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Amos Alonzo Stagg

Amos Alonzo Stagg was an American athlete and college coach in multiple sports American football. He served as the head football coach at the International YMCA Training School, the University of Chicago, the College of the Pacific, compiling a career college football record of 314–199–35, his Chicago Maroons teams of 1905 and 1913 have been recognized as national champions. He was the head basketball coach for one season at the University of Chicago, the head baseball coach there for 19 seasons. At the University of Chicago, Stagg instituted an annual prep basketball tournament and track meet. Both drew athletes from around the United States. Stagg played football as an end at Yale University and was selected to the first College Football All-America Team in 1889, he was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as both a player and a coach in the charter class of 1951 and was the only individual honored in both roles until the 1990s. Influential in other sports, Stagg developed basketball as a five-player sport.

This five-man concept allowed his 10 man football team the ability to compete with each other and to stay in shape over the winter. Stagg was elected to the Basketball Hall of Fame in its first group of inductees in 1959. Stagg forged a bond between sports and religious faith early in his career that remained important to him for the rest of his life. Stagg was born in a poor Irish neighborhood of West Orange, New Jersey, matriculated at Phillips Exeter Academy. Stagg attended Yale College, where he was a divinity student, a member of the Psi Upsilon fraternity, it is lesser known that he was a member of "The Order of the Skull and Bones," a controversial secret society with members including multiple former U. S. presidents. Stagg played as a pitcher on his college baseball team, he nonetheless influenced the game through his invention of the batting cage. Stagg played on the 1888 team, he was an end on the first All-America team, selected in 1889. He abandoned the theology career and received a MPE from Young Men's Christian Training School in 1891.

Basketball had been invented in 1891 by a teacher at the YMCA School in Springfield. On March 11, 1892, still an instructor at the YMCA School, played in the first public game of basketball. A crowd of 200 watched as the student team beat the faculty, 5–1. Stagg scored the only basket for the losing side, he popularized basketball teams having five players. Stagg became the first paid football coach at Williston Seminary, a secondary school, in 1890; this was Stagg's first time receiving pay to coach football. He would coach there one day a week while coaching full-time at Springfield College. Stagg coached at the University of Chicago from 1892 to 1932. University president Robert Maynard Hutchins forced out the septuagenarian Stagg, whom he felt was too old to continue coaching. At age 70, Stagg moved on to the College of the Pacific in Stockton, where he coached from 1933 to 1946. In 1946 Stagg was asked to resign as football coach at Pacific. In the 1924 Summer Olympics, he served as a coach with the U.

S. Olympic Track and Field team in Paris. Stagg played himself in the movie Knute Rockne, All American, released in 1940. From 1947 to 1952 he served as co-coach with his son, Amos Jr. at Susquehanna University in Pennsylvania. Stagg's final job was as kicking coach at the local junior college in Stockton, known as Stockton College. "The Grand Old Man of Football" retired from Stockton College at the age of 96 and died in Stockton, California, at 102 years old. During his career, he developed numerous basic tactics for the game, as well as some equipment. Stagg was married to the former Stella Robertson on September 10, 1894; the couple had three children: two sons, Amos Jr. and Paul, a daughter, Ruth. Both sons played for the elder Stagg as quarterbacks at the University of Chicago and each coached college football. In 1952, Barbara Stagg, Amos' granddaughter, started coaching the high school girls' basketball team for Slatington High School in Slatington, Pennsylvania. Two high schools in the United States, one in Palos Hills and the other in Stockton, an elementary school in Chicago, are named after Stagg.

The NCAA Division III National Football Championship game, played in Salem, Virginia, is named the Stagg Bowl after him. The athletic stadium at Springfield College is named Stagg Field; the football field at Susquehanna University is named Amos Alonzo Stagg Field in honor of both Stagg Sr. and Jr. Stagg was the namesake of the University of Chicago's old Stagg Field where, on December 2, 1942, a team of Manhattan Project scientists led by Enrico Fermi created the world's first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction under the west stands of the abandoned stadium. At University of the Pacific in Stockton, one of the campus streets is known as Stagg Way and Pacific Memorial Stadium, the school's football and soccer stadium, was renamed Amos Alonzo Stagg Memorial Stadium on October 15, 1988. Phillips Exeter Academy has a field named for him and a statue. A field in West Orange, New Jersey on Saint Cloud Avenue is named for him; the Amos Alonzo Stagg Award is awarded to the "individual, group or institution whose services have been outstanding in the advancement of the best interests of football."

The winner of the Big Ten Football Championship Ga

Manufacturing in the United States

Manufacturing in the United States is a vital sector. The United States is the world's second largest manufacturer with a record high real output in Q1 2018 of $2.00 trillion well above the 2007 peak before the Great Recession of $1.95 trillion. The U. S. manufacturing industry employed 12.35 million people in December 2016 and 12.56 million in December 2017, an increase of 207,000 or 1.7%. Though still a large part of the US economy, in Q1 2018 manufacturing contributed less to GDP than the'Finance, real estate and leasing' sector, the'Government' sector, or'Professional and business services' sector. Though manufacturing output robustly recovered from the Great Recession to reach an all time high in 2018, manufacturing employment has been declining since the 1990s. This'jobless recovery' made job creation or preservation in the manufacturing sector an important topic in the 2016 United States presidential election. Manufacturing jobs helped build out the U. S. middle class after World War II, as the U.

