Speculaas or speculoos is a type of spiced shortcrust biscuit, traditionally baked for consumption on or just before St Nicholas' day in the Netherlands and around Christmas in Germany and Austria. Speculaas are thin crunchy, caramelized browned and, most have some image or figure stamped on the front side before baking. Speculaas dough does not rise much. Dutch and Belgian versions are baked with baking powder. German Spekulatius uses baker's ammonia as leavening agent. Indian and Mediterranean spices used in speculaas are cinnamon, cloves, ginger and white pepper. Family recipes may include other small amounts of spices like anise, etc. Traditionally, speculaas were made from Frisian flour and spices; the name speculoos was coined for Belgian wheat flour cookies with hardly any spices. Today most speculaas versions are made from white flour, brown sugar and spices; some varieties have slivered almonds embedded in the bottom. The dough is prepared by beating butter and spices and combining them.
The flour and leavening agent are mixed separately and added. Bakers are careful not to overwork the dough, so it will rise slightly; the dough is stored in a cool place overnight to give the spices time to permeate the dough and add extra flavor. There are several interpretations for the origins of the name speculaas, it may derive from Latin speculum, which means mirror and refers to the fact that the images are cut as a mirrored bas-relief into a wooden stamp, used to decorate speculaas. Another, less word origin refers to the Latin word speculator which, among other meanings, could refer to a bishop or St Nicholas' epithet, "he who sees everything". Still another possible source is the Dutch word for spice; the Belgian city of Hasselt is known for a local variety of speculoos. On 13 January 1870, Antonie Deplée, a baker from Hasselt, acquired a license for Hasselt speculoos: "une espèce de pain d'amandes connu sous le nom de spéculation", he sold this version abroad. The German Spekulatius, traditional in Westphalia and the Rhineland, is similar.
It is popular throughout the country around Christmastime and not available at other times of the year. In Europe, Lotus Speculoos is the most recognized brand. In the United States, the same company is branded as Lotus Biscoff. Several chains of supermarkets have started their own product under their generic name. By 2007, several Belgian companies began marketing a paste variant of speculoos, now available worldwide under various brands and names: as Speculla, Cookie Butter, Biscoff Spread; as a form of spreadable Speculoos cookies, the flavor is caramelized and gingerbread-like with a color similar to peanut butter and a consistency ranging from creamy to granular or crunchy. The spread consists of 60% crushed speculoos cookies along with vegetable oils. Workers in the Low Countries traditionally made a sandwich in the morning with butter and speculaas or speculoos cookies; this would develop into a spread-like consistency by lunchtime. In 2008, two competitors entered a contest on the Belgian television show, The Inventors, with a spread made from speculoos cookies — Els Scheppers, who reached the semi-finals, the team of chef Danny De Mayer and Dirk De Smet, who weren't selected as finalists.
Spreads made from crushed Speculoos cookies would subsequently go into production by three separate companies and become popular. Cookie butter Ginger biscuits Springerle, a thicker, anise-flavoured, moulded Christmas biscuit from Germany Kruidnoten, a thicker, harder biscuit made without molds with the same ingredients Largest Spekulatius Cookie in the World
W. K. Buckley Limited is a corporation operating in Canada that manufactures medicines for health problems such as the common cold, they have children's medicine which are sold under the brand Jack & Jill. The company is located in Ontario, it is a subsidiary of Novartis. The company was founded in 1919 by William Knapp Buckley, In 1978, after W. K. Buckley's death, his adopted son Frank Buckley became the president of the company. In the mid-1980s, Frank became spokesperson promoting the "It Tastes Awful, and It Works." Slogan, which became successful. Novartis, the Swiss-based conglomerate with 2005 sales of $32 billion, purchased ownership of the Buckley's brand and formulas in 2002 denying a third generation run at leading Buckley's by Frank's son Donald; the remaining Buckley company, William Knapp Limited, which provides Marketing consultancy services, is led by David Rieger, The Vice President of Marketing reporting directly to Frank Buckley. Prior to this position, Mr. Rieger held a number of other senior positions with the Buckley organization and with the Novartis conglomerate.
Buckley's Mixture is a cough syrup invented in 1919 in Toronto, Ontario and still produced today. Noted for its unpleasant taste, its ingredients include ammonium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate, menthol, Canada balsam, sodium cyclamate, pine needle oil, a tincture of capsicum, it is promoted for sore throats for up to six hours. Taken as a liquid, Buckley's DM contains the antitussive dextromethorphan as a hydrobromide salt as an active ingredient; this acts on the nervous system to raise the threshold for coughing, thereby alleviating symptoms. Some "Cough and Cold" remedies have been made containing pseudoephedrine as a nasal decongestant to help with the relief of cold symptoms. Herbal components of the remedy work by counterstimulation, by other mechanisms. Capsaicin, for instance, is known to act as an analgesic with long-term use, which could help dull the pain of a sore throat. Many cough medications, including Buckley's, have become popular as recreational drugs in recent years. Due to the dissociative properties of dextromethorphan, high doses of cough medication can be used to produce an intoxication.
