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The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NH+4. It is formed by the protonation of ammonia. Ammonium is a general name for positively charged or protonated substituted amines and quaternary ammonium cations, where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups; the ammonium ion is generated when ammonia, a weak base, reacts with Brønsted acids: H+ + NH3 → NH+4The ammonium ion is mildly acidic, reacting with Brønsted bases to return to the uncharged ammonia molecule: NH+4 + B− → HB + NH3Thus, treatment of concentrated solutions of ammonium salts with strong base gives ammonia. When ammonia is dissolved in water, a tiny amount of it converts to ammonium ions: H2O + NH3 ⇌ OH− + NH+4The degree to which ammonia forms the ammonium ion depends on the pH of the solution. If the pH is low, the equilibrium shifts to the right: more ammonia molecules are converted into ammonium ions. If the pH is high, the equilibrium shifts to the left: the hydroxide ion abstracts a proton from the ammonium ion, generating ammonia.

Formation of ammonium compounds can occur in the vapor phase. Ammonium cation is found in a variety of salts such as ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride and ammonium nitrate. Most simple ammonium salts are soluble in water. An exception is ammonium hexachloroplatinate, the formation of, once used as a test for ammonium; the ammonium salts of nitrate and perchlorate are explosive, in these cases ammonium is the reducing agent. In an unusual process, ammonium ions form an amalgam; such species are prepared by the electrolysis of an ammonium solution using a mercury cathode. This amalgam decomposes to release ammonia and hydrogen. To find whether the ammonium ion is present in the salt, first the salt is heated in presence of alkali hydroxide releasing a gas with characteristic smell which of course is ammonia. NH 4 + + OH − + heat ⟶ NH 3 + H 2 O To further confirm ammonia it passed through glass rod dipped in HCl solution creating white dense fumes of Ammonium chloride. NH 3 + HCl ⟶ NH 4 Cl Ammonia when passed through CuSO4 solution turns from blue to deep blue colour forming Schweizer's reagent.

CuSO 4 + 4 NH 3 + 4 H 2 O ⟶ 2 + H 2 SO 4 Ammonia or Ammonium ion when added to nessler's reagent gives brown colour precipitate known as Iodide of Million's base in basic medium. Ammonium ion when added to Chloroplatinic acid gives a yellow precipitate. H 2 + NH 4 + ⟶ 2 + 2 H + Ammonium ion when added to Sodium cobaltinitrite gives a yellow precipitate. Na 3 + 3 NH 4 ⟶ 3 + 3 Na + Ammonium ion when added to Potassium bitartrate gives a white precipitate. KC 4 H 5 O 6 + NH 4 + ⟶ C 4

Swansea docks

Swansea Docks is the collective name for several docks in Swansea, Wales. The Swansea docks are located south-east of Swansea city centre. In the mid-19th century, the port was exporting 60% of the world's copper from factories situated in the Tawe valley; the working docks area today is owned and operated by Associated British Ports as the Port of Swansea and the northern part around the Prince of Wales Dock is undergoing re-development into a new urban area branded the SA1 Swansea Waterfront. Docks which have existed or still exist in the complex include: The North Dock was created to fulfil the increasing shipping demands from the nearby metals industry; the North Dock was created by diverting the River Tawe by cutting a new direct course within a meander section near the estuary. The old course of the River became the new dock and work was completed in 1852. Secluded and poorly lit, the area around North Dock was popular with prostitutes and their clients, until lighting was improved following the drowning of Selina Rushbrook in the lock gate in 1907.

The North Dock closed in 1930 after the development of new larger docks on the east side of the River Tawe made the North Dock obsolete. The north dock has since been filled in and the Parc Tawe retail complex was built on the site in the late 1980s. Construction began on the South Dock in 1852 by a private company, it was built on a site west of the River Tawe, just south of the North Dock and was not completed until 1859. The South Dock was redeveloped in the 1980s; the dock itself became the Swansea Marina and the land around the dock was developed as the Maritime Quarter residential area. The Swansea Harbour Trust began constructing the Prince of Wales Dock in 1879 on Fabian's Bay to the east of the River Tawe; when construction was completed, the Prince of Wales dock was opened on 18 October 1881 by Edward, Prince of Wales, extended in 1898 to its present size of 27 acres. Usage of the Prince of Wales dock declined throughout the latter half of the 20th century; the Prince of Wales Dock is now being redeveloped as the Prince of Wales Marina with 500 berths.

