Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain)
The National Statistics Institute is the official agency in Spain that collects statistics about demography and Spanish society. It is an autonomous organization in Spain responsible for overall coordination of statistical services of the General State Administration in monitoring and supervision of technical procedures; every 10 years, this organisation conducts a national census. The last census took place in 2011. Through the official website one can follow all the updates of different fields of study; the oldest statistics agency of Spain and the predecessor of the current agency was the General Statistics Commission of the Kingdom, created on November 3, 1856 during the reign of Isabella II. The so-then Prime Minister Narváez approved a decree creating this body and ordering that people with recognized ability in this matter were part of it. On May 1, 1861, the Commission change its name to General Statistics Board and their first work was to do a population census. By a decree of September 12, 1870, Prime Minister Serrano created the Geographic Institute and in 1873 this Institute change its name to Geographic and Statistic Institute assuming the competences of the General Statistics Board.
In 1890, the titularity of the agency was transferred from the Prime Minister's Office to the Ministry of Development. Between 1921 and 1939, change its name many times. In the same way, the agency was transferred from a ministry to another, passing through the Deputy Prime Minister's Office, the Ministry of the Presidency and the Ministry of Labour; the National Statistics Institute was created following the Law of December 31, 1945, published in the BOE of January 3, 1946, with a mission to develop and refine the demographic and social statistics existing, creating new statistics and coordination with the statistical offices of provincial and municipal areas. At the end of 1964 the first computer was installed at the INE, it was a first-generation IBM 1401, for which a team was formed consisting of four statistics faculty and ten technicians. In the four years following it was possible that said. INE Website
European route E70
European route E 70 is an A-Class West-East European route, extending from A Coruña in Spain in the west to the Georgian city of Poti in the east. The E 70 routes through ten European countries, includes one sea-crossing, from Varna in Bulgaria to Samsun in Turkey. Spain A Coruña - Baamonde Baamonde - Gijón - Torrelavega - Bilbao Bilbao - Eibar Eibar - Donostia/San Sebastián - Irún France Hendaye - Bayonne - Bordeaux Bordeaux Bordeaux Bordeaux - Libourne Libourne - Brive-la-Gaillarde Brive-la-Gaillarde - Saint-Germain-les-Vergnes Saint-Germain-les-Vergnes ( - Combronde Combronde - Clermont-Ferrand Clermont-Ferrand - Balbigny Balbigny - Saint-Étienne Saint-Étienne - Saint-Chamond Saint-Chamond - Givors Givors - Saint-Priest Lyon - Bourgoin-Jallieu - Chambéry Chambéry Chambéry - Modane Modane Italy Bardonecchia Bardonecchia - Torino Torino Torino - Asti - Alessandria - Tortona - Piacenza - Brescia Brescia - Verona - Venice - Palmanova - Sistiana Sistiana - Trieste Trieste Slovenia Sežana - Divača Divača - Ljubljana (Ljubljana Ring Road Ljubljana Ljubljana - Čatež ob Savi Croatia Bregana - Zagreb - Okučani - Slavonski Brod - Donji Andrijevci - Lipovac Serbia Batrovci - Beograd Beograd - Vršac - Vatin Romania Moravița - Timișoara Timișoara - Lugoj - Drobeta-Turnu Severin - Filiași - Craiova - Alexandria - București București București - Giurgiu Bulgaria Ruse - Shumen Shumen - Varna Varna Gap Varna - Samsun Turkey Samsun - Ordu - Giresun - Trabzon - Hopa Georgia Sarpi - Batumi - Kobuleti - Poti
The Nervión river runs through the city of Bilbao, Spain into the Cantabrian Sea. Its lowermost course, downstream of its confluence with the Ibaizabal River, is known as the Estuary of Bilbao; the river is 72 kilometres long from its source at the Burgos and Alava provincial limits to the sea and runs in South to North direction. Soon after its source, the river forms a spectacular 300-metre waterfall in the Delika canyon and enters the Biscay province through the town of Orduña, it goes into Alava again through the towns of Llodio. The river runs again into the Biscay province until the Cantabrian sea, entering the Bilbao metropolitan area at Ugao-Miraballes; the tidal influence reaches 15 kilometres inland at Bilbao's old town. The main tributaries are: From the west: Galindo. From the east: Arratia and Asua. Ibaizabal is considered by some to be an important river, so the whole system is called Nervión-Ibaizabal and the final tract just "Estuary of Bilbao"; the basin area is 1,900 square kilometres.
