In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase. Chinese characters are logograms; the use of logograms in writing is called logography, a writing system, based on logograms is called a logographic system. In alphabets and syllabaries, individual written characters represent sounds only, rather than entire concepts; these characters are called phonograms in linguistics. Unlike logograms, phonograms do not have word or phrase meanings singularly until the phonograms are combined with additional phonograms thus creating words and phrases that have meaning. Writing language in this way, is called phonetic writing as well as orthographical writing. Logographic systems include the earliest writing systems. A purely logographic script would be impractical for most languages, none is known, apart from one devised for the artificial language Toki Pona, a purposely limited language with only 120 morphemes. All logographic scripts used for natural languages rely on the rebus principle to extend a limited set of logograms: A subset of characters is used for their phonetic values, either consonantal or syllabic.
The term logosyllabary is used to emphasize the phonetic nature of these scripts when the phonetic domain is the syllable. In both Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and in Chinese, there has been the additional development of fusing such phonetic elements with determinatives. Logographic writing systems include: Logoconsonantal scripts These are scripts in which the graphemes may be extended phonetically according to the consonants of the words they represent, ignoring the vowels. For example, Egyptian was used to write both sȝ'duck' and sȝ'son', though it is that these words were not pronounced the same apart from their consonants; the primary examples of logoconsonantal scripts are:Hieroglyphs and demotic: Ancient Egyptian Logosyllabic scripts These are scripts in which the graphemes represent morphemes polysyllabic morphemes, but when extended phonetically represent single syllables. They include:Anatolian hieroglyphs: Luwian Cuneiform: Sumerian, other Semitic languages, Hittite, Luwian and Urartian Maya glyphs: Chorti and other Classic Maya languages Han characters: Chinese, Japanese, Zhuang Derivatives of Han characters: Chữ nôm: Vietnam Dongba script written with Geba script: Naxi language Jurchen script: Jurchen Khitan large script: Khitan Sawndip: Zhuang languages Shui script: Shui language Tangut script: Tangut language Yi: various Yi languagesNone of these systems is purely logographic.
This can be illustrated with Chinese. Not all Chinese characters represent morphemes: some morphemes are composed of more than one character. For example, the Chinese word for spider, 蜘蛛 zhīzhū, was created by fusing the rebus 知朱 zhīzhū with the "bug" determinative 虫. Neither *蜘 zhī nor *蛛 zhū can be used separately; this is incorrect. In Archaic Chinese, one can find the reverse: a single character representing more than one morpheme. An example is Archaic Chinese 王 hjwangs, a combination of a morpheme hjwang meaning king and a suffix pronounced /s/. In modern Mandarin, bimorphemic syllables are always written with two characters, for example 花儿 huār'flower'. A peculiar system of logograms developed within the Pahlavi scripts used to write Middle Persian during much of the Sassanid period; these logograms, called hozwārishn, were dispensed with altogether after the Arab conquest of Persia and the adoption of a variant of the Arabic alphabet. Logograms are used in modern shorthand to represent common words.
In addition, the numerals and mathematical symbols are logograms – 1'one', 2'two', +'plus', ='equals', so on. In English, the ampersand & is used for'and' and for Latin et, % for'percent', # for'number', § for'section', $ for'dollar', € for'euro', £ for'pound', ° for'degree', @ for'at', so on. All historical logographic systems include a phonetic dimension, as it is impractical to have a separate basic character for every word or morpheme in a language. In some cases, such as cuneiform as it was used for Akkadian, the vast majority of glyphs are used for their sound values rather than logographically. Many logographic systems have a semantic/ideographic component, called "determinatives" in the case of Egyptian and "radicals" in the case of Chinese. Typical Egyptian usage was to augment a logogram, which may represent several words with different pronunciations, with a determinate to narrow down the meaning, a phonetic component to specify the pronunciation. In the case of Chinese, the vast majority of characters are a fixed combination of a radical that indicates its nominal category, plus a phonetic to give an idea of the pronunciation.
The Mayan system used logograms
The equals sign or equality sign is a mathematical symbol used to indicate equality. It was invented in 1557 by Robert Recorde. In an equation, the equals sign is placed between two expressions. In Unicode and ASCII, it is U+003D = EQUALS SIGN; the etymology of the word "equal" is from the Latin word "æqualis" as meaning "uniform", "identical", or "equal", from aequus. The "=" symbol, now universally accepted in mathematics for equality was first recorded by Welsh mathematician Robert Recorde in The Whetstone of Witte; the original form of the symbol was much wider than the present form. In his book Recorde explains his design of the "Gemowe lines": And to auoide the tediouſe repetition of theſe woordes: is equalle to: I will ſette as I doe in woorke vſe, a paire of paralleles, or Gemowe lines of one lengthe, thus: =, bicauſe noe.2. Thynges, can be moare equalle, and to avoid the tedious repetition of these words: is equal to: I will set as I do in work use, a pair of parallels, or Gemowe lines of one length, thus: =, because no 2 things, can be more equal.
