Regional Railways was one of the three passenger sectors of British Rail created in 1982 that existed until 1997, two years after privatisation. The sector was called Provincial. Regional Railways was the most subsidised of the three sectors. Upon formation, its costs were four times its revenue; the sector was broken up into eight franchises during the privatisation of British Rail, ceased to exist on 31 March 1997. Upon sectorisation in 1982, three passenger sectors were created: InterCity, operating principal express services. In the metropolitan counties, local services were managed by the Passenger Transport Executives. Regional Railways inherited a diverse range of routes. Expresses ran to non-principal destinations or on less popular routes, such as Birmingham or Liverpool to Norwich, or Liverpool to Scarborough, were chiefly operated by older locomotives and second-hand InterCity coaches; these services were operated by Sprinter units – Class 158s on express services. There were the internal Scottish Region local services and expresses, the latter including the Edinburgh-Glasgow push-pull service.
Local services ran on both main lines and branch lines, were operated by first generation diesel multiple units dating back to the 1950s. Longer distance trains were formed of older coaches and locomotives of Class 31, Class 40 and Class 45 which were of similar vintage. In the early 1980s, large numbers of diesel multiple unit and locomotive-hauled coaches were found to contain asbestos. Removing this would be a considerable cost and generating no extra revenue, coupled with the unreliabile old locomotives and DMUs prompted BR to look for a new generation of diesel multiple units; the prototype Class 210s, in service on a trial basis since 1981, were considered too expensive to be put into production, so BR looked elsewhere for new designs. The first, used bus technology from the Leyland National, in classes numbered in the 14X range. Not long after introduction to service, large numbers of them suffered from a number of technical problems with their gearboxes. In Cornwall it was found that their long wheelbase caused intolerable squealing noises and high tyre wear on tight curves, they had to be replaced by the old DMUs.
The solution lay elsewhere, although after much modification, the Pacers proved themselves in traffic. BR needed something midway between the Class 210s. In 1984/1985, two experimental DMU designs were put into service: the British Rail Engineering Limited built Class 150 and Metro-Cammell built Class 151. Both of these were less bus-like than the Pacers. After trials, the Class 150 was selected for production, entering service from 1987. Reliability was much improved by the new units, with depot visits being reduced from two or three times a week to fortnightly; the late 1980s and early 1990s saw the development of secondary express services that complemented the mainline Intercity routes. Class 155 and Class 156 Sprinters were developed to replace locomotive-hauled trains on these services, their interiors being designed with longer distance journeys in mind. Key Scottish and Trans-Pennine routes were upgraded with new Class 158 Express Sprinters, while a network of'Alphaline' services was introduced elsewhere in the country.
By the end of the 1980s, passenger numbers had increased and costs had been reduced to two-and-a-half times revenue. The British Rail Class 323 electric multiple units were built by Hunslet Transportation Projects between January 1992 and September 1995, although mock-ups and prototypes were built and tested in 1990 and 1991. Forty-three 3-car units were built for inner-suburban services in and around Birmingham and Manchester, including the Cross-City Line in the Birmingham area and services to the new Manchester Airport railway station. Many vehicles carried standard BR blue livery. From 1986, Provincial adopted a version of the prototype Class 150 livery: "aircraft" blue over white, with a light blue stripe at waist level. All new units, plus a few existing ones, such as selected Class 304 EMUs, received it; some units and coaches received the livery with "Regional Railways" branding. The Class 158s, introduced in 1989, appeared in "Express" livery: dark grey window surrounds over light grey, with light and dark blue stripes at waist level.
This colour scheme was applied to some Class 156 units around privatisation. After privitisation many vehicles continued to carry basic RR colour scheme, but with the addition of different branding, e.g. "Central Trains". The final British railway vehicle to carry Regional Railways livery was a Class 153, repainted in July 2008 into East Midlands Trains livery; as part of the process of privatisation between 1994 and 1997, Regional Railways was split into several different shadow train operating units, which became independent train operating companies: Pettitt, Gordon. The Regional Railways Story. OPC. ISBN 9780860936633. OCLC 921239163
Great Western Railway
The Great Western Railway was a British railway company that linked London with the south-west and west of England, the Midlands, most of Wales. It was founded in 1833, received its enabling Act of Parliament on 31 August 1835 and ran its first trains in 1838, it was engineered by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who chose a broad gauge of 7 ft —later widened to 7 ft 1⁄4 in —but, from 1854, a series of amalgamations saw it operate 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard-gauge trains. The GWR was the only company to keep its identity through the Railways Act 1921, which amalgamated it with the remaining independent railways within its territory, it was merged at the end of 1947 when it was nationalised and became the Western Region of British Railways; the GWR was called by some "God's Wonderful Railway" and by others the "Great Way Round" but it was famed as the "Holiday Line", taking many people to English and Bristol Channel resorts in the West Country as well as the far south-west of England such as Torquay in Devon, Minehead in Somerset, Newquay and St Ives in Cornwall.
