely on custom memory cartridges to store program data, due to their low power consumption, smaller physical size and reduced mechanical complexity.
Comparison of memory cards Hot swapping