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Ammonia

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. A stable binary hydride, the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell, it is a common nitrogenous waste among aquatic organisms, it contributes to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical products and is used in many commercial cleaning products, it is collected by downward displacement of both air and water. Although common in nature—both terrestrially and in the outer planets of the Solar System—and in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous in its concentrated form, it is classified as an hazardous substance in the United States, is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities. The global industrial production of ammonia in 2018 was 175 million tonnes, with no significant change relative to the 2013 global industrial production of 175 million tonnes.

Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous liquid ammonia transported in tank cars or cylinders. NH3 boils at −33.34 °C at a pressure of one atmosphere, so the liquid must be stored under pressure or at low temperature. Household ammonia or ammonium hydroxide is a solution of NH3 in water; the concentration of such solutions is measured in units of the Baumé scale, with 26 degrees Baumé being the typical high-concentration commercial product. Pliny, in Book XXXI of his Natural History, refers to a salt produced in the Roman province of Cyrenaica named hammoniacum, so called because of its proximity to the nearby Temple of Jupiter Amun. However, the description Pliny gives of the salt does not conform to the properties of ammonium chloride. According to Herbert Hoover's commentary in his English translation of Georgius Agricola's De re metallica, it is to have been common sea salt. In any case, that salt gave ammonia and ammonium compounds their name.

Ammonia is a chemical found in trace quantities in nature, being produced from nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter. Ammonia and ammonium salts are found in small quantities in rainwater, whereas ammonium chloride, ammonium sulfate are found in volcanic districts; the kidneys secrete ammonia to neutralize excess acid. Ammonium salts are found distributed in seawater. Ammonia is found throughout the Solar System on Mars, Saturn, Uranus and Pluto, among other places: on smaller, icy bodies such as Pluto, ammonia can act as a geologically important antifreeze, as a mixture of water and ammonia can have a melting point as low as 173 K if the ammonia concentration is high enough and thus allow such bodies to retain internal oceans and active geology at a far lower temperature than would be possible with water alone. Substances containing ammonia, or those that are similar to it, are called ammoniacal. Ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell, it is lighter than its density being 0.589 times that of air.

It is liquefied due to the strong hydrogen bonding between molecules. Ammonia may be conveniently deodorized by reacting it with acetic acid. Both of these reactions form an odourless ammonium salt. Solid The crystal symmetry is cubic, Pearson symbol cP16, space group P213 No.198, lattice constant 0.5125 nm. Liquid Liquid ammonia possesses strong ionising powers reflecting its high ε of 22. Liquid ammonia has a high standard enthalpy change of vaporization and can therefore be used in laboratories in uninsulated vessels without additional refrigeration. See liquid ammonia as a solvent. Solvent properties Ammonia is miscible with water. In an aqueous solution, it can be expelled by boiling; the aqueous solution of ammonia is basic. The maximum concentration of ammonia in water has a density of 0.880 g/cm3 and is known as'.880 ammonia'. Combustion Ammonia does not burn or sustain combustion, except under narrow fuel-to-air mixtures of 15–25% air; when mixed with oxygen, it burns with a pale yellowish-green flame.

At high temperature and in the presence of a suitable catalyst, ammonia is decomposed into its constituent elements. Ignition occurs when chlorine is passed into ammonia, forming hydrogen chloride; the ammonia molecule has a trigonal pyramidal shape as predicted by the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory with an experimentally determined bond angle of 106.7°. The central nitrogen atom has five outer electrons with an additional electron from each hydrogen atom; this gives four electron pairs that are arranged tetrahedrally. Three of these electron pairs are used as bond pairs; the lone pair repels more than bond pairs, therefore the bond angle is not 109.5°, as expected for a regular tetrahedral arrangement, but 106.7°. This shape makes it polar; the molecule's polarity, its ability to form hydrogen bonds, makes ammonia miscible with water. The lone pair makes ammonia