According to Scotland's University of St Andrews History of Mathematics website: The symbol'=' was not popular. The symbol || was used by some and æ, from the Latin word aequalis meaning equal, was used into the 1700s. In mathematics, the equals sign can be used as a simple statement of fact in a specific case, or to create definitions, conditional statements, or to express a universal equivalence 2 = x2 + 2x + 1; the first important computer programming language to use the equals sign was the original version of Fortran, FORTRAN I, designed in 1954 and implemented in 1957. In Fortran, "=" serves as an assignment operator: X = 2 sets the value of X to 2; this somewhat resembles the use of "=" in a mathematical definition, but with different semantics: the expression following "=" is evaluated first and may refer to a previous value of X. For example, the assignment X = X + 2 increases the value of X by 2. A rival programming-language usage was pioneered by the original version of ALGOL, designed in 1958 and implemented in 1960.
ALGOL included a relational operator that tested for equality, allowing constructions like if x = 2 with the same meaning of "=" as the conditional usage in mathematics. The equals sign was reserved for this usage. Both usages have remained common in different programming languages into the early 21st century; as well as Fortran, "=" is used for assignment in such languages as C, Python and their descendants. But "=" is used for equality and not assignment in the Pascal family, Eiffel, APL, other languages. A few languages, such as BASIC and PL/I, have used the equals sign to mean both assignment and equality, distinguished by context. However, in most languages where "=" has one of these meanings, a different character or, more a sequence of characters is used for the other meaning. Following ALGOL, most languages that use "=" for equality use ":=" for assignment, although APL, with its special character set, uses a left-pointing arrow. Fortran did not have an equality operator until FORTRAN IV was released in 1962, since when it has used the four characters ".
The === operator may be defined arbitrarily for any given type. For example, a value of type Range is a range of integers, such as 1800..1899. == 1844 is false. Note that under these semantics, === is non-symmetric; the equals sign is sometimes used in Japanese as a separator between names. The equals sign is used as a grammatical tone letter in the orthographies of Budu in the Congo-Kinshasa, in Krumen and Dan in the Ivory Coast; the Unicode character used for the tone letter is different from the mathematical symbol. A unique case of the equals sign of European usage in a person's name in a double-barreled name, was by pioneer aviator Alberto Santos-Dumont, as he is known not only to have used an equals sign between his two surnames in place of a hyphen, but seems to have preferred that practice, to display equal respect for his father's French ethnicity and the Brazilian ethnicity of his mother. In linguistic interlinear
The symbol # is most known as the number sign, hash, or pound sign. The symbol has been used for a wide range of purposes, including the designation of an ordinal number and as a ligatured abbreviation for pounds avoirdupois. Since 2007, widespread usage of the symbol to introduce metadata tags on social media platforms has led to such tags being known as "hashtags" and from that, the symbol itself is sometimes incorrectly called a "hashtag"; the symbol is defined in ASCII as U +0023 # NUMBER SIGN and & num. It is graphically similar to several other symbols, including the sharp from musical notation and the equal-and-parallel symbol from mathematics, but is distinguished by its combination of level horizontal strokes and right-tilting vertical strokes, it is believed that the symbol traces its origins to the symbol ℔, an abbreviation of the Roman term libra pondo, which translates as "pound weight". This abbreviation was printed with a dedicated ligature type, with a horizontal line across, so that the lowercase letter "l" would not be mistaken for the numeral "1".
The symbol was reduced for clarity as an overlay of two horizontal strokes "=" across two slash-like strokes "//". Examples of it being used to indicate pounds exist at least as far back as 1850; the symbol is described as the "number" character in an 1853 treatise on bookkeeping. And its double meaning is described in a bookkeeping text from 1880; the instruction manual of the Blickensderfer model 5 typewriter appears to refer to the symbol as the "number mark". Some early-20th-century U. S. sources refer to it as the "number sign", although this could refer to the numero sign. A 1917 manual distinguishes between two uses of the sign: "number"; the use of the phrase "pound sign" to refer to this symbol is found from 1932 in U. S. usage. Before this time, still outside the United States, the term "pound sign" was used to refer to the pound currency symbol or the pound weight symbol. An alternative theory is that the name "pound sign" arose from the fact that character encodings used the same code for both the number sign and the British pound sign "£".