The company's locomotives, many of which were built in the company's workshops at Swindon, were painted a Brunswick green colour while, for most of its existence, it used a two-tone "chocolate and cream" livery for its passenger coaches. Goods wagons were painted red but this was changed to mid-grey. Great Western trains included long-distance express services such as the Flying Dutchman, the Cornish Riviera Express and the Cheltenham Spa Express, it operated many suburban and rural services, some operated by steam railmotors or autotrains. The company pioneered the use of more economic goods wagons than were usual in Britain, it operated a network of road motor routes, was a part of the Railway Air Services, owned ships and hotels. The Great Western Railway originated from the desire of Bristol merchants to maintain their city as the second port of the country and the chief one for American trade; the increase in the size of ships and the gradual silting of the River Avon had made Liverpool an attractive port, with a Liverpool to London rail line under construction in the 1830s Bristol's status was threatened.
The answer for Bristol was, with the co-operation of London interests. The company was founded at a public meeting in Bristol in 1833 and was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1835. Isambard Kingdom Brunel aged twenty-nine, was appointed engineer; this was by far Brunel's largest contract to date. He made two controversial decisions. Firstly, he chose to use a broad gauge of 7 ft to allow for the possibility of large wheels outside the bodies of the rolling stock which could give smoother running at high speeds. Secondly, he selected a route, north of the Marlborough Downs, which had no significant towns but which offered potential connections to Oxford and Gloucester; this meant. From Reading heading west, the line would curve in a northerly sweep back to Bath. Brunel surveyed the entire length of the route between London and Bristol himself, with the help of many, including his solicitor Jeremiah Osborne of Bristol law firm Osborne Clarke who on one occasion rowed Brunel down the River Avon himself to survey the bank of the river for the route.
George Thomas Clark played an important role as an engineer on the project, reputedly taking the management of two divisions of the route including bridges over the River Thames at Lower Basildon and Moulsford and of Paddington Station. Involvement in major earth-moving works seems to have fed Clark's interest in geology and archaeology and he, authored two guidebooks on the railway: one illustrated with lithographs by John Cooke Bourne; the first 22 1⁄2 miles of line, from Paddington station in London to Maidenhead Bridge station, opened on 4 June 1838. When Maidenhead Railway Bridge was ready the line was extended to Twyford on 1 July 1839 and through the deep Sonning Cutting to Reading on 30 March 1840; the cutting was the scene of a railway disaster two years when a goods train ran into a landslip. This accident prompted Parliament to pass the 1844 Railway Regulation Act requiring railway companies to provide better carriages for passengers; the next section, from Reading to Steventon crossed the Thames twice and opened for traffic on 1 June 1840.
A 7 1⁄4-mile extension took the line to Faringdon Road on 20 July 1840. Meanwhile, work had started at the Bristol end of the line, where the 11 1⁄2-mile section to Bath opened on 31 August 1840. On 17 December 1840, the line from London reached a temporary terminus at Wootton Bassett Road west of Swindon and 80.25 miles from Paddington. The section from Wootton Bassett Road to Chippenham was opened on 31 May 1841, as was Swindon Junction station where the Cheltenham and Great Western Union Railway to Cirencester connected; that was an independent line worked by the GWR, as was the Bristol and Exeter Railway, the first section of which from Bristol to Bridgwater was opened on 14 June 1841. The GWR main line remained incomplete during the construction of the 1-mile-1,452-yard Box Tunnel, ready for trains on 30 June 1841, after which trains ran the 152 miles from Paddington through to Bridgwater. In 1851, the GWR purchased the Kennet and Avon Canal, a competing carrier between London, Reading and Bristol.