Only 100 mg of dextromethorphan is needed to create a euphoric effect. The lethal dose is between 2,000 20,000 mg. Only some of the Buckley's formulations contain dextromethorphan; the original, without DXM, may be purchased. However, recreational use of Buckley's is due to the deterrent effects of its taste. Antitussive Cough Dextromethorphan Official website
Safety data sheet
A safety data sheet, material safety data sheet, or product safety data sheet is a document that lists information relating to occupational safety and health for the use of various substances and products. SDSs are a used system for cataloging information on chemicals, chemical compounds, chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product, along with spill-handling procedures. SDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements. A SDS for a substance is not intended for use by the general consumer, focusing instead on the hazards of working with the material in an occupational setting. There is a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health or environmental risk. Labels can include hazard symbols such as the European Union standard symbols; the same product can have different formulations in different countries. The formulation and hazard of a product using a generic name may vary between manufacturers in the same country.
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals contains a standard specification for safety data sheets. The SDS follows a 16 section format, internationally agreed and for substances the SDS should be followed with an Annex which contains the exposure scenarios of this particular substance; the 16 sections are: SECTION 1: Identification of the substance/mixture and of the company/undertaking 1.1. Product identifier 1.2. Relevant identified uses of the substance or mixture and uses advised against 1.3. Details of the supplier of the safety data sheet 1.4. Emergency telephone number SECTION 2: Hazards identification 2.1. Classification of the substance or mixture 2.2. Label elements 2.3. Other hazards SECTION 3: Composition/information on ingredients 3.1. Substances 3.2. Mixtures SECTION 4: First aid measures 4.1. Description of first aid measures 4.2. Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed 4.3. Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed SECTION 5: Firefighting measures 5.1.
Extinguishing media 5.2. Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture 5.3. Advice for firefighters SECTION 6: Accidental release measure 6.1. Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures 6.2. Environmental precautions 6.3. Methods and material for containment and cleaning up 6.4. Reference to other sections SECTION 7: Handling and storage 7.1. Precautions for safe handling 7.2. Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities 7.3. Specific end use SECTION 8: Exposure controls/personal protection 8.1. Control parameters 8.2. Exposure controls SECTION 9: Physical and chemical properties 9.1. Information on basic physical and chemical properties 9.2. Other information SECTION 10: Stability and reactivity 10.1. Reactivity 10.2. Chemical stability 10.3. Possibility of hazardous reactions 10.4. Conditions to avoid 10.5. Incompatible materials 10.6. Hazardous decomposition products SECTION 11: Toxicological information 11.1. Information on toxicological effects SECTION 12: Ecological information 12.1.
Toxicity 12.2. Persistence and degradability 12.3. Bioaccumulative potential 12.4. Mobility in soil 12.5. Results of PBT and vPvB assessment 12.6. Other adverse effects SECTION 13: Disposal considerations 13.1. Waste treatment methods SECTION 14: Transport information 14.1. UN number 14.2. UN proper shipping name 14.3. Transport hazard class 14.4. Packing group 14.5. Environmental hazards 14.6. Special precautions for user 14.7. Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code SECTION 15: Regulatory information 15.1. Safety and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture 15.2. Chemical safety assessment SECTION 16: Other information 16.2. Date of the latest revision of the SDS In Canada, the program known as the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System establishes the requirements for SDSs in workplaces and is administered federally by Health Canada under the Hazardous Products Act, Part II, the Controlled Products Regulations. Safety data sheets have been made an integral part of the system of Regulation No 1907/2006.
The original requirements of REACH for SDSs have been further adapted to take into account the rules for safety data sheets of the Global Harmonised System and the implementation of other elements of the GHS into EU legislation that were introduced by Regulation No 1272/2008 via an update to Annex II of REACH. The SDS must be supplied in an official language of the Member State where the substance or mixture is placed on the market, unless the Member State concerned provide otherwise; the European Chemicals Agency has published a guidance document on the compilation of safety data sheets. The German Federal Water Management Act requires that substances be evaluated for negative influence on the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of water; these are classified into numeric water hazard classes. WGK nwg: Non-water polluting substance WGK 1: Slightly water polluting substance WGK 2: Water polluting substance WGK 3: Highly water polluting substance This section contributes to a better understanding of the regulations governing SDS within the South African framework.