Claims have included ISO 646-GB as well as the Baudot code in the late 19th century. The apparent use of the sign to mean pounds weight in 1850 appears to rule out both of these code sets as the origin, although that same reference admits that the earliest reference in print was a decade after Baudot code."Hash sign" is found in South African writings from the late 1960s, from other non-North-American sources in the 1970s. The symbol appears to be used in handwritten material, while in the printing business, the numero symbol and barred-lb are used for "number" and "pounds" respectively. For mechanical devices, it appeared on the keyboard of the Remington Standard typewriter, but was not used on the keyboards used for typesetting, it appeared in many of the early teleprinter codes and from there was copied to ASCII which made it available on computers and thus caused many more uses to be found for the character. The symbol was introduced on the bottom right button of touch-tone keypads in 1968, but that button was not extensively used until the advent of large scale voicemail in the early 1980s.
Mainstream use in the United States is as follows: when it prefixes a number, it is read as "number", as in "a #2 pencil". The one exception is with the # key on a phone, always referred to as the "pound key" or "pound", thus instructions to dial an extension such as #77 are always read as "pound seven seven". When the symbol follows a number, the symbol indicates weight in pounds; this traditional usage still finds handwritten use, may be seen on some signs in markets and groceries. It is commonly known as the "pound sign". In Canada the symbol is called both the "number sign" and the "pound sign"; the American company Avaya has an option in their programming to denote Canadian English, which in turn instructs the system to say "number sign" to callers instead of "pound sign". In the United Kingdom and Ireland, it is called a hash, it is not used as weight or currency. It is not called the "pound sign"; the use of "#" as an abbreviation for "number" may be understood in Britain and Ireland, where there has been business or educational contact with American usage, but use in print is rare and British typewriters had "£" in place of the American "#".
Where Americans might write "Symphony #5", the British and Irish are more to write "Symphony No. 5", or use the numero sign—"Symphony № 5". To add to the confusion between "£" and "#", in BS 4730, 0x23 represents "£", whereas in ASCII, it represents "#", thus it was common for the same character code to display "#" on US equipment and "£" on British equipment; the symbol has many other names in English: Comment sign Taken from its use in many shell scripts and some programming languages to start comments. Hash, or hash mark Hashtag The word "hashtag" is used when reading social media messages aloud, indicating the start of a hashtag. For instance the text "#foo" is read out loud as "hashtag, foo" (as opposed to "h
An ideogram or ideograph is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, specific words or phrases. Some ideograms are comprehensible only by familiarity with prior convention. In proto-writing, used for inventories and the like, physical objects are represented by stylized or conventionalized pictures, or pictograms. For example, the pictorial Dongba symbols without Geba annotation cannot represent the Naxi language, but are used as a mnemonic for reciting oral literature; some systems use ideograms, symbols denoting abstract concepts. The term "ideogram" is used to describe symbols of writing systems such as Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sumerian cuneiform and Chinese characters. However, these symbols are logograms, representing words or morphemes of a particular language rather than objects or concepts. In these writing systems, a variety of strategies were employed in the design of logographic symbols. Pictographic symbols depict the object referred to by the word, such as an icon of a bull denoting the Semitic word ʾālep "ox".
Some words denoting abstract concepts may be represented iconically, but most other words are represented using the rebus principle, borrowing a symbol for a similarly-sounding word. Systems used selected symbols to represent the sounds of the language, for example the adaptation of the logogram for ʾālep "ox" as the letter aleph representing the initial sound of the word, a glottal stop. Many signs in hieroglyphic as well as in cuneiform writing could be used either logographically or phonetically. For example, the Akkadian sign AN could be an ideograph for "deity", an ideogram for the god Anum in particular, a logograph for the Akkadian stem il- "deity", a logograph for the Akkadian word šamu "sky", or a syllabogram for either the syllable an or il. Although Chinese characters are logograms, two of the smaller classes in the traditional classification are ideographic in origin: Simple ideographs are abstract symbols such as 上 shàng "up" and 下 xià "down" or numerals such as 三 sān "three".