Despite its current success in Spanish use, the traditional name of the stretch between the estuary and Basauri, where both Ibaizabal and Nervión merge, is Ibaizabal, according to historical evidence tracing back to the eleventh century and up to the twentieth. The literary writer from Bilbao Miguel de Unamuno as well as mayor of Bilbao Javier Ybarra refer to it as Ibaizabal. Geological and hydrological data seem to support that assumption. From ancient times, the Orduña pass that links Spain's inner plateau with the Nervión valley has had a great economic impact. During the Middle Ages it served as a natural border between the Biscay lordship and Castile counties, entry taxes were collected there. Through the centuries, the Nervión valley was a vital communication corridor for Biscay, the main railroad from Bilbao to the rest of Spain was constructed following the river in 1870. At the same time, Bilbao developed a great commercial activity, with its seaport being the most important in the north coast of Spain.
The port's activity relied in the navigability of the river in its final 15 kilometres. So engineer Evaristo Churruca developed an enormous project that would solve the traditional navigation problems of the river; the estuary divided the population of the Greater Bilbao. Now the Nervión river has lost economic importance, the navigable part of the river is being abandoned in favour of the external port, to allow urban development to take place in the banks of the river after the dismantlement of the industry; the quality of the water has improved through refuse water cleaning and the disappearance of the most polluting industries. After a century of intense industrial activity the river the final 25 kilometres, was ecologically dead with oxygen levels 20 percent below the norm; this made the Nervión one of the most polluted rivers in the world. In 1990 the local authorities launched a plan to overcome this situation, resulting in a constant improvement of the environmental status that after 15 years has transformed the Nervión in to a clean river, full of aquatic life.
List of rivers of Spain Greater Bilbao Water Authority Estuary of Bilbao Maritime Museum
Jon Aurtenetxe Borde is a Spanish footballer who plays as a left back but as a central defender for Australian club Adelaide Comets FC. Born in Amorebieta-Etxano, Aurtenetxe joined Athletic Bilbao's youth system at the age of 10, arriving from neighbouring SD Amorebieta and being a finalist in the Copa del Rey Juvenil in 2009. On 16 December of that year before playing his first game with the reserves, the 17-year-old appeared for the first team in the UEFA Europa League, featuring the full 90 minutes in a 0–3 group stage home loss against SV Werder Bremen. Aurtenetxe made his La Liga debut on 28 August 2010, starting and being booked in a 1–0 win at Hércules CF, his season was curtailed by a serious shoulder injury, he was promoted to the main squad for 2011–12 under new manager Marcelo Bielsa. Aurtenetxe was a regular selection for Athletic in 2012–13 but, after the appointment of Ernesto Valverde as manager, he was overlooked for Mikel Balenziaga and featured rarely, he served loans at RC Celta de Vigo and CD Tenerife, in summer 2016 he terminated his contract and moved to second level side CD Mirandés on a one-year deal.
In August 2017, after some weeks without a club, Aurtenexte joined Segunda División B's Amorebieta, returning to where he had played as a child 15 years earlier and reuniting with his former Athletic teammate Joseba Etxeberria, now acting as manager. On 29 August, it was announced. On 30 August 2017, Aurtenetxe signed for Scottish Premiership club Dundee on a contract until January 2018, he made his league debut on 28 October, coming on as a 64th-minute substitute in a 3–1 home loss against Hamilton Academical. He agreed to a new deal on 12 January 2018 that kept him at Dens Park until the end of the season, following which he was released. Aurtenetxe returned to Amorebieta for the 2018 pre-season, on the same understanding as the previous year that he would be allowed to leave if he received a better offer from another club. On 19 July, he acted as captain in a friendly match against former employers Athletic Bilbao. In late December 2018, Aurtenetxe agreed to join Australian National Premier League side Adelaide Comets FC for the upcoming season, with the deal being made effective the following month.