All India Azad Muslim Conference

The All India Azad Muslim Conference called the Azad Muslim Conference, was an organisation of nationalist Muslims in India. Its purpose was advocacy for a united India, opposing the partition of India as well as its underlying two-nation theory put forward by the All India Muslim League; the conference included representatives from various political parties and organizations such as Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind, Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam, All India Momin Conference, All India Shia Political Conference, Khudai Khidmatgar, Krishak Praja Party, Anjuman-i-Watan Baluchistan, All India Muslim Majlis, Jamiat Ahl-i-Hadis. The Canadian orientalist Wilfred Cantwell Smith felt that the attendees at the Delhi session in 1940 represented the "majority of India's Muslims"; the Bombay Chronicle documented on 18 April 1946 that "The attendance at the Nationalist meeting was about five times than the attendance at the League meeting." The Azad Muslim Conference was established in 1929 by Allah Bakhsh Soomro, a Chief Minister of Sindh, who had founded the Sind Ittehad Party a few years before.

In the 20th century, many Muslims in British India "ferociously opposed the Muslim League’s demand for Pakistan". Allah Bakhsh Soomro stated: Whatever our faiths we must live together in our country in an atmosphere of perfect amity and our relations should be the relations of the several brothers of a joint family, various members of which are free to profess their faith as they like without any let or hindrance and of whom enjoy equal benefits of their joint property. In the session of the Azad Muslim Conference held in Delhi, from April 27 to April 30, over 1400 nationalist Muslim delegates participated. Allah Baksh Soomro, the leader of the conference, stated "No power on earth can rob anyone of his faith and convictions, no power on earth shall be permitted to rob Indian Muslims of their just rights as Indian nationals." The participants belonged to the working class of Muslims in British India, unlike the All India Muslim League, whose membership was composed of the elite. The Bombay Chronicle documented on 18 April 1946 that "The attendance at the Nationalist meeting was about five times than the attendance at the League meeting."

The Canadian orientalist Wilfred Cantwell Smith stated that he felt the attendees represented the "majority of India's Muslims", as did the British press. Meetings of the Azad Muslim Conference were frequent in the 1940s in 1942, continued in several cities, which worried the rival Muslim League. From 27 December 1947 to 28 December 1947, the Azad Muslim Conference was convened in Lucknow by Hafiz Mohamad Ibrahim and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad; the Azad Muslim Conference concluded that the creation of Pakistan would be "impracticable and harmful to the country’s interest and of Muslims in particular." It called on Indian Muslims to work with Indians of other faiths to liberate India from British rule. Jawaharlal Nehru praised the Azad Muslim Conference as "very representative and successful"; the Azad Muslim Conference had support from the Deobandi school of Islam and their Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind. The All India Azad Muslim Conference, despite its political strength, was sidelined by British officials, who referred to the organisation as "so-called" in their correspondences.

Victor Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow, had referred to the organisation as "stage managed" in 1942 and the British were only willing to recognize the pro-separatist All India Muslim League as being the sole representative of Indian Muslims—a development that led to the partition of India. Sind Ittehad Party Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam All India Momin Conference All India Shia Political Conference Khudai Khidmatgar Krishak Praja Party Anjuman-i-Watan Baluchistan All India Muslim Majlis Jamiat Ahl-i-Hadis Assam Valley Muslim Party Unionist Party The Azad Muslim Conference used several slogans, among them being: "Inquilab Zindabad", "Hindustan Azad", "Pakistan Murdabad", "Freedom through National Unity", "We are Indian and India is our Home". On 19 April 1940, the Azad Muslim Conference celebrated "Hindustan Day", in contrast to the pro-separatist Muslim League's "Pakistan Day". Opposition to the partition of India Composite Nationalism and Islam Akhand Hindustan Facts Don't Back The Argument That Most Indian Muslims Wanted Partition by Rupa Subramanya – The Huffington Post

Little Mountain, Queensland

Little Mountain is a suburb of Caloundra in the Sunshine Coast Region, Australia. At the 2016 Australian Census the suburb recorded a population of 10,212. Little Mountain is 6 kilometres west of Caloundra CBD; the Sunshine Coast Regional Council operates a mobile library service which visits Karawatha Drive near the shopping centre. The Corbould Park racecourse is located in the suburb, as well as the Caloundra Pony Club and Sunshine Coast Clay Target club; the Primary campus of Meridan State College opened on 1 January 2006, Junior Secondary in 2008 and the Senior Secondary campus in 2010. The College caters for students from Prep to Year 12