A voiturette is a miniature automobile. Voiturette was first registered by Léon Bollée in 1895 to name his new motor tricycle; the term became so popular in the early years of the motor industry that it was used by many makers to describe their small cars. The word comes from the French word for "automobile", voiture. Between World War I and World War II light-weight racing cars with engines limited to 1500 cc such as the Alfa Romeo 158/159 Alfetta, the Bugatti Type 13 and the original ERAs were known as voiturettes. In France, in the years after World War II a type of small three-wheeled vehicle voiturette was produced. In 1990s, voiturette became a French classification for a vehicle weighing less than 350 kilograms empty and carrying a load of not more than 200 kilograms; the top speed is limited to 45 km/h and engine size to 50 cc or 4 kilowatts for an engine of "another type" for example an electric car. Such vehicles are sometimes called "motor quadricycles" or "motor tricycles"; the driver's license for them is available to people over 16 years and is in category "B1" and is valid, subject to restrictions, in all European Union countries.
French maker Renault's first car was called Voiturette, instead of the common usage then. The 1900 model was considered the first sedan. Dalifol, manufactured in 1896 in France Dalifol & Thomas, manufactured from 1896 until 1898 in France Populaire, manufactured only in 1899 in France Esculapeus, manufactured in 1902 in England Damaizin & Pujos, manufactured in 1910 in France David & Bourgeois, manufactured in 1898 in France Denis de Boisse, manufactured from 1901 until 1904 in France De Riancey, manufactured from 1898 until around 1901 in France Guerraz, manufactured in 1901 in France Guerry et Bourguignon, built in 1907 in France Microcar Description of Light Vehicles
Monocoque structural skin, is a structural system where loads are supported through an object's external skin, similar to an egg shell. The word monocoque is a French term for "single shell" or "single hull". First used in boats, a true monocoque carries both tensile and compressive forces within the skin and can be recognised by the absence of a load-carrying internal frame. Few metal aircraft can be regarded as pure monocoques, as they use a metal shell or sheeting reinforced with frames riveted to the skin, but most of the wooden aircraft are described as monocoques though they incorporate frames. By contrast, a semi-monocoque is a hybrid combining a tensile stressed skin and a compressive structure made up of longerons and ribs or frames. Other semi-monocoques, not to be confused with true monocoques, include vehicle unibodies, which tend to be composites, inflatable shells or balloon tanks, both of which are pressure stabilised; the term is misused as a marketing term for structures built up from hollow components.
Early aircraft were constructed using frames of wood or steel tubing, which could be covered with fabric such as Irish linen or cotton. The fabric made a minor structural contribution in tension but none in compression and was there for aerodynamic reasons only. By considering the structure as a whole and not just the sum of its parts, monocoque construction integrated the skin and frame into a single load-bearing shell with significant improvements to strength and weight. To make the shell, thin strips of wood were laminated into a three dimensional shape. One of the earliest examples was the Deperdussin Monocoque racer in 1912, which used a laminated fuselage made up of three layers of glued poplar veneer, which provided both the external skin and the main load-bearing structure; this produced a smoother surface and reduced drag so that it was able to win most of the races it was entered into. This style of construction was further developed in Germany by LFG Roland using the patented Wickelrumpf form licensed by them to Pfalz Flugzeugwerke who used it on several fighter aircraft.
Each half of the fuselage shell was formed over a male mold using two layers of plywood strips with fabric wrapping between them. The early plywood used was prone to damage from delamination. While all-metal aircraft such as the Junkers J 1 had appeared as early as 1915, these were not monocoques but added a metal skin to an underlying framework; the first metal monocoques were built by Claudius Dornier. He had to overcome a number of problems, not least was the quality of aluminium alloys strong enough to use as structural materials, which formed layers instead of presenting a uniform material. After failed attempts with several large flying boats in which a few components were monocoques, he built the Zeppelin-Lindau V1 to test out a monocoque fuselage. Although it crashed, he learned a lot from its construction; the Dornier-Zeppelin D. I was built in 1918 and although too late for operational service during the war was the first all metal monocoque aircraft to enter production. In parallel to Dornier, Zeppelin employed Adolf Rohrbach, who built the Zeppelin-Staaken E-4/20, which when it flew in 1920 became the first multi-engined monocoque airliner, before being destroyed under orders of the Inter-Allied Commission.