Aurtenetxe won two caps in as many friendlies. His debut was in a 3 -- 1 defeat of Italy in Siena; as of match played 11 January 2019 Athletic Bilbao Copa del Rey: Runner-up 2011–12, 2014–15 UEFA Europa League: Runner-up 2011–12 Spain U19 UEFA European Under-19 Championship: 2011Spain U17 FIFA U-17 World Cup: Third place 2009 Jon Aurtenetxe at Athletic Bilbao Jon Aurtenetxe at BDFutbol Jon Aurtenetxe – FIFA competition record Jon Aurtenetxe at Soccerway
Durango is a town and municipality of the historical territory and province of Biscay, located in the Basque Country, Spain. It is the main town of one of the comarcas of Biscay; because of its economical activities and population, Durango is considered one of the largest towns in Biscay after the ones that compose the conurbation of Greater Bilbao. Durango has 29,318 inhabitants; the town is crossed by three rivers. The Ibaizabal river is the main river, lies in the middle of its wide valley, with the scenic Urkiola mountain range and natural park to the south; the most important peak is the majestic Anboto. In addition, inside the town stand out two mountains: Pagasarri mugarra mountain. There are many differing opinions about the origin of the name Durango. Basque linguist Alfonso Irigoyen has suggested its origin to be in the name Duranco used in the early Middle Ages. Other authors suggest the name to be an evolved form of Padurango. In the confirmation of the town's fuero it is referred to as Tavira de Durango.
Until the 16th century, the town was known as Uribarri de Durango, Uribarri being Basque for "New town". It has been postulated by the Royal Basque Academy of the Language that the name Durango stems from the Latin name Turanicus a Roman fundus like many others in the Basque Country. While it is not known when Durango was founded, it was suzerain to the Kingdom of Navarre, is attested on an 1179 document revolving around territorial litigation between Alfonso VIII of Castile and Sancho VI of Navarre, The Wise; the impending threat of a military intervention conducted by King Alfonso VIII against the Navarrese led King Sancho VI to found other fortified towns, such as San Sebastián and Vitoria-Gasteiz. Between 1199 and 1201, King Alfonso VIII of Castile occupied the lordship of Durango and its hinterland, as well as other key western Basque districts. Durango went on to form part of the Crown of Castile, but former laws and institutions were upheld by the Castilian king. In the 15th century, Durango got engaged in the wider War of the Bands, with various conflicts involving the Ibarguen and Unzueta families.
During this period, tower houses belonging to different clans were erected, such as the ones of Arandoño, Etxebarria, Lariz and Otalora. Henry III and Henry IV, the Castilian Kings, were both received in Durango, as well as Queen Isabel of Castile, who enticed Durango and the Lordship of Biscay to her cause in exchange for ratifying their laws and institutions, i.e. she swore the fueros, favourable trade conditions. According to the municipal records, both monarchs took shelter in the Lariz Tower. In 1517 Durango was devastated by a terrible epidemic of plague that caused many deaths amongst the inhabitants; some years after the epidemic, in 1544, heavy flooding inundated a good part of the town. Just the opposite, in 1554 the town was ravaged by fire, burning all wooden buildings to the ground, i.e. all the buildings were burnt down. In 1597 another plague epidemic spread across the town; the Town Hall is recorded to have been built in the 16th century. The name Durango was used by conquistadores like Francisco de Ibarra to found more Durangos in America named after the Basque original one, e.g. a state in Mexico called Durango, whose principal city is called Durango.
During the 17th century, the town of Durango had to face up to the enormous human and economic cost incurred on the various wars the Crown of Castile embarked upon against France. Following heavy human losses suffered in battles and an episode of cholera epidemic, the town ended up ruined. At the end of the 19th century in 1882, the railway line from Bilbao to Durango was inaugurated. While the construction was expensive, during the early 20th century Durango flourished. On 31 March 1937, Durango was bombed by the Legion Condor, it was a busy shopping day—St. Maria, the central church with a covered marketplace, was targeted. More than 500 people were killed in the following days; the Kurutziaga Cross. It was built between early 16th century, it tells a story and it has a gothic style with a clear Flemish, German influence. Baroque Santa Ana's Arch, designed by local architect Juan de Herdoiza for the now disappeared line of walls; the arch was constructed to symbolise the town gates, through which the King was required to pass when he visited.