A new channel with sea lock and holding basin is under construction to link the Prince of Wales Dock directly with the River Tawe. A new wakeboarding facility opened in the Prince of Wales Dock in 2010. Work began on the King's Dock in 1905 to meet the growing demand of Tinplate exports from the local area; the King's Dock was constructed as a much larger dock than the Prince of Wales on the south side of the Prince of Wales Dock and covers some 72 acres. Construction was complete by 1909; the King's Dock is the principal dock in the Port of Swansea, still in use today for cargo operations. At the same time as the King's Dock was being built, a breakwater was constructed further south of the King's Dock which enclosed a large body of water covering some 151 acres; this body of water was opened in 1920 as the Queen's Dock after oil handling facilities were built to handle imports for the nearby BP oil refinery at Llandarcy and petrochemical plant at Baglan Bay. Usage of the Queen's Dock reached its peak in the 1950s when oil imports and exports reached around 8 million tonnes per year.

Since the closure of the oil plants at Baglan Bay and Llandarcy, the Queen's Dock was rendered obsolete as an oil handling facility. The Queen's Dock is now used for mussel farming. Due to increases in industrial output and in trade in copper, zinc and tinplate combined with the developments in shipping by the late 19th century, Swansea's harbour was in desperate need of expansion; the Swansea Harbour Trust commissioned the construction of the Prince of Wales Dock, the first on the east side of the river. Opened in 1881 by the Prince and Princess of Wales, it was completed in 1882 and expanded in 1898; the North Quay frontage was let to the Great Western Railway, the Neath and Brecon Railway and the Rhondda and Swansea Bay Railway, which linked the Dulais Valley and Rhondda Valley coalfields directly with the docks. In addition to shunting locomotives operated by the SHT, further engines were provided by Powlesland and Mason from 1903 onwards; the Port of Swansea is an Atlantic shipping port operated by Associated British Ports which comprises the King's Dock, Queen's Dock, two dry docks and a roll-on/roll-off ferry terminal in the River Tawe.

The port has three transit sheds with 25,000 m2 of storage space, 12 quayside cranes, two drydocks, a roll-on/roll-off berth. It offers warehouses and facilities for handling dry bulks, ores, forest products and general cargo. There is a roll-on/roll-off ferry terminal in the western part of the docks. Between 1987 and 2006, a regular passenger and car ferry to Ringaskiddy in County Cork, Ireland departed from here; the ferry was operated by a company called Swansea Cork Ferries. The ferry service was suspended from 2007 A website and online campaign/e-petition was started in an attempt to highlight the effect that the loss of the Swansea Cork ferry was having on Swansea and the South-West of Ireland. In April 2009, a newly formed co-operative purchased a new vessel to provide a service between Swansea and County Cork. Sailings commenced on 10 March 2010 but ceased as untenable on 2 February 2011. In written evidence presented to the Welsh Assembly's Enterprise and Learning Committee in January 2008, Swansea University stated that it was "at an advanced stage of discussion" about a new'Innovation Campus' on a second site.

On 20 March 2008, the university announced that it would conduct a more detailed examination and feasibility assessment of a 100-acre site off Fabian Way, covering an area from the docks and the former BP

John Craven (actor)

John Craven was an American actor, the son of noted character actor Frank Craven. He appeared in films and numerous plays and had many TV roles, but was best remembered for originating the role of George Gibbs in the original stage version of Our Town, in which his father played the role of the Stage Manager. Craven was overlooked in the movie version, with the part going to the then-unknown William Holden. Though born in New York City, he attended Beverly Hills High School, in the early 1930s, his stage family had a long history of alternating generations of men named John with subsequent generations of men named Frank. Over the Goal The Human Comedy Dr. Gillespie's Criminal Case Someone to Remember John Craven on IMDb John Craven at the Internet Broadway Database Obituary in The New York Times "Our Town" presented on The Campbell Playhouse, with Orson Welles and guest star John Craven

San Diego Gas & Electric

San Diego Gas & Electric provides natural gas and electricity to San Diego County and southern Orange County in southwestern California, United States. It is owned by a Fortune 500 energy services holding company based in San Diego. SDG&E is a regulated public utility that provides energy service to 3.3 million consumers through 1.4 million electric meters and more than 840,000 natural gas meters in San Diego and southern Orange counties. The utility's area spans 4,100 square miles. SDG&E employs about 5,000 people. In 2004, the California Public Utilities Commission approved SDG&E's long-term energy resource plan, which relies on a balanced mix of resources to meet the growing energy needs of San Diego; that mix includes increased emphasis on energy efficiency, more renewable energy resources, additional baseload generation plants and transmission capacity. In 2014 SDG&E had a renewables mix of 36.4%, more than the 33% requirement by 2020. By 2016, 43.2% of SDG&E's electrical power sources were renewable.

