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An ammeter is a measuring instrument used to measure the current in a circuit. Electric currents are measured in amperes, hence the name. Instruments used to measure smaller currents, in the milliampere or microampere range, are designated as milliammeters or microammeters. Early ammeters were laboratory instruments. By the late 19th century, improved instruments were designed which could be mounted in any position and allowed accurate measurements in electric power systems, it is represented by letter'A' in a circuit. The relation between electric current, magnetic fields and physical forces was first noted by Hans Christian Ørsted in 1820, who observed a compass needle was deflected from pointing North when a current flowed in an adjacent wire; the tangent galvanometer was used to measure currents using this effect, where the restoring force returning the pointer to the zero position was provided by the Earth's magnetic field. This made. Sensitivity of the instrument was increased by using additional turns of wire to multiply the effect – the instruments were called "multipliers".

The word rheoscope as a detector of electrical currents was coined by Sir Charles Wheatstone about 1840 but is no longer used to describe electrical instruments. The word makeup is similar to that of rheostat, a device used to adjust the current in a circuit. Rheostat is a historical term for a variable resistance, though unlike rheoscope may still be encountered; the D'Arsonval galvanometer is a moving coil ammeter. It uses magnetic deflection, where current passing through a coil placed in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet causes the coil to move; the modern form of this instrument was developed by Edward Weston, uses two spiral springs to provide the restoring force. The uniform air gap between the iron core and the permanent magnet poles make the deflection of the meter linearly proportional to current; these meters have linear scales. Basic meter movements can have full-scale deflection for currents from about 25 microamperes to 10 milliamperes; because the magnetic field is polarised, the meter needle acts in opposite directions for each direction of current.

A DC ammeter is thus sensitive to. A moving coil meter indicates the average of a varying current through it, zero for AC. For this reason moving-coil meters are only usable directly for DC, not AC; this type of meter movement is common for both ammeters and other meters derived from them, such as voltmeters and ohmmeters. Moving magnet ammeters operate on the same principle as moving coil, except that the coil is mounted in the meter case, a permanent magnet moves the needle. Moving magnet Ammeters are able to carry larger currents than moving coil instruments several tens of Amperes, because the coil can be made of thicker wire and the current does not have to be carried by the hairsprings. Indeed, some Ammeters of this type do not have hairsprings at all, instead using a fixed permanent magnet to provide the restoring force. An electrodynamic ammeter uses an electromagnet instead of the permanent magnet of the d'Arsonval movement; this instrument can respond to both alternating and direct current and indicates true RMS for AC.

See Wattmeter for an alternative use for this instrument. Moving iron ammeters use a piece of iron which moves when acted upon by the electromagnetic force of a fixed coil of wire; the moving-iron meter was invented by Austrian engineer Friedrich Drexler in 1884. This type of meter responds to both alternating currents; the iron element consists of a moving vane attached to a pointer, a fixed vane, surrounded by a coil. As alternating or direct current flows through the coil and induces a magnetic field in both vanes, the vanes repel each other and the moving vane deflects against the restoring force provided by fine helical springs; the deflection of a moving iron meter is proportional to the square of the current. Such meters would have a non linear scale, but the iron parts are modified in shape to make the scale linear over most of its range. Moving iron instruments indicate. Moving iron ammeters are used to measure current in industrial frequency AC circuits. In a hot-wire ammeter, a current passes through a wire.

Although these instruments have slow response time and low accuracy, they were sometimes used in measuring radio-frequency current. These measure true RMS for an applied AC. In much the same way as the analogue ammeter formed the basis for a wide variety of derived meters, including voltmeters, the basic mechanism for a digital meter is a digital voltmeter mechanism, other types of meter are built around this. Digital ammeter designs use a shunt resistor to produce a calibrated voltage proportional to the current flowing; this voltage is measured by a digital voltmeter, through use of an analog to digital converter. Such instruments are calibrated to indicate the RMS value for a sine wave only, but many designs will indicate true RMS within limitations of the wave crest factor. There is a range of devices referred to as integrating ammeters. In these ammeters the current is summed over time, giving as a result the product of current and time.


Cigeľka is a village and municipality in Bardejov District in the Prešov Region of north-east Slovakia with Ruthenian and Roma inhabitants. It lies in the valley of Oľchovec below the Busov hill near the Slovakia-Poland border. There is a Greek Catholic church of Saints Cosmas and Damian in the year 1816, which served its first liturgy Presov Bishop Paul Peter Gojdič. In historical records the village was first mentioned in 1414. In the following centuries the estate belonged to Makovica manor. In the 19th century the village was affected by emigration to North America for economic reasons, in 1947 the proportion of the population at the instigation of the Soviet authorities moved to Ukraine, from the 20th to the sixties the dawn of the 21st century centuries, the majority returned to Slovakia; the village has a memorial to the victims of World War II from Cigeľka – the seven young boys who were sent to fight the war ended without proper training, a few Jewish families whose members died in concentration camps.