At the end of WWI, the Inter-Allied Technical Commission published details of the last Zeppelin-Lindau flying boat showing its monocoque construction. In the UK, Oswald Short built a number of experimental aircraft with metal monocoque fuselages starting with the 1920 Short Silver Streak in an attempt to convince the air ministry of its superiority over wood. Despite advantages, aluminium alloy monocoques would not become common until the mid 1930s as a result of a number of factors, including design conservatism and production setup costs. Short would prove the merits of the construction method with a series of flying boats, whose metal hulls didn't absorb water as the wooden hulls did improving performance. In the United States, Northrop was a major pioneer, introducing techniques used by his own company and Douglas with the Northrop Alpha. In motor racing, the safety of the driver depends on the car body which must meet stringent regulations and only a few cars have been built with monocoque structures.
An aluminum alloy monocoque chassis was first used in the 1962 Lotus 25 Formula 1 race car and McLaren was the first to use carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers to construct the monocoque of the 1981 McLaren MP4/1. In 1992 the McLaren F1 became the first production car with a carbon-fiber monocoque; the term monocoque is misapplied to unibody cars. Commercial car bodies are never true monocoques but instead use the unibody system, which uses box sections and tubes to provide most of the strength of the vehicle, while the skin adds little strength or stiffness; some armoured fighting vehicles use a monocoque structure with a body shell built up from armour plates, rather than attaching them to a frame. This reduces weight for a given amount of armour. Examples include the German TPz Fuchs and RG-33. French industrialist and engineer Georges Roy attempted in the 1920s to improve on the bicycle-inspired motorcycle frames of the day, which lacked rigidity; this limited their handling and therefore performance.
He applied for a patent in 1926, at the 1929 Paris Automotive Show unveiled his new motorcycle, the Art-Deco styled 1930 Majestic. Its new type of monocoque body solved the p
11th arrondissement of Paris
The 11th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as onzième; the arrondissement, called Popincourt, is situated on the right bank of the River Seine. The arrondissement is one of the most densely populated urban districts of any European city; the eleventh arrondissement is a varied and engaging area. To the west lies the Place de la République, linked to the Place de la Bastille, in the east, by the sweeping, tree-lined Boulevard Richard-Lenoir, with its large markets and children's parks; the Place de la Bastille and the rue du Faubourg St Antoine are full of fashionable cafés, nightlife, they contain a range of boutiques and galleries. The Oberkampf district to the north is another popular area for nightlife; the east is more residential, with more wholesale commerce, while the areas around the Boulevard Voltaire and the Avenue Parmentier are livelier crossroads for the local community. In recent years this district has emerged as one of the trendiest regions of Paris.
On November 13, 2015, it was the site of coordinated bombings that left 132 dead. The land area of this arrondissement is 3.666 km2. The peak population of Paris's 11th arrondissement occurred with 242,295 inhabitants. Today, the arrondissement remains the most densely populated in Paris, accompanied by a large volume of business activity: 149,102 inhabitants and 71,962 jobs in the last census, in 1999; the population consists of a large number of single adults, though its eastern portions are more family-oriented. There is a strong community spirit in most areas of the eleventh, it is interspersed with pleasant squares and parks. Cirque d'hiver Église Saint-Ambroise ESCP-EAP Musée Édith Piaf Musée du Fumeur 11th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage Mairie du 11e website
A cyclecar was a type of small and inexpensive car manufactured in Europe and the United States between 1910 and the early 1920s. The purpose of cyclecars was to fill a gap in the market between the car; the demise of cyclecars was due to larger cars – such as the Citroën 5CV, Austin 7 and Morris Cowley – becoming more affordable. Small, inexpensive vehicles reappeared after World War II, were known as microcars. Cyclecars were propelled by engines with a single cylinder or V-twin configuration, which were air-cooled. Sometimes motorcycle engines were used, in which case the motorcycle gearbox was used. All cyclecars were required to have variable gears; this requirement could be fulfilled by the simplest devices such as provision for slipping the belt on the pulley to act as a clutch, varying of the pulley diameter to change the gear ratio. Methods such as belt drive or chain drive were used to transmit power to the drive wheel to one wheel only, so that a differential was not required; the bodies sometimes offered minimal weather protection or comfort features.
