click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ammon

Ammon was an ancient Semitic-speaking nation occupying the east of the Jordan River, between the torrent valleys of Arnon and Jabbok, in present-day Jordan. The chief city of the country was Rabbah or Rabbath Ammon, site of the modern city of Amman, Jordan's capital. Milcom and Molech are named in the Hebrew Bible as the gods of Ammon; the people of this kingdom are called "Children of Ammon" or "Ammonites". The Ammonites occupied the northern Central Trans-Jordanian Plateau from the latter part of the second millennium BC to at least the second century CE. Ammon maintained its independence from the Neo-Assyrian Empire through tribute to the Assyrian king, at a time when nearby kingdoms were being raided or conquered; the Kurkh Monolith lists the Ammonite king Baasha ben Ruhubi's army as fighting alongside Ahab of Israel and Syrian allies against Shalmaneser III at the Battle of Qarqar in 853 BC as vassals of Hadadezer, the Aramaean king of Damascus. In 734 BC the Ammonite king Sanipu was a vassal of Tiglath-Pileser III, Sanipu's successor Pudu-ilu held the same position under Sennacherib and Esarhaddon.

An Assyrian tribute-list exists from this period, showing that Ammon paid one-fifth as much tribute as Judah did. Somewhat the Ammonite king Amminadab I was among the tributaries who suffered in the course of the great Arabian campaign of Assurbanipal. Other kings attested to in contemporary sources are Barachel and Hissalel, the latter of whom reigned about 620 BCE. Hissalel is mentioned in an inscription on a bottle found at Tel Siran, Jordan along with his son, King Amminadab II, who reigned around 600 BCE. Archaeology and history indicate; this contradicts the view, dominant for decades, that Transjordan was either destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II, or suffered a rapid decline following Judah's destruction by that king. Newer evidence suggests. Little mention is made of the Ammonites through the Persian and early Hellenistic periods, their name appears, during the time of the Maccabees. The Ammonites, with some of the neighboring tribes, did their utmost to resist and check the revival of the Jewish power under Judas Maccabaeus.

The Hasmonean dynast Hyrcanus founded Qasr Al Abd, was a descendant of the Seleucid Tobiad dynasty of Tobiah, mentioned by Nehemiah as an Ammonite from the east-Jordanian district. The last notice of the Ammonites is in Justin Martyr's Dialogue with Trypho, in the second century, where it is affirmed that they were still a numerous people; the first mention of the Ammonites in the Bible is in Genesis 19:37-38. It is stated there that they descended from Ben-Ammi, a son of Lot through with his younger daughter who plotted with her sister to intoxicate Lot and in his inebriated state, have relations to become pregnant. Ben-Ammi means "son of my people". After the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the daughters of Lot wanted to have a child and carried out a plot to intoxicate him and had relations, resulting in Ammon and his half brother, being conceived and born; this narrative has traditionally been considered literal fact, but is now interpreted as recording a gross popular irony by which the Israelites expressed their loathing of the morality of the Moabites and Ammonites, although it is doubtful that the Israelites would have directed such irony to Lot himself.

The Ammonites settled to the east of the Jordan, invading the Rephaim lands east of Jordan, between the Jabbok and Arnon, dispossessing them and dwelling in their place. Their territory comprising all from the Jordan to the wilderness, from the River Jabbok south to the River Arnon, it was accounted a land of giants. Shortly before the Israelite Exodus, the Amorites west of Jordan, under King Sihon and occupied a large portion of the territory of Moab and Ammon; the Ammonites were driven from the rich lands near the Jordan and retreated to the mountains and valleys to the east. The invasion of the Amorites separated the two kingdoms of Ammon and Moab. Throughout the Bible, the Ammonites and Israelites are portrayed as mutual antagonists. During the Exodus, the Israelites were prohibited by the Ammonites from passing through their lands; the Ammonites soon allied themselves with Eglon of Moab in attacking Israel. The Ammonites maintained their claim to part of Transjordan, after it was occupied by the Israelites who obtained it from Sihon.