Semantic compounds are semantic combinations of characters, such as 明 míng "bright", composed of 日 rì "sun" and 月 yuè "moon", or 休 xiū "rest", composed of 人 rén "person" and 木 mù "tree". In the light of the modern understanding of Old Chinese phonology, researchers now believe that most of the characters classified as semantic compounds have an at least phonetic nature. An example of ideograms is the collection of 50 signs developed in the 1970s by the American Institute of Graphic Arts at the request of the US Department of Transportation; the system was used to mark airports and became more widespread. Mathematical symbols are a type of ideogram. Inspired by inaccurate early descriptions of Chinese and Japanese characters as ideograms, many Western thinkers have sought to design universal written languages, in which symbols denote concepts rather than words. An early proposal was An Essay towards a Real Character, a Philosophical Language by John Wilkins. A recent example is the system of Blissymbols, proposed by Charles K.
Bliss in 1949 and includes over 2,000 symbols. The Ideographic Myth Extract from DeFrancis' book. American Heritage Dictionary definition Merriam-Webster OnLine definition
The pilcrow called the paragraph mark, paragraph sign, alinea, or blind P, is a typographical character for individual paragraphs. It is present in Unicode as U+00B6 ¶ PILCROW SIGN; the pilcrow can be used as an indent for separate paragraphs or to designate a new paragraph in one long piece of copy, as Eric Gill did in his 1930s book An Essay on Typography. The pilcrow was a type of rubrication used in the Middle Ages to mark a new train of thought, before the convention of visually discrete paragraphs was commonplace; the pilcrow is drawn similar to a lowercase q reaching from descender to ascender height. It may be drawn with the bowl stretching further downwards, resembling a backwards D; the word pilcrow originates from the Greek word paragraphos. This was rendered in Old French as paragraphe and changed to pelagraphe; the earliest reference of the modern pilcrow is in 1440 with the Middle English word pylcrafte. The first way to divide sentences into groups in Ancient Greek was the original paragraphos, a horizontal line in the margin to the left of the main text.
As the paragraphos became more popular, the horizontal line changed into the Greek letter Gamma and into litterae notabiliores, which were enlarged letters at the beginning of a paragraph. This notation soon changed to the letter K, an abbreviation for the Latin word kaput, which translates as "head", i.e. it marks the head of a new thesis. To mark a new section, the Latin word capitulum, which translates as "little head", was used, the letter C came to mark a new section in 300 BC. In the 1100s, C had replaced K as the symbol for a new chapter. Rubricators added one or two vertical bars to the C to stylize it. Scribes would leave space before paragraphs to allow rubricators to draw the pilcrow. With the introduction of the printing press, space before paragraphs was still left for rubricators to draw by hand; this is. The pilcrow remains in use in modern time in the following ways: In legal writing, it is used whenever one must cite a specific paragraph within pleadings, law review articles, statutes, or other legal documents and materials.
In academic writing, it is sometimes used as an in-text referencing tool to make reference to a specific paragraph from a document that does not contain page numbers, allowing the reader to find where that particular idea or statistic was sourced. The pilcrow sign followed by a number indicates the paragraph number from the top of the page, it is used when citing books or journal articles. In proofreading, it indicates that one paragraph should be split into two or more separate paragraphs; the proofreader inserts the pilcrow at the point. In some high-church Anglican and Episcopal churches, it is used in the printed order of service to indicate that instructions follow. King's College, Cambridge uses this convention in the service booklet for the Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols; this is analogous to the writing of these instructions in red in some rubrication conventions. Online, it is used in some wikis to denote permalinks; the pilcrow is used in desktop publishing software such as desktop word processors and page layout programs to mark the presence of a carriage return control character at the end of a paragraph.
It is used as the icon on a toolbar button that shows or hides the pilcrow and similar hidden characters, including tabs and page breaks. In typing programs, it marks a return; the pilcrow may indicate a footnote in a convention using a sequence of distinct typographic symbols in sequence to distinguish the footnotes on a given page. The pilcrow symbol is available in the default hardware codepage 437 of IBM PCs at code point 20, sharing its position with the ASCII control code DC4; the pilcrow character was in the 1984 Multinational Character Set extension of ASCII at 0xB6, from where it was inherited by ISO/IEC 8859-1 and by Unicode as U+00B6 ¶ PILCROW SIGN. The html entity is ¶. In LaTeX, the pilcrow glyph is invoked by \ textpilcrow. Apart from U+00B6 ¶ PILCROW SIGN, Unicode defines U+204B ⁋ REVERSED PILCROW SIGN, U+2761 ❡ CURVED STEM PARAGRAPH SIGN ORNAMENT, U+2E3F ⸿ CAPITULUM. Classic Mac OS and macOS: ⌥ Opt+7 Vim, in insert mode: Ctrl+K PI DOS Alt code: Alt+20. Windows Alt code: Alt+0182 or Alt+20.