SDG&E has two 230 kV lines that connect the Californian transmission system with the Mexican Comisión Federal de Electricidad transmission system in Baja California. The Path 45 transmission corridor, spanning over the United States-Mexico border, has a capacity of 408 Megawatts. SDG&E has a 500 kV line connecting to Arizona Public Service. There is a 230 kV line connecting to Imperial Irrigation District. Both of these are part of the massive Path 46 transmission system ensuring Southern California has adequate energy; the Sunrise Powerlink 117-mile, 500 kV transmission line linking San Diego to Imperial Valley, one of the most renewable-rich regions in California was put into service on June 18, 2012. Henry H. Jones, a civil and electrical engineer, came to San Diego in 1910 as vice president and manager of the San Diego Consolidated Gas & Electric Company and became president shortly thereafter. Henry Harrison Jones was born in Reading, March 31, 1874, son of Richard Hall and Ellen Jones. After graduating from high school in 1890 he was a bookkeeper at the Second National Bank entered Lehigh University to pursue a technical course.

He graduated as a Civil Engineer in 1897 for a year was a draftsman and assistant engineer for the Chicago, Peoria and St. Louis Railroad Company in Springfield, Illinois a member of the general engineering staff of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Philadelphia until 1899, when he again went west; until 1903 he was in Chicago as an assistant engineer of the Northwestern Railroad. For seventeen years his work was chiefly confined to traction and electric power engineering, he was general superintendent for the Springfield Railway & Light Company at Springfield, until 1909, before coming to San Diego was the manager of the Northern Idaho & Montana Power Company. In 1910 he accepted the post of vice president and manager of the San Diego Consolidated Gas & Electric Company. By 1920 the company furnished gas and electric service to San Diego city and forty adjacent towns and districts as far north as San Juan Capistrano in Orange County, south to the Mexican border; when Jones took the management of the company in 1910 it had less than six thousand electric customers and less than nine thousand gas customers, while the number of customers in each branch in 1920 numbered nearly twenty-seven thousand.

The quantity measure of service increased in proportion, necessitating the investment of millions of dollars in new equipment and distribution systems. The company in 1920 had five hundred and thirty miles of gas main and over seven hundred miles of electric poll lines. Mr. Jones served as a director and member of the executive committee during the Panama-California Exposition, whose group was responsible for the designing and building the first, original structures and buildings in Balboa Park, San Diego, California; the Encanto Gas Holder was a natural gas holding station composed of over 9 miles of underground 30-inch pipe on about 16 acres of land in Lemon Grove, adjacent to the city of San Diego. First brought online in the mid-1950s, the Encanto Gas Holder was decommissioned in 2000-2001 by San Diego Gas and Electric, Sempra Energy as the agent of SDG&E, the IT Corporation as the main contractor for the decommissioning. TriState was brought on board to abate strips of asbestos-containing pipe coating for another contractor to cut the holder bottle into 40-foot sections.

TriState was tasked with stripping the coating at the gas holder site despite employee and nearby residents' concerns over friable asbestos generated as a byproduct of the gross stripping processes employed by SDG&E contractors. In 2006, SDG&E was indicted by U. S. Attorney Carol C. Lam in the Southern District of California on five counts, including conspiracy and three counts of mishandling regulated asbestos-containing materials in violation of the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Additional defendants included SDG&E's director of environmental compliance, an uncertified asbestos removal consultant, the IT Corporation project manager. Charges were dismissed without prejudice in November 2006, but the defendants were re-indicted in early 2007 on nearly identical charges, the case was heard in San Diego's federal court in June and July 2007. On July 13, 2007, three guilty verdicts were returned against defendants SDG&E, IT Corporation project manager Kyle Rhuebottom, SDG&E environmental specialist David "Willie" Williamson, including false statements, failure to provide adequate notice to government agencies of regulated asbestos on the site, violating asbestos work practice standards to

Saudi Arabian nationality law

Saudi nationality law called the Saudi Arabian Citizenship System, is the law that determines, a Saudi citizen. Foreigners are given citizenship if they meet the conditions. Anyone, born or resided on Saudi Arabian land from 1332 Hijra – 1914 A. D. until 22/3/1345 Hijra provided that they did not acquire a foreign citizenship prior to this date. A child born in Saudi Arabia to a non-Saudi father and a Saudi mother has the right to Saudi citizenship upon reaching the age of majority if they fulfill the following: have permanent residency be fluent in Arabic; the grandfather of the mother must be Saudi. Getting an approval from the highest authority in the country. Children born to unknown parents in Saudi Arabia automatically get citizenship until the identities of the parents are known. Children born to foreigners do not have the right to citizenship, but may be given nationality if they have a Saudi father. Before the 1970s, anybody, born in Saudi Arabia has the right to citizenship, they must apply for the citizenship at the age of 18, before turning 19.