During the days of Jephthah, the Ammonites occupied the lands east of the River Jordan and started to invade Israelite lands west of the river. Jephthah became the leader in resisting these incursions; the constant harassment of the Israelite communities east of the Jordan by the Ammonites was the impetus behind the unification of the tribes under Saul. King Nahash of Ammon lay siege to Jabesh-Gilead; this led to an alliance with Saul and The Israelites, led by Saul relieved the siege and defeated the Ammonite king resulting in the formation of the Israelite Kingdom. During the reign of King David, the Ammonites humiliated David's messengers, hired the Aramean armies to attack Israel; this ended in a war and a year-long siege of Rabbah, the capital of Ammon. The war ended with all the Ammonite cities being conquered and plundered, the inhabitants being killed or put to forced labor at David's command. According to both 1 Kings 14:21–31 and 2 Chronicles 12:13, Naamah was an Ammonite, she was the only wife of King Solomon

Gibbs Junior College

Gibbs Junior College was created in 1957 by the Pinellas County Board of Public Instruction to serve African-American students in St. Petersburg, Florida, it was the first and most successful of Florida's eleven new African-American junior colleges, founded in an unsuccessful attempt to avoid the racial integration mandated by the unanimous 1954 Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education decision, it was named for the minister and abolitionist Jonathan C. Gibbs, who opened a private school for freed slaves after the Civil War, was Florida's Secretary of State and Superintendent of Public Instruction, the first African-American member of the Florida Cabinet; the founding president was John W. Rembert, principal of Gibbs High School, it opened in its last year as an independent institution had 901 students. During its first year it used the facilities of Gibbs High School, but in 1958 it moved into its own adjacent facility, on the corner of 9th Avenue South and 34th Street South in St. Petersburg, Florida.

Free bus transportation was provided to the college by Hillsborough and Sarasota counties. It was the first African-American junior college to become accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. In the middle of the 1964-65 school year, amid charges of fraud and possible embezzlement, Rembert was relieved of the presidency, the institution was placed under the supervision of St. Petersburg Junior College, its name was changed to the Gibbs campus of St. Petersburg Junior College; the bus service ended, enrollment plummetted from 901 students in 1964-65 to 597 in 1965-66 and 366 students in 1966-67. In view of the decline in enrollment, the pressures for integration that caused Florida's other black junior colleges to close in the mid-1960s, the Pinellas County Board of Public Instruction, on the recommendation of St. Petersburg Junior College, closed the campus in 1967. In 1992, St. Petersburg Junior College named its St. Petersburg campus the Gibbs campus. Booker T. Washington Junior College Roosevelt Junior College Carver Junior College Jackson Junior College Hampton Junior College Rosenwald Junior College Suwannee River Junior College Volusia County Junior College Collier-Blocker Junior College Lincoln Junior College Johnson Junior College

Danilia affinis

Danilia affinis, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Chilodontidae. The height of the shell attains 10 mm; the rather thin, imperforated shell has a conical spire and inflated body whorl. The sculpture shows elevated spiral cords unequal in size and narrower than interspaces, crossed by minute and numerous prosocline lamellae which override the cords; the peristome is flaring in adult shells, with a distinct outer varix and with internal denticles elongated in the spiral direction. The columella has a strong denticle; the colour of the shell is whitish with the inner nacre showing through, with vague brownish flames on specimens from shallower sites. The inside of the round aperture is nacreous; this species is distinguished from Danilia tinei in having the axial lamellae minute and about three times more numerous, the whitish colour and the more inflated and more fragile shell, with more convex whorls. This species occurs in the Atlantic Ocean off the Azores and on Atlantic seamounts at depths between 300 m and 730 m.

Vilvens C. & Héros V. 2005. New species and new records of Danilia from the Western Pacific. Novapex 6: 53-64

Phonetic form

In the field of linguistics in syntax, phonetic form known as phonological form or the articulatory-perceptual system, is a certain level of mental representation of a linguistic expression, derived from surface structure, related to Logical Form. Phonetic form is the level of representation wherein expressions, or sentences, are assigned a phonetic representation, pronounced by the speaker. Phonetic form takes surface structure as its input, outputs an audible, pronounced sentence; this is part of the Y- or T-model of grammar within minimalist grammar, wherein the syntactic structure is constructed and transferred to both the Phonetic Form and the Logical Form. Operations in this branch of the model, the syntax-phonology interface, affect the pronunciation of the utterance but not its meaning. Within distributed morphology, this is where morphological structure is constructed, where the hierarchical syntactic structure is transformed into a linearized structure, syntactic features are replaced with vocabulary items, among other things.

