Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization with its headquarters in the United Kingdom focused on human rights. The organization claims it has more than eight million supporters around the world; the stated mission of the organization is to campaign for "a world in which every person enjoys all of the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments."Amnesty International was founded in London in 1961, following the publication of the article "The Forgotten Prisoners" in The Observer on 28 May 1961, by the lawyers Peter Benenson and Philip James. Amnesty draws attention to human rights abuses and campaigns for compliance with international laws and standards, it works to mobilize public opinion to generate pressure on governments. Amnesty considers capital punishment to be "the ultimate, irreversible denial of human rights." The organization was awarded the 1977 Nobel Peace Prize for its "defence of human dignity against torture," and the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights in 1978.
In the field of international human rights organizations, Amnesty has the third longest history, after the International Federation for Human Rights, the Anti-Slavery Society. Amnesty International was founded in London in July 1961 by English labour lawyer Peter Benenson along with Professor of Law and friend Philip James. According to Benenson's own account, he was travelling on the London Underground on 19 November 1960 when he read that two Portuguese students from Coimbra had been sentenced to seven years of imprisonment in Portugal for "having drunk a toast to liberty". Researchers have never traced the alleged newspaper article in question. In 1960, Portugal was ruled by the Estado Novo government of António de Oliveira Salazar; the government was authoritarian in nature and anti-communist, suppressing enemies of the state as anti-Portuguese. In his significant newspaper article "The Forgotten Prisoners", Benenson described his reaction as follows: Open your newspaper any day of the week and you will find a story from somewhere of someone being imprisoned, tortured or executed because his opinions or religion are unacceptable to his government...
The newspaper reader feels a sickening sense of impotence. Yet if these feelings of disgust could be united into common action, something effective could be done. Benenson worked with friend Eric Baker. Baker was a member of the Religious Society of Friends, involved in funding the British Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament as well as becoming head of Quaker Peace and Social Witness, in his memoirs Benenson described him as "a partner in the launching of the project". In consultation with other writers and lawyers and, in particular, Alec Digges, they wrote via Louis Blom-Cooper to David Astor, editor of The Observer newspaper, who, on 28 May 1961, published Benenson's article "The Forgotten Prisoners"; the article brought the reader's attention to those "imprisoned, tortured or executed because his opinions or religion are unacceptable to his government" or, put another way, to violations, by governments, of articles 18 and 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The article described these violations occurring, on a global scale, in the context of restrictions to press freedom, to political oppositions, to timely public trial before impartial courts, to asylum.
It marked the launch of "Appeal for Amnesty, 1961", the aim of, to mobilize public opinion and in defence of these individuals, whom Benenson named "Prisoners of Conscience". The "Appeal for Amnesty" was reprinted by a large number of international newspapers. In the same year, Benenson had a book published, Persecution 1961, which detailed the cases of nine prisoners of conscience investigated and compiled by Benenson and Baker. In July 1961, the leadership had decided that the appeal would form the basis of a permanent organization, with the first meeting taking place in London. Benenson ensured that all three major political parties were represented, enlisting members of parliament from the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party. On 30 September 1962, it was named "Amnesty International". Between the "Appeal for Amnesty, 1961" and September 1962 the organization had been known as "Amnesty". What started as a short appeal soon became a permanent international movement working to protect those imprisoned for non-violent expression of their views and to secure worldwide recognition of Articles 18 and 19 of the UDHR.