Mikeldi idol, of pre-Roman times. Lariz Tower is an urban palace, built around the end of the 15th century, it was renovated in 2009 and it is the Tourist Information Office of the town. It is believed that the Queen Isabella Catholic stayed overnight when she visited Durango in order to swear the regional laws and those of the Merindad de Durango. In the building there are decorative elements of the final Gothic such as large windows of seat or heights of taste Hispanic-Fleming and others of the Renaissance There is less heavy industry in the town than in the late 20th century, as it is being replaced by high density housing projects and shopping facilities. Durango was for many years the home of Euskal Telebista; this public television company broadcasts in Spanish. It has a global presence with satellite channel beamed across the world. ETB has moved to a new headquarters in Bilbao. In Durango, bes
Bilbao is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole. It is the largest city proper in northern Spain. Bilbao is the tenth largest city in Spain, with a population of 345,141 as of 2015; the Bilbao metropolitan area has 1 million inhabitants, making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in northern Spain. Bilbao is the main urban area in what is defined as the Greater Basque region. Bilbao is situated in the north-central part of Spain, some 16 kilometres south of the Bay of Biscay, where the economic social development is located, where the estuary of Bilbao is formed, its main urban core is surrounded by two small mountain ranges with an average elevation of 400 metres. Its climate is shaped by the Bay of Biscay low-pressure systems and mild air, moderating summer temperatures by Iberian standards, with low sunshine and high rainfall; the annual temperature range is low for its latitude. After its foundation in the early 14th century by Diego López V de Haro, head of the powerful Haro family, Bilbao was a commercial hub of the Basque Country that enjoyed significant importance in Green Spain.
This was due to its port activity based on the export of iron extracted from the Biscayan quarries. Throughout the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, Bilbao experienced heavy industrialisation, making it the centre of the second-most industrialised region of Spain, behind Barcelona. At the same time an extraordinary population explosion prompted the annexation of several adjacent municipalities. Nowadays, Bilbao is a vigorous service city, experiencing an ongoing social and aesthetic revitalisation process, started by the iconic Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, continued by infrastructure investments, such as the airport terminal, the rapid transit system, the tram line, the Azkuna Zentroa, the under development Abandoibarra and Zorrozaurre renewal projects. Bilbao is home to football club Athletic Club de Bilbao, a significant symbol for Basque nationalism due to its promotion of only Basque players and one of the most successful clubs in Spanish football history. On 19 May 2010, the city of Bilbao was recognised with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize, awarded by the city state of Singapore, in collaboration with the Swedish Nobel Academy.
Considered the Nobel Prize for urbanism, it was handed out on 29 June 2010. On 7 January 2013, its mayor, Iñaki Azkuna, received the 2012 World Mayor Prize awarded every two years by the British foundation The City Mayors Foundation, in recognition of the urban transformation experienced by the Biscayan capital since the 1990s. On 8 November 2017, Bilbao was chosen the Best European City 2018 at The Urbanism Awards 2018, awarded by the international organisation The Academy of Urbanism; the official name of the town is Bilbao, as known in most languages of the world. Euskaltzaindia, the official regulatory institution of the Basque language, has agreed that between the two possible names existing in Basque and Bilbo, the historical name is Bilbo, while Bilbao is the official name. Although the term Bilbo does not appear in old documents, in the play The Merry Wives of Windsor by William Shakespeare, there is a reference to swords made of Biscayan iron which he calls "bilboes", suggesting that it is a word used since at least the sixteenth century.
There is no consensus among historians about the origin of the name. Accepted accounts state that prior to the 12th century the independent rulers of the territory, named Senores de Zubialdea, were known as Senores de Bilbao la Vieja; the symbols of their patrimony are the church used in the shield of Bilbao to this day. One possible origin was suggested by the engineer Evaristo de Churruca, he said. For Bilbao this would be the result of the union of the Basque words for river and cove: Bil-Ibaia-Bao; the historian José Tussel Gómez argues that it is just a natural evolution of the Spanish words bello vado, beautiful river crossing. On the other hand, according to the writer Esteban Calle Iturrino, the name derives from the two settlements that existed on both banks of the estuary, rather than from the estuary itself; the first, where the present Casco Viejo is located, would be called billa, which means stacking in Basque, after the configuration of the buildings. The second, on the left bank, where now Bilbao La Vieja is located, would be called vaho, Spanish for mist or steam.
From the union of these two derives the name Bilbao, written as Bilvao and Biluao, as documented in its municipal charter. An -ao ending is present in nearby Sestao and Ugao, that could be explained from Basque aho, "mouth"; the demonym is "bilbaíno, -a", although the popular pronunciation bilbaino/a is frequent. In euskera it is bilbotar, sometimes used in Spanish within the Basque Country; the village is affectionately known by its inhabitants as «the botxo», that is, «the hole», since it is surrounded by mountains. The nickname "botxero" is derived from this nickname. Another nickname that Bilbao receives is that of "chimbos", which comes from birds that were hunted in large numbers in these places during the XIX century; the titles, the flag and the coat of arms are Bilbao's traditional symbols and belong to its historic patrimony, being used in formal acts, for the identification and decoration of specific places or for the validation of documents. TitlesBilbao holds the historic category of borough, with the titles of "Very noble and loyal and unbeaten" ("Mu