Children born to a Saudi father or an unknown or stateless father and Saudi mother could be a Saudi citizen if the conditions are satisfied. A foreign woman who marries a Saudi man has right to citizenship provided that she gives up her foreign citizenship. Saudi women who give up citizenship upon marriage to a foreign husband has the right to take up Saudi citizenship if she divorces or returns to Saudi Arabia. A foreigner may apply for citizenship: Above the age of maturity. Mentally competent. Legal residence for 10 years continuously, including five years as a permanent resident. Have legal ways of earning a living. Considered moral. Do not have a criminal record. Read and speak fluent Arabic; the application is sent to the prime minister, advised by the Ministry of Interior. They may not reject the application with no given reason. Wives of naturalized citizens have the right to Saudi citizenship, their minor children automatically become Saudis if living in the country. If the children are not living in the country, they remain non-Saudis and have right to take up Saudi nationality upon reaching age of maturity, if the naturalized male citizen has female relatives who have the male citizen as their guardian, they will have right to citizenship.

Loss of Saudi citizenship may occur due to one of the following reasons: Works for another country's military. Works for another country's government. Holds a passport of another nation without permission from the King. Dual citizenship is permitted only by birth in a foreign country which allows/enforces citizenship by birth. Saudi citizens cannot give up their citizenship without permission. Saudis are not permitted to acquire any foreign citizenship without the permission of the Prime Minister. If a Saudi Citizen acquired a foreign Citizenship without this permission, they will be considered Saudi unless the Saudi Government revokes their Saudi Citizenship according to the terms of Article 13: takes up foreign Citizenship without permission of the Prime Minister. In 2018, Saudi citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 74 countries and territories, ranking the Saudi passport 60th in the world according to the Visa Restrictions Index

Hybrid sport

A hybrid sport is one which combines two or more sports in order to create a new sport, or to allow meaningful competition between players of those sports. The most popular hybrid sport in terms of attendance and television viewers is international rules football. BBASEketball - a fictional hybrid sport from the movie BASEketball which combines the game of basketball with baseball rules. Bossaball - a hybrid sport combining elements of volleyball, association football and Capoeira, played on a field with 3 bases, there is a trampoline at the third base along with a net. Allowing players to bounce high to spike or touch the ball and touch it with any part of the body arms and handsCChess boxing – a hybrid sport which combines the sport of boxing with games of chess in alternating rounds. Chess boxing fights have been organized since early 2003; the sport was started when Dutch artist Iepe Rubingh, inspired by fictional descriptions of the sport in the writing of Enki Bilal, organized actual matches.

The sport has become popular since then. To succeed players must be both skilled chess players and skilled boxers. Circle rules football - a hybrid of association football, basketball and Rugby, with a goal located on the center of circle field. Composite rules shinty-hurling – The Irish sports of hurling or camogie combined with the Scottish sport of shinty. Composite rules Softball-Baseball - a hybrid bat-and-ball sports which combines the elements of Baseball and Softball, played on the large identical baseball diamond with the larger ball, ten rather than nine innings, both underarm and overarm pitchings. DDisc Golf - a hybrid flying disc sport with elements of golfFFootball tennis – a hybrid of association football and tennis Footgolf - a hybrid of association football and golf Footvolley – a hybrid of association football and volleyballHHurlacrosse - a hybrid of hurling and lacrosse Hybrid martial arts - a full contact individual combat sports which allowed to use the wide range of all aspects and techniques of several different martial arts and combat sports.

Hybrid rugby - a hybrid of rugby union and rugby league. IInternational rules football – a combination of Gaelic football and Australian rules football; the International Rules Series, an annual series of two games between representative teams from Ireland and Australia, attracted sell-out crowds during its 2006 edition. KKorfball – several claims that it was developed as a hybrid of netball and basketball to enable play between teams of mixed gender. Despite the origins of korfball, today it does facilitate that purpose. NNashball – a field sport mixing elements of soccer, basketball, ultimate frisbee, volleyball using horizontal end zone goals and strict no open-hand contact and strike. PPolocrosse - A hybrid of polo and lacrosse, played on horseback. SSamoa Rules – A hybrid of rugby union and Australian rules football Segway Rugpolocrosse - A field sport which combines elements of Segway polo and lacrosse, played on the segway allowing players to run with it either in hands or in the netted racket of lacrosse stick, contact and tackle each other with the player's body, lacrosse stick, segway.

Slamball - a full-contact team hybrid sports which will combine elements of basketball, American football, ice hockey and video games, played on the basketball court, surrounded by hockey-style plexiglass walls, with two sets of four trampolines at the front of net and boards around the edges of this court. TTennis polo - a hybrid of tennis, field hockey, handball and polo Teqball - a hybrid of table tennis and soccer VVigoro - a hybrid of cricket and tennis Wwaterpolo - A hybrid of swimming and handball Austus – a combination of American football and Australian rules football played during World War II. However, this hybrid sport has not been recorded as having been played since the war. Iomain - a variation of shinty-hurling, using a compromise stick, piloted once in 2013. Universal football – a combination of rugby league and Australian rules football trialed in the early 20th century. Volata