Western Region of British Railways
The Western Region was a region of British Railways from 1948. The region ceased to be an operating unit in its own right on completion of the "Organising for Quality" initiative on 6 April 1992; the Region consisted principally of ex-Great Western Railway lines, minus certain lines west of Birmingham, which were transferred to the London Midland Region in 1963 and with the addition of all former Southern Railway routes west of Exeter, which were subsequently rationalised. The Great Western Railway was established during the 19th century. Although run down by the Second World War, its management opposed its nationalisation into British Railways. After nationalisation under the Transport Act 1947 and amalgamation with the other railway companies as British Railways, the new Region continued its enmity with its powerful neighbour, the London Midland Region, born out of the London and Scottish Railway. There were few incomers to the Region at senior level: for example, the Chairman of the Regional Board from 1955, Reggie Hanks, came from the motor industry but had been a Swindon Works apprentice.
In the 1956–1962 period, a range of express trains were named and their coaches given GWR-style chocolate and cream colours. Major changes came on the appointment from outside as Regional Managers Stanley Raymond and Gerry Fiennes; some revenues were increased. Adjusted for transfer of Banbury northward to LMR and Dorset and Cornwall from SR, the assets of WR reduced over the decade 1955–1965 and from 1963 to 1965:- Major new investment in infrastructure did not go ahead until after 1955; the earliest projects included the rebuilding of stations at Banbury and Plymouth, both postponed since the 1940s. Bristol Parkway station opened in 1972; the Western Region built a large number of steam locomotives to GWR designs including 341 pannier tanks after the advent of diesel shunters. Both 2-6-0 tender and 2-6-2 tank engine variants of the BR Standard Class 3 were built by the Western Region, it was the first region of BR to eliminate steam traction under the 1955 Modernisation Plan. While the other BR regions introduced diesel-electric locomotives the Western Region went its own way by purchasing a complete range of diesel-hydraulic locomotives covering the type 1 to type 4 power requirements.
These included the Warship locomotives, which were based on proven West German designs, the British-designed Class 14, Hymek and Western types. One of the major improvements on the Western Region, on the Eastern Region East Coast Main Line, was the introduction on the Great Western main line of the InterCity 125 trains in 1976/7 bringing major accelerations to the timetables. Allen G. Freeman, The Western since 1948, Ian Allan ISBN 0-7110-0883-3
British Rail brand names
British Rail was the brand image of the nationalised railway owner and operator in Great Britain, the British Railways Board, used from 1965 until its breakup and sell-off from 1993 onwards. From an initial standardised corporate image, several sub-brands emerged for marketing purposes, in preparation for privatisation; these brands covered rail networks, customers services, several classes of new trains. With the size of British Rail's fleet, due to the time required to repaint rolling stock, in terms of the physical trains brand switchovers could be lengthy affairs lasting years; this worsened into privatisation, with the same services using 3 or 4 different liveries. Following privatisation, several of the brands disappeared, although some such as ScotRail, Merseyrail and Freightliner remain; some privatised train operating companies have since introduced their own brands along the same lines, such as, Midland Mainline's "Meridian" trains, the Virgin Trains "Voyager" services. The iconic double-arrow symbol introduced with the creation of the British Rail brand remains post-privatisation, as a unifying branding device for the privatised National Rail network, used on most tickets and publicity, but not trains.
Under the Transport Act 1962, responsibility for the state railway operation, British Railways, was transferred from being a trade name and subsidiary of the British Transport Commission, to a separate public corporation, under the British Railways Board. As the last steam locomotives were being withdrawn under the 1955 Modernisation Plan, the corporation's public name was re-branded in 1965 as British Rail, which introduced the double-arrow symbol, a standard typeface and the BR blue livery, applied to nearly all locomotives and rolling stock; the first major BR sub-brand to appear was InterCity brand. This was augmented with the InterCity 125 brand in 1976, in conjunction with the introduction of the InterCity 125 High Speed Train. In the 1980s under sectorisation blue livery was phased out as the organisation converted from a regional structure to being sector-based; the Intercity brand was relaunched, passenger brands Network SouthEast and Regional Railways introduced, seeing these divisions introduce many sub-brands.