Memorial was unveiled in October 1989. Its author is a painter Mikuláš Lovacký; the municipality lies at an altitude of 526 metres and covers an area of 15 984 km². It has a population of about 464 people. There is a spring mineral water the same name. Almanac "Spas of Czechoslovak Republic of 1949" states as Cigeľka spa place for the treatment of gastric diseases, diseases of upper respiratory tract and blood vessels, skin diseases. At present, Cigeľka hasn't the status of spa. In addition to salt mineral water springs in Cigeľka from dozens of sources acidulous water; the records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Presov, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1800-1895 Greek Catholic church records: 1809-1948 List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia Surnames of living people in Cigelka

In re Marriage of J.B. and H.B.

In the Matter of the Marriage of J. B. and H. B. is a case arising from a divorce petition filed by a same-sex couple in Texas. They had been married in Massachusetts. A Texas Family Court granted the petition, holding that Texas's Proposition 2, which prohibited the court from recognizing a same-sex marriage, violated the due process and equal protection guarantees of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On appeal, the Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas reversed the family court's judgment, holding that it was consistent with the due process and equal protection clauses; the case was before the Texas Supreme Court, but the case was dismissed due to the death of one of the parties. Two men living in Dallas who had married in Massachusetts in September 2006, identified by the courts as J. B. and H. B. filed for a divorce in January 2008 in Dallas County District Court. Their attorney, Peter Schulte, claimed that Article IV Section 1 of the U. S. Constitution, which requires each state to give "full faith and credit" to the legal proceedings of other states, required Texas to recognize a valid Massachusetts marriage.

Attorney General Greg Abbott, on behalf of the state of Texas, moved to intervene to block the divorce, claiming that the court lacked subject matter jurisdiction. On October 1, 2009, Dallas District Judge Tena Callahan rejected Texas's intervention and held that the Texas Constitution's ban on same-sex marriage, article I, section 32, known as Proposition 2, violated the Fourteenth Amendment's due process and equal protection clauses. Schulte commented: "I have a feeling there are going to be opponents who say this is going to allow the floodgates of gay marriage to open, I disagree with that. Gay marriage and gay divorce are two separate things." Abbott noted that the definition of marriage that Callahan held unconstitutional had been approved by 75% of Texas voters. It was the second court ruling in U. S. history to find that a state constitution's ban on same-sex marriage violated the U. S. Constitution. Abbott and Governor Rick Perry appealed to the Fifth Court of Appeals. On August 31, 2010, a unanimous three-judge panel of that court reversed the lower court's ruling and held that the Texas constitution's ban on same-sex marriage does not violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

It affirmed the state's right to intervene in the suit. It said that a "same-sex divorce proceeding would give effect to the purported same-sex marriage in several ways" and that "he state has a legitimate interest in promoting the raising of children in the optimal familial setting. It is reasonable for the state to conclude that the optimal familial setting for the raising of children is the household headed by an opposite-sex couple." The court further ruled that district courts in Texas do not have subject-matter jurisdiction to hear a same-sex divorce case. It held that Texas was not required to recognize a marriage celebrated elsewhere that did not conform to the Texas Constitution in the absence of the federal Defense of Marriage Act; the Fifth Court of Appeals denied en banc review. J. B. sought review from the Texas Supreme Court in February 2011 and that court requested briefs in October. On July 3, 2013, the Texas Supreme Court sua sponte ordered supplemental merits briefing in light of the U.

S. Supreme Court decision in United States v. Windsor. On August 23 the Texas Supreme Court agreed to hear the merits and scheduled oral argument for November 5, 2013; the case was dismissed. Same-sex marriage law in the United States by state Fifth Court of Appeals, In re: The Marriage of J. B. and H. B. in re State of Texas, August 31, 2010

Lathyrus linifolius

Lathyrus linifolius is a species of pea called bitter vetch or heath pea. The name bitter vetch is sometimes used for Vicia ervilia and for Vicia orobus; the tubers of Lathyrus linifolius were used as an appetite suppressant in medieval Scotland, this use has brought the plant to recent medical attention. Attempts are being made to cultivate the plant on a commercial scale. Lathyrus linifolius is a perennial plant with dark-coloured tubers attached to the roots; the stem grows to 15 to 30 cm and is erect and nearly hairless. The leaves are alternate with large stipules; the leaf blades are pinnate with two to four pairs of narrow lanceolate leaflets with blunt tips, entire margins and no tendrils. The inflorescence has a long stem and two to six red flowers, each 10 to 16 mm long, turning bluer as they age; these are irregular. The uppermost petal is known as the "standard", the lateral two as the "wings" and the lowest two are joined to form the "keel". There are a single carpel; the fruit is a long reddish-brown pod containing up to ten seeds.