Depending on the font used, this character varies in appearance, in some cases, may be replaced by an alternate glyph entirely. TeX: \P X Window System, with a compose key: Compose, ⇧ Shift+P, ⇧ Shift+P Mobile devices, including tablets, may require additional software. Tools may be required to generate a pilcrow, or other special characters. In Chinese, the trad
Quotation marks known as quotes, quote marks, speech marks, inverted commas, or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase. The pair consists of an opening quotation mark and a closing quotation mark, which may or may not be the same character. Quotation marks have a variety of forms in different media; the double quotation mark is older than the single. It derives from a marginal notation used in fifteenth-century manuscript annotations to indicate a passage of particular importance. By the middle sixteenth century, printers had developed a typographic form of this notation, resembling the modern double quotation mark pointing to the right. During the seventeenth century this treatment became specific to quoted material, it grew common in Britain, to print quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation as well as in the margin. In most other languages, including English, the marginal marks dropped out of use in the last years of the eighteenth century.
The usage of a pair of marks and closing, at the level of lower case letters was generalized. By the nineteenth century, the design and usage began to be specific within each region. In Western Europe the custom became to use the quotation mark pairs with the convexity pointing outward. In Britain those marks were elevated to the same height as the top of capital letters. In France, by the end of the nineteenth century, they were modified to an angular shape and were spaced out; some authors claim that the reason for this was a practical one, in order to get a character, distinguishable from the apostrophes, the commas and the parentheses. In other scripts, the angular quotation marks are distinguishable from other punctuation characters—the Greek breathing marks, the Armenian emphasis and apostrophe, the Arabic comma, decimal separator, thousands separator, etc. Other authors claim; the elevated quotation marks created an extra white space before and after the word, considered aesthetically unpleasing, while the in-line quotation marks helped to maintain the typographical color, since the quotation marks had the same height and were aligned with the lower case letters.
While other languages do not insert a space between the quotation marks and the word, the French usage does insert them if it is a narrow space. The curved quotation marks 66-99 usage was exported to some non-Latin scripts, notably where there was some English influence, for instance in Native American scripts and Indic scripts. On the other hand, Cyrillic and Ethiopic took over the angular quotation marks; the Far East angle bracket quotation marks are a development of the in-line angular quotation marks. In Central Europe, the practice was to use the quotation mark pairs with the convexity pointing inward; the German tradition preferred the curved quotation marks, the first one at the level of the commas, the second one at the level of the apostrophes. Alternatively, these marks could be angular and in-line with lower case letters, but still pointing inward; some neighboring regions adopted the German curved marks tradition with lower–upper alignment, while others made up a variant with the closing mark pointing rightward like the opening one.
Sweden choose a convention where both marks pointed to the right but lined up both at the top level. In Eastern Europe there was a hesitation between the German tradition; the French tradition prevailed in North-Eastern Europe, whereas the German tradition, or its modified version with the closing mark pointing rightward) has become dominant in South-Eastern Europe, i.e. the Balkan countries. The single quotation marks emerged around 1800 as a means of indicating a secondary level of quotation. One could expect that the logic of using the corresponding single mark would be applied everywhere, but it was not. In some languages using the angular quotation marks, the usage of single ones became obsolete, being replaced by double curved ones. In Eastern Europe, the curved quotation marks are used as a secondary level when the angular marks are used as a primary level. In English writing, quotation marks are placed in pairs around a word or phrase to indicate: Quotation or direct speech: Carol said "Go ahead" when I asked her if the launcher was ready.