Freight operations were split into the Trainload Freight, Railfreight Distribution and Rail Express Systems sectors. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, new multiple-unit train designs being introduced to replace rolling stock brought new brand names linked to other branding exercises, such as the Networkers built for Network SouthEast. In the 1990s, BR created the European Passenger Services division, to run passenger services through the Channel Tunnel, under the Eurostar brand. After construction delays, this was operated from 1994, until it passed to the London and Continental Railways consortium in 1996 as Eurostar Ltd.. In preparation for privatisation, the freight sectors were further split into smaller business units, as regional splits of Trainload Freight, or further splits along customer market, such as inter-modal traffic, each with their own branding. With all freight businesses going straight to EWS, most of these brands were short lived. Island Line - passenger services on the Isle of Wight from 1989.
Part of Network SouthEast. Merseyrail - passenger service brand for Merseyside. Network NorthWest - passenger service brand paralleling "Network SouthEast" for Greater Manchester and Lancashire introduced in 1989 as part of Regional Railways. After a few years it was replaced by the Regional Railways branding. Network SouthEast - commuter and medium-distance trains operating in an area bounded by King's Lynn, Worcester, Bedwyn and Weymouth and including the Waterloo & City line now part of London Underground Regional Railways - other passenger services in England and Wales suffixed by a regional description, e.g. Regional Railways North West Ryde Rail - passenger services on the Isle of Wight 1985-1989. Part of Network SouthEast from 1987. ScotRail - passenger services within Scotland Strathclyde Transport - brand operated by ScotRail on behalf of Strathclyde Regional Council. Strathclyde transport operating commuter services within Greater Glasgow and the wider Strathclyde area, had its own distinct livery.
The brand survived privatisation and was shortened to SPT, but disappeared when responsibility for co-ordinating rail services was taken away from SPT following the Transport Act 2005 when Strathclyde Passenger Transport Executive, along with the WESTRANS voluntary regional transport partnership, were replaced by the Strathclyde Partnership for Transport.. Tynerail and Tynerider - passenger service brand for Tyneside. Alphaline - sub-brand of Regional Railways, for regional express services on secondary routes, operated using 90 mph Class 158 trains, complementing the InterCity network. Eurostar - international high speed passenger trains from London-Paris/Brussels through the Channel Tunnel using Network SouthEast tracks in Britain. InterCity - high-speed express trains between major towns and cities Motorail - long-distance passenger services that carried cars Pullman - first Class carriages in InterCity trains offering a full at-seat catering service Railair - through ticketing service for coach links to airports.
Sealink - ferry services. Rail Express Systems - Post Office and parcels services Red Star Parcels - express parce
Heart of Wales line
The Heart of Wales line is a railway line running from Craven Arms in Shropshire to Llanelli in southwest Wales. It runs, it serves a number of rural centres en route, including several once-fashionable spa towns, including Llandrindod Wells. At Builth Road, two miles from the town of Builth Wells, the line crosses the former route of the earlier Mid Wales Railway, which closed in the 1960s; the line was known as the Central Wales line and included routes through Gowerton, where the railway crossed the West Wales lines and ran through Dunvant and Killay down through the Clyne Valley to Blackpill, along the sea wall to Swansea Bay station, before reaching Swansea Victoria railway station. This section built by the Llanelly Railway and Dock Company to compete with the Great Western Railway and break the monopoly they held on Swansea Dock, closed in 1964. Nationalisation of the railways had removed the need for competing routes, the running down and closure of Swansea North Dock ended the need for freight services on this section.
Trains now use the original LR main line to reach the West Wales lines at Llandeilo Junction and thence Llanelli and Swansea. North of Llandovery, the route was opened in stages between 1861 and 1868 by a number of different companies – the Knighton Railway, the Central Wales Railway and Central Wales Extension Railway; the 1963 Beeching Report proposed the remainder of the Heart of Wales line for closure. As a rural branch line, it survived the Beeching Axe since it carried freight traffic, serving the steelworks at Bynea and industrial areas such as Ammanford and Pontarddulais, linking them with the docks at Llanelli, it passed through six marginal constituencies. During engineering work, the line is still used as a diversionary freight route; the basic service over the line since the seventies has remained more or less constant, with four or five trains per day in each direction on weekdays and two or three on Sundays. The line is single track throughout and has been operated under a Light Railway Order since 1972.