According to some theories of prosody, the prosodic representation is derived with direct reference to the hierarchical syntactic structure. For example, Selkirk proposes that prosodic structure is constructed by a process of matching, although imperfectly, prosodic constituents to syntactic constituents. Kahnemuyipour demonstrates, using evidence from several languages, how information structure can be represented in the transfer from syntax to phonology, arguing that transfer can only be uni-directional, from syntax to phonology. Oltra-Massuet and Arregi argue that the metrical structure, as well, makes reference to hierarchical syntactic structure in Spanish; the extent of the interaction between the syntax and phonology at the interface is a matter of current debate

Tracey Neville

Tracey Anne Neville is a retired English netball player and ex head coach of the England national netball team. Neville was the England team coach for the 2018 Commonwealth Games, leading England to Gold against the hosts Australia, winning 52-51 at the Gold Coast. Neville was born into an athletic family, her mother, Jill, at one time was General Manager and Club Secretary for English Football League club Bury. Her father Neville Neville was a former professional cricketer and former director of the club, while her mother used to play netball in the local leagues, her twin brother is Phil Neville, head coach of the England women's national football team, her older brother is Gary Neville. Neville attended Elton High School in Bury along with her twin, she started playing netball at county level when she was 14. Neville played for Leeds Met Carnegie in the British Netball Superleague, after being out injured for two years, worked as a fitness coach for Leeds Metropolitan University's sports department.

She earned a degree in nutrition and sport science from the University of Chester. She first represented her country in 1993 and competed for England in the 1998 and 2002 Commonwealth Games. A serious knee injury forced her to retire from the game in 2008. Since retiring, Neville has been dedicated to raising the profile of netball throughout the country and took up coaching, she runs the Tracey Neville Netball Academy at Sedbergh School during summer term break and coaches young girls interested in the game. In January 2011, Neville was named coach of Team Northumbria. October 2011 she was appointed director of netball at Manchester-based Superleague club Manchester Thunder. In March 2015 Neville was appointed interim coach of the England netball team; the appointment was made permanent in September 2015. At the 2018 Commonwealth Games, at the Gold Coast in Australia, she coached England to win the gold medal, England's first netball gold medal. After coaching England to a bronze medal at the 2019 World Cup, Neville retired from the role.

She was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2016 New Year Honours for services to netball. In September 2019 Neville announced she was again pregnant after having had a miscarriage the previous year

Émile Egger

Émile Egger was a French scholar. Émile Egger was born in Paris. From 1840 to 1855, Egger was assistant professor, from 1855 until his death he was professor of Greek literature in the Faculté des Lettres at Paris University. In 1854 Egger was elected a member of the Académie des Inscriptions and in 1873 of the Conseil supérieur de l'instruction publique. Egger was a voluminous writer, a sound and discerning scholar, his influence was responsible for the revival of the study of classical philology in France, his most important works are as follows: Essai sur l'histoire de la critique chez les Grecs Notions élémentaires de grammaire compare Apollonius Dyscole, essai sur l'histoire des théories grammaticales dans l'Antiquité Mémoires de littérature ancienne Mémoires d'histoire ancienne et de philologie Les Papyrus grecs du Musée du Louvre et de la Bibliothèque Impériale Études sur les traits publics chez les Grecs et les Romains L'Hellénisme en France La Littérature grecque. He was the author of Observations et réflexions sur le développement de l'intelligence et du langage chez les enfants.

Egger died in 1885, was buried at the Cimetière Montparnasse in Paris. Bailly, Anatole. Notice sur Émile Egger: sa vie et ses travaux. Paris: Pedone-Lauriel. Émile Egger. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Egger, Émile". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9. Cambridge University Press. P. 17