This plant flowers in May and June. Lathyrus linifolius is native to parts of Asia, its typical habitat is rough grassy places, broad-leaved woodland, forest margins and banks. This plant was an ingredient of the Highland diet when food was scarce until the 18th century, when the potato became an important crop in the region; the small tubers dried. Once eaten, they prevented hunger pangs. Certain medieval herbals claimed that this effect could last for days or weeks, it is surmised. The plant may be the one eaten by Roman soldiers in the battle of Dyrrhacium in 48 BCE. Heath Pea site for Schools and Farmers The bitter pea, a master of disguise

Sib Hashian

John Thomas "Sib" Hashian was an Armenian-American musician, best known as a drummer for the rock band Boston. Hashian was reluctantly chosen by Boston founder and band leader Tom Scholz in 1975 to replace original drummer Jim Masdea when Epic Records demanded that Masdea be replaced for recording. Hashian is heard on Boston's self-titled debut album, as well as on the follow-up Don't Look Back, although the drum parts he played on many tracks were note-for-note transcriptions of Masdea's original drum arrangements. Hashian was involved in the early sessions for Boston's Third Stage album, but was replaced when Masdea returned. After leaving Boston, Hashian sued Tom Scholz for back royalties and the two settled out of court. Hashian was the drummer for fellow Boston member Barry Goudreau's self-titled solo album, released in 1980; the album achieved moderate success with the rock radio hit "Dreams". Boston and the Barry Goudreau album were the last mainstream projects, he went on to own a chain of tanning salons in Boston, as well as a small record shop.

He played gigs in the Boston area with former bandmates, including Goudreau, Fran Sheehan, Brad Delp. In 2001 he made his first stage appearance as an actor at the Cape Cod Repertory Theater in the world premiere of the play 9-Ball written by his friend Art Devine. In 2003 he appeared on Sammy Hagar's Live: Hallelujah as an unofficial member of The Waboritas. In 2004 he returned to the stage at the Tremont Theater for the Boston premiere of 9-Ball which he produced along with Ernie Boch Jr. In 2005 he appeared in R U the Girl as his daughter Lauren was a contestant trying out to win the chance to perform with TLC. In 2006 he recorded with Ernie and the Automatics. In 2012 he began co-hosting Scorch's PFG-TV, a local TV show in New England, episodes of which were featured on the Opie and Anthony Show, although each segment was centered on mocking PFG-TV's entire show. Hashian was of Armenian and Italian ancestry and lived in Lynnfield, Massachusetts with his wife, Suzanne, they had had one son and two daughters, songwriter Aja Hashian and singer-songwriter Lauren Hashian, who appeared as a contestant on the reality series R U the Girl in 2005 and has been in a relationship with Dwayne Johnson, since 2007.

The two were married on August 2019, making Sib a father-in-law to Johnson. The Hashian sisters produce music together. Hashian died on March 22, 2017, at the age of 67, after collapsing in the middle of a set while performing on board a cruise ship. Sib Hashian at AllMusic Sib Hashian discography at Discogs Sib Hashian on IMDb Sib Hashian at Find a Grave

Ames Hill/Crescent Hill District

Ames Hill/Crescent Hill District is an historic district in Springfield, bounded by sections of Central, Maple and Pine Streets, Crescent Hill, Ames Hill Drive, Maple Court. This section of Springfield was the city's first "Gold Coast," built during the early Industrial Revolution, from 1812-1850; the Ames Hill/Crescent Hill Historic District includes Mulberry Street, the upper-class street made famous by Dr. Seuss's first children's book, And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, Dr. Seuss's grandparents lived on Mulberry Street; this National Historic District overlaps somewhat with both the Ridgewood and Maple Hill Historic Districts designated by the City of Springfield. Ames Hill was named for the Ames Family of Springfield. David Ames, Jr. a Springfield paper manufacturer, was the son of Colonel David Ames, the first superintendent of the Springfield Armory. The David Ames Jr. House, at 241 Maple Street, on Ames Hill in Springfield, was built in 1826-7 and was the work of Chauncey Shepard, a prominent local architect and builder.

In 1867, Solomon J. Gordon, a New York City lawyer, purchased the property and Shepard was hired to remodel the house he had built forty-one years earlier. Gordon lived in the house until his death in 1891. Today the house is part of the campus of the MacDuffie School. Crescent Hill continues along the steep trajectory of Maple Street, which snakes up along a bluff overlooking the scenic Connecticut River and Connecticut River Valley. Crescent Hill features many of Springfield's largest mansions, most of which date from the mid-19th century; the Ames Hill/Crescent Hill Historic District was devastated during the June 1, 2011 Greater Springfield tornado. Mills-Stebbins Villa, within the district and separately listed on the NRHP National Register of Historic Places listings in Springfield, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Hampden County, Massachusetts