There are five passing loops, at Llandeilo, Llanwrtyd and Knighton. Unless "Out of Course" working occurs the Llanwrtyd passing loop is used on two of the Monday – Saturday services and the Llandrindod passing loop is in use on the other two and on the Sunday services; the signalling was modernised in 1986, when a system known as No Signalman Token Remote working was introduced. This is overseen by the signaller at Pantyffynnon, with the token instruments at the aforementioned five passing loops being operated by the train crew by British Rail. For more than two years only two of the loops were operational as Network Rail were unable to source spare parts for the points mechanisms used at all five: the design used is now obsolete. Parts had to be taken from the three decommissioned loops to keep the other two operational. In 2009 NR stated their intention to install new conventional electric point machines at all five loops and restore the three out-of-service ones to full working order but were unable to give a timescale for this to be carried out as design work on the new equipment was still ongoing.
NR began the replacement works for the points after first installing the system on the line to Pembroke Dock, at the Tenby loop, on 7 December 2009 and making minor alterations in Feb 2010. Llandeilo was the first on the line to be modernised, the rest followed; the £5 million project was completed in October 2010. In 2014 Network Rail added exit indicators at the trailing end of each loop to aid in the reversing of services: a decision taken so that all moves have an active indication of the status of the motor points. In 1987 tragedy struck the line near Llandeilo when the Glanrhyd Bridge collapsed following heavy flooding, an early morning northbound train plunged into the swollen River Towy, killing four people. For a while the future of the line was in doubt but political forces of all sides rallied to ensure the line's survival. After leaving the West Wales Line at Llandeilo Junction, the route is shared with the Swansea District line as far as Morlais Junction before passing beneath the M4 Motorway & turning northwards towards Pontarddulais and Pantyfynnon.
The short tunnel before the former station is the oldest surviving example still in use in Wales, whilst the freight-only branch along the Amman valley to Gwaun-Cae-Gurwen diverges at the latter. North of Ammanford, it follows the valley of the River Tywi north to Llandeilo and Llandovery, crossing the river at Glanrhyd by a replacement single-span bridge built & commissioned in 1988. North of Llandovery the character of the route changes, as it ascends into the Carmarthenshire hills towards the first of the line's two major summits at Sugar Loaf on gradients as steep as 1 in 60. En route, it passes over the 283-yard long Cynghordy viaduct acro
Llandovery railway station
Llandovery railway station serves the market town of Llandovery, Wales. The station is on the Heart of Wales Line 42 miles north east of Swansea and is located at Tywi Avenue, it was opened by the independent Vale of Towy Railway company in 1858 as the terminus of a branch from Llandeilo, although the VoTR was soon leased by the Llanelly Railway. The Llanelly company in turn soon became part of the GWR; the LNWR's Central Wales Extension Railway arrived from the north a decade to complete the through route between Craven Arms and Swansea, with the LNWR and GWR taking joint control of the Llandovery to Llandeilo section. The station sits at the bottom of an 8 1⁄2 miles descent from the line's southern summit at Sugar Loaf tunnel and until August 1964, a locomotive shed was in operation here to house the engines used for assisting northbound trains. All trains serving the station are operated by Transport for Wales, who manage it. There is a passing loop and level crossing at the station, but the signal box that operated them was closed in 1986.
The token instruments for the single line and crossing barriers are both operated by the train crew under the supervision of the signaller at Pantyffynnon. The loop had been temporarily decommissioned between 2008 & 2010, but is in use again after the automatic point machines were renewed in June 2010. Refurbished station buildings were opened by Prince Charles in June 2011, some 19 years after they were closed; the station is unstaffed and has no ticket machine, so all tickets need to be purchased prior to travel or on board the train. There are shelters, CIS screens and customer help points on each platform, whilst a local volunteer group runs a cafe and gallery in the main station building. Step-free access is provided to both platforms. There are four trains a day northbound to Shrewsbury from Monday to Saturday and five southbound to Swansea. Body, G. PSL Field Guides - Railways of the Western Region, Patrick Stephens Ltd, Wellingborough, ISBN 0-85059-546-0 Organ, John. Mitchell, Vic, ed. Craven Arms to Llandeilo.