From the beginning and campaigning were present in Amnesty International's work. A library was established for information about prisoners of conscience and a network of local groups, called "THREES" groups, was started; each group worked on behalf of three prisoners, one from each of the three main ideological regions of the world: communist and developing. By the mid-1960s, Amnesty International's global presence was growing and an International Secretariat and International Executive Committee were established to manage Amnesty International's national organizations, called "Sections", which had appeared in several countries; the international movement was starting to agree on its core techniques. For example, the issue of whether or not to adopt prisoners who had advocated violence, like Nelson Mandela, brought unanimous agreement that it could not give the name of "Prisoner of Conscience" to such prisoners. Aside from the work of the library and groups, Amnesty International's activities were expa
Jinja City House Jinja NSSF House, is a building in Jinja, a town in the Eastern Region of Uganda. The building is owned by the Uganda National Social Security Fund, the largest pension fund in the countries of the East African Community, with assets of USh11.3 trillion, as of June 2019. The building is located at 2-4 Lubas Road, in the central business district of the city of Jinja, in Jinja District, about 81 kilometres, by road, east of Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city; the geographical coordinates of the building are 0°25'21.0"N, 33°12'31.0"E. Jinja City House is owned by the Uganda National Social Security Fund, who developed the building, between 2015 and 2018; the building houses the NSSF offices in Jinja and the remaining space is rented out to qualified businesses and corporations. The mixed use building consists of 1,500 square metres on four floors, of which 1,200 square metres are rentable. NSSF will occupy the remaining 300 square metres. Jinja City House, the first real estate investment outside the capital city of Kampala, was developed at a cost of USh3.5 billion.
Other recent real estate investments by the fund include two upscale residential neighborhoods with about 50 houses, worth USh14.9 billion, in Mbuya, a Kampala neighborhood. There is a development in the city of Mbarara 270 kilometres, by road, southwest of Kampala, worth USh3.9 billion. Busoga sub-region NSSF Opens New Building in Jinja NSSF Real Estate Projects: Jinja Commercial Building
SS Maasdam was a Dutch steam merchant and was the third of five with this name in the Holland America Line. She was launched 21 October 1920, with a length of 466, beam of 58 feet and displacement of 8,812. Constructed at Rotterdam, she was designed as a combination cargo and passenger vessel, she had a crew of eighty-nine and showed two funnels, but only one was functioning. The ship laid up in 1933 and overhauled the next year with the dummy funnel and some passenger cabins removed, crew size to forty-eight. On 9 May 1940 she was in port in Liverpool England, awaiting return to the Netherlands when the crew was warned not to return to their home country; the next day the German army invaded the Low Countries. The ship and crew were militarized and Maasdam was chartered to the Ministry of War Transport in London. Maasdam left New York for Halifax on 11 June 1941 with a crew of forty-eight, plus thirty-two passengers, including eleven US Marine Corps personnel and seventeen American Red Cross volunteer nurses.
The marines were destined for duty at the US Embassy in London and the nurses were scheduled to serve at the Harvard Hospital. Halifax was a common port. Maasdam arrived the evening of 13 June 1941. Assigned to Convoy HX 133, she left 16 June amidst dense fog that lasted four days, causing several ship collisions. On 26 June 1941, at 2345 hours GMT U-564 fired multiple torpedoes in rapid succession; the first torpedo struck Maasdam’s port side at the rear of cargo hold no. 2. Following two other ships next to Maasdam were hit, Malaya II a British freighter loaded with TNT and Norwegian tanker Kongsgaard, she sank in the Atlantic Ocean off Greenland. Seventy-eight of the Eighty people on board survived and were rescued by Norwegian ship Havprins and former Danish ship Randa; the two people lost at sea were Ruth Bradley. Ruth traveled to England to work in London at a hospital as a house mother to Red Cross nurses, she was the ex-wife of Colonel Henry S. Breckinridge, mother of Elizabeth Breckinridge and mother-in-law of John Stephens Graham.
Ruth Breckinridge traveled via the SS Maasdam for England where she was to work in London at a hospital as a house mother to Red Cross nurses. Prior to being sunk in 1941, Maasdam was in several convoys starting in May 26, 1940 with Convoy FN.181 between Southend and Methil. It was part of other convoys between Halifax and Liverpool and Southend and from Liverpool. SS Maasdam collided with the British cargo ship Anthea off the coast of Canada and SS Anthea sank. Maasdam ship data. Plimsoll Ship Data