The rise of cyclecars was a direct result of reduced taxation both for registration and annual licences of lightweight small-engined cars. On 14 December 1912, at a meeting of the Federation Internationale des Clubs Moto Cycliste, it was formally decided that there should be an international classification of cyclecars to be accepted by the United Kingdom, United States, The Netherlands, Italy and Germany; as a result of this meeting, the following classes of cyclecars were defined: From 1898 to 1910, automobile production expanded. Light cars of that era were known as voiturettes; the smaller cyclecars appeared around 1910 with a boom shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, with Temple Press launching The Cyclecar magazine on 27 November 1912, the formation of the Cyclecar Club. From 1912, the Motor Cycle show at Olympia became Cycle Car Show; the number of cyclecar manufacturers was less than a dozen in each of the UK and France in 1911, but by 1914, there were over 100 manufacturers in each country, as well as others in Germany and other European countries.
By 1912, the A. C. Sociable was described as "one of the most popular cycle cars on the road, both for pleasure and for business", though another source states that the "Humberette" was the most popular of cycle cars at that time. Many of the numerous makes were short-lived, but several brands achieved greater longevity, including Bédélia, GN and Morgan. By the early 1920s, the days of the cyclecar were numbered. Mass producers, such as Ford, were able to reduce their prices to undercut those of the small cyclecar makers. Similar affordable cars were offered in Europe, such as Austin 7 or Morris Cowley; the cyclecar boom was over. The majority of cyclecar manufacturers closed down; some companies such as Chater-Lea survived by returning to the manufacture of motorcycles. After the Second World War, economic cars were again in demand and a new set of manufacturers appeared; the cyclecar name did not reappear however, the cars were called microcars by enthusiasts and bubble cars by the general population.
Several motor racing events for cyclecars were run between 1913 and 1920. The first race dedicated to cyclecars was organised by the Automobile Club de France in 1913, followed by a Cyclecar GP at Le Mans in 1920; the Auto Cycle Union was to have introduced cycle car racing on the Isle of Man in September 1914, but the race was abandoned due to the onset of the war. Brass Era car Microcar Voiturette Worthington-Williams, Michael. From cyclecar to microcar the story of the cyclecar movement. Beaulieu Books. ISBN 0-901564-54-0. David Thirlby. Minimal Motoring: From Cyclecar to Microcar. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2367-3
Delahaye automobile was an automotive manufacturing company founded by Émile Delahaye in 1894, in Tours, his home town. His first cars were belt-driven, with single- or twin-cylinder engines mounted at the rear, his Type One was an instant success, he urgently needed investment capital and a larger manufacturing facility. Both were provided by a new Delahaye owner and fellow racer, George Morane, his brother-in-law Leon Desmarais, who partnered with Émile in the incorporation of the new automotive company, "Societe Des Automobiles Delahaye", in 1898. All three worked with the foundry workers to assemble the new machines, but middle-aged Émile was not in good health. In January 1901, he found himself unable to capably continue, resigned, selling his shares to his two equal partners. Émile Delahaye died soon after, in 1905. Delahaye had hired two instrumental men, Charles Weiffenbach and Amédée Varlet in 1898, to assist the three partners. Both were graduate mechanical engineers, they remained with Delahaye their entire working careers.
Weiffenbach was appointed Manager of Operations, with the blessing of both George Morane and Leon Desmarais, assumed control over all of Delahaye's operations and much of its decision-making, in 1906. Amédée Varlet was the company's design-engineer, with a number of innovative inventions to his credit, generated between 1905 and 1914, which Delahaye patented; these included the twin-cam multi-valve engine, the V6 configuration. Varlet continued in this role until he took over the Drawing Office, at 76 years of age, when much younger Jean François was hired in 1932 as chief design-engineer. In 1932, Varlet was instructed by Weiffenbach, under direction from majority shareholder Madame Desmarais, Leon Desmarais' widow, to set up the company's Racing Department, assisted by Jean François; those who knew him well at the factory affectionately referred to Charles Weiffenbach as "Monsieur Charles". Delahaye began experimenting with belt-driven cars while manager of the Brethon Foundry and Machine-works in Tours, in 1894.