As regulations may change, it is the responsibility of the reader to verify the validity of the regulations mentioned in text. As globalisation increased and countries engaged in cross-border trade, the quantity of hazardous material crossing international borders a
European Chemicals Agency
The European Chemicals Agency is an agency of the European Union which manages the technical and administrative aspects of the implementation of the European Union regulation called Registration, Evaluation and Restriction of Chemicals. ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and addresses chemicals of concern, it is located in Finland. The agency headed by Executive Director Bjorn Hansen, started working on 1 June 2007; the REACH Regulation requires companies to provide information on the hazards and safe use of chemical substances that they manufacture or import. Companies register this information with ECHA and it is freely available on their website. So far, thousands of the most hazardous and the most used substances have been registered; the information is technical but gives detail on the impact of each chemical on people and the environment.
This gives European consumers the right to ask retailers whether the goods they buy contain dangerous substances. The Classification and Packaging Regulation introduces a globally harmonised system for classifying and labelling chemicals into the EU; this worldwide system makes it easier for workers and consumers to know the effects of chemicals and how to use products safely because the labels on products are now the same throughout the world. Companies need to notify ECHA of the labelling of their chemicals. So far, ECHA has received over 5 million notifications for more than 100 000 substances; the information is available on their website. Consumers can check chemicals in the products. Biocidal products include, for example, insect disinfectants used in hospitals; the Biocidal Products Regulation ensures that there is enough information about these products so that consumers can use them safely. ECHA is responsible for implementing the regulation; the law on Prior Informed Consent sets guidelines for the import of hazardous chemicals.
Through this mechanism, countries due to receive hazardous chemicals are informed in advance and have the possibility of rejecting their import. Substances that may have serious effects on human health and the environment are identified as Substances of Very High Concern 1; these are substances which cause cancer, mutation or are toxic to reproduction as well as substances which persist in the body or the environment and do not break down. Other substances considered. Companies manufacturing or importing articles containing these substances in a concentration above 0,1% weight of the article, have legal obligations, they are required to inform users about the presence of the substance and therefore how to use it safely. Consumers have the right to ask the retailer whether these substances are present in the products they buy. Once a substance has been identified in the EU as being of high concern, it will be added to a list; this list is available on ECHA's website and shows consumers and industry which chemicals are identified as SVHCs.
Substances placed on the Candidate List can move to another list. This means that, after a given date, companies will not be allowed to place the substance on the market or to use it, unless they have been given prior authorisation to do so by ECHA. One of the main aims of this listing process is to phase out SVHCs where possible. In its 2018 substance evaluation progress report, ECHA said chemical companies failed to provide “important safety information” in nearly three quarters of cases checked that year. "The numbers show a similar picture to previous years" the report said. The agency noted that member states need to develop risk management measures to control unsafe commercial use of chemicals in 71% of the substances checked. Executive Director Bjorn Hansen called non-compliance with REACH a "worry". Industry group CEFIC acknowledged the problem; the European Environmental Bureau called for faster enforcement to minimise chemical exposure. European Chemicals Bureau Official website
Sal ammoniac or Salammoniac, is a rare occurring mineral composed of ammonium chloride, NH4Cl. It forms white, or yellow-brown crystals in the isometric-hexoctahedral class, it has poor cleavage and a brittle to conchoidal fracture. It is quite soft, with a Mohs hardness of 1.5 to 2, it has a low specific gravity of 1.5. It is water-soluble. Sal ammoniac is the archaic name for the chemical compound ammonium chloride. Pliny, in Book XXXI of his Natural History, refers to a salt produced in the Roman province of Cyrenaica named hammoniacum, so called because of its proximity to the nearby Temple of Jupiter Amun. However, the description Pliny gives of the salt does not conform to the properties of ammonium chloride. According to Herbert Hoover's commentary in his English translation of Georgius Agricola's De re metallica, it is to have been common sea salt. In any case, that salt gave ammonia and ammonium compounds their name; the first attested reference to sal ammoniac as ammonium chloride is in the Pseudo-Geber work De inventione veritatis, where a preparation of sal ammoniac is given in the chapter De Salis armoniaci præparatione, salis armoniaci being a common name in the Middle Ages for sal ammoniac.