West Sussex: Middleton Press. Figs. 100-110. ISBN 9781906008352. OCLC 648080889. Train times and station information for Llandovery railway station from National Rail
Swansea, is a coastal city and county known as the City and County of Swansea in Wales. Swansea lies within the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan and the ancient Welsh commote of Gŵyr on the southwest coast; the county area includes the Gower Peninsula. Swansea is the twenty-fifth largest city in the United Kingdom. According to its local council, the City and County of Swansea had a population of 241,300 in 2014; the last official census stated that the city and urban areas combined concluded to be a total of 462,000 in 2011. During the 19th-century industrial heyday, Swansea was the key centre of the copper-smelting industry, earning the nickname Copperopolis. Archaeological finds in the Swansea area come from the Gower Peninsula, include items from the Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age; the Romans occupied the area. The two largest rivers in the region are the Tawe which passes through the city centre and the Loughor which marks the northern border with Carmarthenshire; the Welsh name, translates to Mouth of the Tawe.
It first appears c.1150 as Aper Tyui. Swansea is thought to have developed as a Viking trading post, its English name may derive from Sveinn's island – Old Norse: Sveinsey – the reference to an island may refer either to a bank at the mouth of the River Tawe or to an area of raised ground in marshes. An alternative explanation derives the place name from the Norse personal name Sweyn and ey, which can mean "inlet"; this explanation supports the tradition. The name is pronounced Swans-y /ˈswɒnzi/), not Swan-sea; the earliest known form of the modern name, appears in the first charter, granted sometime between 1158 and 1184 by William de Newburgh, 3rd Earl of Warwick. The charter gave Swansea the status of a borough, granting the townsmen certain rights to develop the area. In 1215 King John granted a second charter. A town seal, believed to date from this period names the town as Sweyse. Following the Norman conquest, a marcher lordship was established under the title of Gower, it included land around Swansea Bay as far as the River Tawe, the manor of Kilvey beyond the Tawe, the peninsula itself.
Swansea was designated chief town of the lordship and received a borough charter at some point between 1158 and 1184. From the early 1700s to the late 1800s, Swansea was the world's leading copper-smelting area. Numerous smelters along the River Tawe received copper and other metal ores shipped from Cornwall and Devon, as well as from North and South America and Australia; the industry declined in the late 1800s, none of the smelters are now active. The port of Swansea traded in wine, wool, cloth and in coal. After the invention of the reverbatory furnace in the late 1600s, copper smelting was able to use coal rather than more-expensive charcoal. At the same time, the mines of Cornwall were increasing copper production. Swansea became the ideal place to smelt the Cornish copper ores, being close to the coalfields of South Wales and having an excellent port to receive ships carrying Cornish copper ore; because each ton of copper ore smelted used about three tons of coal, it was more economical to ship the copper ore to Wales rather than send the coal to Cornwall.
The first copper smelter at Swansea was established followed by many more. Once smelting was established, the smelters began receiving high-grade ore and ore concentrates from around the world. More coal mines opened to meet demand from northeast Gower to Llangyfelach. In the 1850s Swansea had more than 600 furnaces, a fleet of 500 oceangoing ships carrying out Welsh coal and bringing back metal ore from around the world. At that time most of the copper matte produced in the United States was sent to Swansea for refining.. Smelters processed arsenic, zinc and other metals. Nearby factories produced pottery; the Swansea smelters became so adept at recovering gold and silver from complex ores that in the 1800s they received ore concentrates from the United States, for example from Arizona in the 1850s, Colorado in the 1860s. The city expanded in the 18th and 19th centuries, was termed "Copperopolis". From the late 17th century to 1801, Swansea's population grew by 500%—the first official census indicated that, with 6,099 inhabitants, Swansea had become larger than Glamorgan's county town and was the second most populous town in Wales behind Merthyr Tydfil.
However, the census understated Swansea's true size, as much of the built-up area lay outside the contemporary boundaries of the borough. Swansea's population was overtaken by Merthyr in 1821 and by Cardiff in 1881, although in the latter year Swansea once again surpassed Merthyr. Much of Swansea's growth was due to migration from within and beyond Wales—in 1881 more than a third of the borough's population had been born outside Swansea and Glamorgan, just under a quarter outside Wales. Copper smelting at Swansea declined in the late 1800s for a number of reasons. Copper mining in Cornwall declined; the price of copper dropped from £112 in 1860 to £35 in the 1890s. In the early 1900s, mining shifted to lower-grade copper deposits in North and South America, the lower-grade ore could not support transportation to Swansea; the Swansea and Mumbles Railway was built in 1804 to move limestone from