S. faced limited global competition. Between 1980 and 1985, again 2001 to 2009, there were precipitous declines in US manufacturing jobs; some argue. There are several possible explanations for the decline. Bill Lazonick argues that legalization of company's buying their own shares of stock in 1982 has led to sustained stock market bubbles that distorted investment away from physical plant. Others point to automation or developments outside the United States, such as the rise of China, globalized free trade, supply chain innovation; these have arguably resulted in the off-shoring of thousands of U. S. manufacturing facilities and millions of manufacturing jobs to lower-wage countries. Meanwhile, technological innovation has increased productivity meaning that manufacturing output in the United States has increased by 80% since the 1980s, despite large job losses in the manufacturing sector during that same period; the Bureau of Labor Statistics forecast in October 2017 that manufacturing employment would fall from 12.3 million in 2016 to 11.6 million in 2026, a decline of 736,000.

As a share of employment, manufacturing would fall from 7.9% in 2016 to 6.9% in 2026, continuing a long-term trend. The U. S. manufacturing industry employed 12.4 million people in March 2017, generating output of $2.2 trillion in Q3 2016, with real GDP of $1.9 trillion in 2009 dollars. The share of persons employed in manufacturing relative to total employment has declined since the 1960s. Employment growth in industries such as construction, finance and real estate, services industries played a significant role in reducing manufacturing’s overall share of U. S. employment. In 1990, services surpassed manufacturing as the largest contributor to overall private industry production, the finance and real estate sector surpassed manufacturing in 1991. Since the entry of China into the World Trade Organization in December 2001, the decline in manufacturing jobs has accelerated; the U. S. goods trade deficit with China was $350 billion in 2016. However it is possible; the US stock market ended a sustained fourteen year bubble in 2001, the ensuing job loss pushed a significant portion of US population below the poverty line.

The Economist reported in January 2017 that manufacturing created good paying jobs for workers without a college education for men. The jobs paid well enough so. Unions were strong and owners did not want to risk strikes in their factories due to large capital investments and significant on the job training; such jobs are much less available in the post-2001 era in the U. S. though they remain available in Germany and Japan, leading to calls to bring those jobs back from overseas, establish protectionism, reduce immigration. Making it illegal for companies to purchase shares of their own stock has not yet gained traction as a remedy for the diversion of operating profits away from reinvestment in equipment and people. Manufacturing continues to evolve, due to factors such as information technology, supply chain innovations such as containerization, companies un-bundling tasks that used to be in one location or business, reduced barriers to trade, competition from low-cost developing countries such as China and Mexico.

Competition from high wage nations such as Germany is increasing. Between 1980 and 1985, US manufacturing was hard hit by a twin dynamic: first, Japanese productivity rose at a rapid rate, so that Japanese products fell in price by 12%. Second, Fed Chair Paul Volcker raised US interest rates such; this was the opposite policy from that which a rise in Japanese productivity would have dicated, the US policy action made Japanese products 30% cheaper than American until 1986. The US machine tool sector never recovered from this body blow. Between 1983 and 2005, U. S. exports grew by 340 percent, with exports of manufactured goods increasing by 407 percent over the same period. In 1983, the primary export commodities were transportation equipment and electronic products, agricultural products, machinery and food and kindred products. Together these commodities totaled 69 percent of total U. S. exports. In 2005, the primary export commodities were the same: computer and electronic p

Sweet Home, Lavaca County, Texas

Sweet Home is an unincorporated community in Lavaca County, United States. According to the Handbook of Texas, the community had an estimated population of 360 in 2000. Sweet Home is located at 29°20′43″N 97°04′18″W, it is situated at the junction of Farm Roads 318 and 531 in Lavaca County one mile east of U. S. Highway 77A. Cities within a 15-mile radius of Sweet Home include Hallettsville and Yoakum. In June 1853, Alabama native Solomon West purchased 2,214 acres of land along Mustang Creek in Lavaca County. A year his family made the long journey to Texas. Upon their arrival, Solomon's daughter Mary exhaustingly exclaimed, "Pa, this would be a sweet home," and the name Sweet Home took root. In 1860, George West established a store and stables at the site. During the Civil War, Sweet Home served as a winter camp for freight and cotton wagon trains carrying supplies from Alleyton to Brownsville – the only Confederate port that remained open throughout most of the war. Czechs and Germans began arriving in the community during the 1870s.

The San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railroad laid tracks from Hallettsville to Yoakum in 1887 five miles south of Sweet Home. Most of the residents and businesses relocated to a new location along the rail line. A few Czechs opted to stay at the original site. In 1890, the community had six stores; the first public school in Sweet Home was established in 1891. It was housed in the local Masonic Lodge hall. A two-story frame school house was constructed on the corner of Hallettsville and West streets in 1919, it was replaced by a newer facility in the 1930s. The railroad that had served Sweet Home for years and contributed to its growth, closed its agency in 1937; the population was estimated at 350 in 1948. There were twelve stores and a recreational hall in the community at this time. On September 20, 1967, a tornado spawned by Hurricane Beulah destroyed Sweet Home's post office and damaged homes and the Queen of Peace church. By the mid-1980s, around 360 people lived in the community; that figure remained steady through 2000.

Sweet Home presently has two churches, a volunteer fire department, several businesses, a new school. Although Sweet Home is unincorporated, it has a post office, with the ZIP code of 77987. Public education in the community of Sweet Home is provided by the Sweet Home Independent School District; the district has one campus, Sweet Home Elementary, which serves students in grades pre-kindergarten through eight. Students in grades nine through twelve are eligible attend either Yoakum High School or Hallettsville High School, with most opting for Yoakum. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Sweet Home, Texas Sweet Home, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online Sweet Home Independent School District – Official site