It forms as encrustations formed by sublimation around volcanic vents and is found around volcanic fumaroles, guano deposits and burning coal seams. Associated minerals include native sulfur and other fumarole minerals. Notable occurrences include Tajikistan, it is used to clean the soldering iron in the soldering of stained-glass windows. In jewellery-making and the refining of precious metals, potassium carbonate is added to gold and silver in a borax-coated crucible to purify iron or steel filings that may have contaminated the scrap, it is air-cooled and remelted with a one-to-one mixture of powdered charcoal and sal ammoniac to yield a sturdy ingot of the respective metal or alloy in the case of sterling silver or karated gold. Sal ammoniac has been used in the past in bakery products to give cookies or biscuits their crisp texture, but the application of food grade baking ammonia is being substituted with the creation of modern baking powder or baking soda. Sal ammoniac is known, inter alia, by its use in salmiac liquorice, for instance salty liquorice or salmiak pastilles.
In addition, the mineral or better its synthetic counterpart serves for the production of cooling baths as well as in the dyeing and leather tanning. Sal ammoniac was the electrolyte in a forerunner of the dry battery. Media related to Salammoniac at Wikimedia Commons Mineral galleries
The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium; the melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is specified at a standard pressure such as 1 atmosphere or 100 kPa. When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from liquid to solid, it is referred to as the freezing point or crystallization point; because of the ability of some substances to supercool, the freezing point is not considered as a characteristic property of a substance. When the "characteristic freezing point" of a substance is determined, in fact the actual methodology is always "the principle of observing the disappearance rather than the formation of ice", that is, the melting point. For most substances and freezing points are equal. For example, the melting point and freezing point of mercury is 234.32 kelvins. However, certain substances possess differing solid-liquid transition temperatures.
For example, agar melts at 85 °C and solidifies from 31 °C. The melting point of ice at 1 atmosphere of pressure is close to 0 °C. In the presence of nucleating substances, the freezing point of water is not always the same as the melting point. In the absence of nucleators water can exist as a supercooled liquid down to −48.3 °C before freezing. The chemical element with the highest melting point is tungsten, at 3,414 °C; the often-cited carbon does not melt at ambient pressure but sublimes at about 3,726.85 °C. Tantalum hafnium carbide is a refractory compound with a high melting point of 4215 K. At the other end of the scale, helium does not freeze at all at normal pressure at temperatures arbitrarily close to absolute zero. Many laboratory techniques exist for the determination of melting points. A Kofler bench is a metal strip with a temperature gradient. Any substance can be placed on a section of the strip, revealing its thermal behaviour at the temperature at that point. Differential scanning calorimetry gives information on melting point together with its enthalpy of fusion.
A basic melting point apparatus for the analysis of crystalline solids consists of an oil bath with a transparent window and a simple magnifier. The several grains of a solid are placed in a thin glass tube and immersed in the oil bath; the oil bath is heated and with the aid of the magnifier melting of the individual crystals at a certain temperature can be observed. In large/small devices, the sample is placed in a heating block, optical detection is automated; the measurement can be made continuously with an operating process. For instance, oil refineries measure the freeze point of diesel fuel online, meaning that the sample is taken from the process and measured automatically; this allows for more frequent measurements as the sample does not have to be manually collected and taken to a remote laboratory. For refractory materials the high melting point may be determined by heating the material in a black body furnace and measuring the black-body temperature with an optical pyrometer. For the highest melting materials, this may require extrapolation by several hundred degrees.
The spectral radiance from an incandescent body is known to be a function of its temperature. An optical pyrometer matches the radiance of a body under study to the radiance of a source, calibrated as a function of temperature. In this way, the measurement of the absolute magnitude of the intensity of radiation is unnecessary. However, known temperatures must be used to determine the calibration of the pyrometer. For temperatures above the calibration range of the source, an extrapolation technique must be employed; this extrapolation is accomplished by using Planck's law of radiation. The constants in this equation are not known with sufficient accuracy, causing errors in the extrapolation to become larger at higher temperatures. However, standard techniques have been developed to perform this extrapolation. Consider the case of using gold as the source. In this technique, the current through the filament of the pyrometer is adjusted until the light intensity of the filament matches that of a black-body at the melting point of gold.
This establishes the primary calibration temperature and can be expressed in terms of current through the pyrometer lamp. With the same current setting, the pyrometer is sighted on another black-body at a higher temperature. An absorbing medium of known transmission is inserted between this black-body; the temperature of the black-body is adjusted until a match exists between its intensity and that of the pyrometer filament. The true higher temperature of the black-body is determined from Planck's Law; the absorbing medium is removed and the current through the filament is adjusted to match the filament intensity to that of the black-body. This establishes a second calibration point for the pyrometer; this step is repeated to carry the calibration to hi