Mention in another work of a title of a short or subsidiary work, like a chapter or episode: "Encounter at Farpoint" was the pilot episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation. Scare used to mean "so-called" or to express irony: The "fresh" apples were full of worms. In American writing, double quotes are used normally. If quote marks are used inside another pair of quote marks single quotes are used as the secondary style. For example: "Didn't she say'I like red best' when I asked her wine preferences?" he asked his guests. If another set of quotes is nested, double quotes are used again, they continue to alternate as necessary. British publishing is regarded as more flexible about whether double or single quotation marks should be used. A tendency to use single quotation marks in British writ
The tilde is a grapheme with several uses. The name of the character came into English from Spanish and from Portuguese, which in turn came from the Latin titulus, meaning "title" or "superscription"; the reason for the name was that it was written over a letter as a scribal abbreviation, as a "mark of suspension", shown as a straight line when used with capitals. Thus the used words Anno Domini were abbreviated to Ao Dñi, an elevated terminal with a suspension mark placed over the "n"; such a mark could denote the omission of several letters. This saved on the cost of vellum and ink. Medieval European charters written in Latin are made up of such abbreviated words with suspension marks and other abbreviations; the tilde has since been applied to a number of other uses as a diacritic mark or a character in its own right. These are encoded in Unicode at U+0303 ◌̃ COMBINING TILDE and U+007E ~ TILDE, there are additional similar characters for different roles. In lexicography, the latter kind of tilde and the swung dash are used in dictionaries to indicate the omission of the entry word.
This symbol informally means "approximately", "about", or "around", such as "~30 minutes before", meaning "approximately 30 minutes before". It can mean "similar to", including "of the same order of magnitude as", such as: "x ~ y" meaning that x and y are of the same order of magnitude. Another approximation symbol is the double-tilde ≈, meaning "approximately equal to", the critical difference being the subjective level of accuracy: ≈ indicates a value which can be considered functionally equivalent for a calculation within an acceptable degree of error, whereas ~ is used to indicate a larger significant, degree of error; the tilde is used to indicate "equal to" or "approximately equal to" by placing it over the "=" symbol, like so: ≅. In the computing field in Unix based systems, the tilde indicates the user's home directory; the text of the Domesday Book of 1086, relating for example, to the manor of Molland in Devon, is abbreviated as indicated by numerous tildes. The text with abbreviations expanded is as follows: Mollande tempore regis Edwardi geldabat pro quattuor hidis et uno ferling.
Terra est quadraginta carucae. In dominio sunt tres carucae et decem servi et triginta villani et viginta bordarii cum sedecim carucis. Ibi duodecim acrae prati et quindecim acrae silvae. Pastura tres leugae in longitudine et latitudine. Libras ad pensam. Huic manerio est adjuncta Blachepole. Elwardus tenebat tempore regis Edwardi pro manerio et geldabat pro dimidia hida. Terra est duae carucae. Ibi sunt quinque villani cum uno servo. Valet viginti solidos arsuram. Eidem manerio est injuste adjuncta Nimete et valet quindecim solidos. Ipsi manerio pertinet tercius denarius de Hundredis Nortmoltone et Badentone et Brantone et tercium animal pasturae morarum; the incorporation of the tilde into ASCII is a direct result of its appearance as a distinct character on mechanical typewriters in the late nineteenth century. When all character sets were pieces of metal permanently installed, number of characters much more limited than in typography, the question of which languages and markets required which characters was an important one.
Any good typewriter store had a catalog of alternative keyboards that could be specified for machines ordered from the factory. At that time, the tilde was used only in Portuguese typewriters. In Modern Spanish, the tilde is used only with ñ and Ñ. Both were conveniently assigned to a single mechanical typebar, which sacrificed a key, felt to be less important the ½—¼ key. Portuguese, uses not ñ but nh, it uses the tilde on the vowels a and o. So as not to sacrifice two of the limited keys to ã Ã õ Õ, the decision was made to make the ~ a separate "dead" character in which the carriage holding the paper did not move. Dead keys, which had a notch cut out to avoid hitting a mechanical linkage that triggered carriage movement, were used for characters that were intended to be combined. On mechanical typewriters, Spanish keyboards had a dead key, which contained the acute accent, used over any vowel, the dieresis, used only over u, it was a simple matter to create a dead key for a Portuguese keyboard to be overstruck with a and o and so the ~ was born as a typographical character, which did not exist as a type or hot-lead printing character.
That was a product of the first and leading manufacturer of typewriters, Remington. As indicated by the etymological origin of the word "tilde" in English, this symbol has been associated with the Spanish language; the connection stems from the use of the tilde above the letter "n" to form "ñ" in Spanish, a feature shared by only a few other languages, all connected to Spanish. This peculiarity can help non-native speakers identify a text as being written in Spanish with little chance of error. In addition, most native speakers, although not all, use the word "español" to refer to their language. During the 1990s, Spanish-speaking intellectuals and news outlets demonstrated support for the language and the culture by defending this letter against globalisation and computerisation trends that threatened to remove it from keyboards and other standardised products and codes; the Instituto Cervantes, founded by Spain's government to promote the Spanish language internationally, chose as its logo a stylised Ñ with a large tilde.
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