These experiments encouraged an entry in the 1896 Paris–Marseille–Paris race, held between 24 September-3 October 1896, fielding one car for himself and one for sportsman Ernest Archdeacon. The winning Panhard averaged 15.7 mph. For the 1897 Paris-Dieppe, the 6 hp four-cylinder Delahayes ran in four- and six-seater classes, with a full complement of passengers. Archdeacon was third in the four-seaters behind a De Dion-Bouton and a Panhard, Courtois winning the six-seater class, ahead of the only other car in the class. In March 1898, 6 hp the Delahayes of Georges Morane and Courtois came sixteenth and twenty-eighth at the Marseilles-Nice rally, while at the Course de Perigeux in May, De Solages finished sixth in a field of ten; the July Paris-Amsterdam-Paris earned. Soon after the new company was formed in 1898, the firm moved its manufacturing from Tours to Paris, into its new factory. Charles Weiffenbach was named Operations Manager. Delahaye would produce three models there, until the close of the 19th century: two twins, the 2.2-litre 4.5 hp Type 1 and 6 hp Type 2, the lighter Type 0, with a 1.4-liter single rated between 5 and 7 hp.
All three had bicycle-style steering, water-cooled engines mounted in the rear, automatic valves, surface carburetors, trembler coil ignition. In 1899, Archdeacon piloted an 8 hp racer in the Nice-Castellane-Nice rally, coming eighth, while teammate Buissot's 8 hp was twelfth. Founder Émile Delahaye retired in 1901, leaving Morane in control. Delahaye's racing days were over with Émile Delahaye's death. Charles Weiffenbach had no interest in racing, focused his production on responsible motorized automotive chassis, heavy commercial vehicles, early firetrucks for the French government. Race-cars had become a thing of the past for Delahaye, until 1933, when Madame Desmarais caused her company to change direction 180 degrees, return to racing; the new 10B debuted in 1902. It had a 2,199 cc vertical twin rated 12/14 hp by RAC, mounted in front, with removable cylinder head, steering wheel, chain drive. Delahaye entered the Paris-Vienna rally with a 16 hp four. At the same year's Ardennes event, Perrin's 16 hp four came tenth.
In 1902, the singles and twins ceased to be offered except as light vans. Delahaye's first production four, the Type 13B, with 24/27 hp 4.4-litre, appeared in 1903. The model range expanded in 1904, including the 4.9-litre 28 hp four-cylinder Type 21, the mid-priced Type 16, the two-cylinder Type 15B. These were joined in 1905 by a chain-driven 8-litre luxury model, one of, purchased by King Alfonso XIII of Spain. All 1907 models featured half-elliptic springs at the rear as well as transverse leaf springs, while shaft drive appeared that year, chain drive was retained on luxury models until 1911. In 1908, the Type 32 was the company's first to offer an L-head monoblock engine. Protos began licence production of Delahayes in G
The Amilcar C4 is a light sporting car designed for road use made between 1922 and 1929 by the French Amilcar company. The C4 is one of three models introduced by Amilcar in 1922; the C4 was touted as a more usable vehicle than the other more sporty models. The C4, publicly introduced at the Paris Salon, was offered in three models: the highest-produced was the "Torpedo", offered in full Torpedo style or toned down. Available were a sedan, a commercial version; the variety of styles available provided a wide selection to the public. The C4 chassis is a lengthened version of that of the Amilcar CC model. Coachwork for this vehicle was fabricated by subcontractors and delivered to the Amilcar for final assembly. Power for the C4 was provided by the same unit used in the CS, a 1003 cc four-cylinder engine with a 58.0 millimetres bore, a 95.0 millimetres stroke, a magneto ignition AND Solex carburetor. The vehicle transmission provided three speeds, with power being sent to the rear wheels; the suspension used semi-elliptic leaf springs in both the front and rear as well as fitted friction type dampers.
Brakes were only provided on the rear wheels. The drum-type brakes were 220 mm diameter, were operated by foot-pedal, which differed from the hand-lever operation employed in both the CS and CC automobiles. Standard equipment was ample for the period, consisting of a speedometer with recording odometer, an ammeter, the dashboard incorporating lighting; the horn was a classical trumpet with rubber bulb. Amilcar CC Fiat 509 Citroën Type C from Histomobile, C4 page from the Amilcar site, section covering the history and details of the C4 and of its specification page
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck; the book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.
When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (National