The Browning Hi Power is a single-action, semi-automatic handgun available in the 9mm and.40 S&W calibers. It is based on a design by American firearms inventor John Browning, completed by Dieudonné Saive at Fabrique Nationale of Herstal, Belgium. Browning died in several years before the design was finalized; the Hi-Power is one of the most used military pistols in history, having been used by the armed forces of over 50 countries. After 82 years of continuous production, the Hi-Power was discontinued in 2017 by Browning Arms, but it remains in production under license; the Hi Power name alludes to the 13-round magazine capacity twice that of contemporary designs such as the Luger or Colt M1911. The pistol is referred to as an HP, GP, BAP, or BHP; the terms P-35 and HP-35 are used, based on the introduction of the pistol in 1935. It is most called the "Hi Power" in Belgium; the Browning Hi-Power was designed in response to a French military requirement for a new service pistol, the Grand Rendement, or alternatively Grande Puissance.
The French military required that: the arm must be compact the magazine have a capacity of at least 10 rounds the gun have a magazine disconnect device, an external hammer, a positive safety the gun be robust and simple to disassemble and reassemble the gun be capable of killing a man at 50 metresThis last criterion was seen to demand a caliber of 9 mm or larger, a bullet mass of around 8 grams, a muzzle velocity of 350 m/s. It was to accomplish all of this at a weight not exceeding 1 kg. FN commissioned John Browning to design a new military sidearm conforming to this specification. Browning had sold the rights to his successful M1911 U. S. Army automatic pistol to Colt's Patent Firearms, was therefore forced to design an new pistol while working around the M1911 patents. Browning built two different prototypes for the project in Utah and filed the patent for this pistol in the United States on 28 June 1923, granted on 22 February 1927. One was a simple blowback design. Both prototypes utilised the new staggered magazine design to increase capacity without unduly increasing the pistol's grip size or magazine length.
The locked breech design was selected for further testing. This model was striker-fired, featured a double-column magazine that held 16 rounds; the design was refined through several trials held by the Versailles Trial Commission. In 1928, when the patents for the Colt Model 1911 had expired, Dieudonné Saive integrated many of the Colt's patented features into the Grand Rendement design, in the Saive-Browning Model of 1928; this version featured the removable barrel bushing and take down sequence of the Colt 1911. By 1931, the Browning Hi-Power design incorporated a shortened 13-round magazine, a curved rear grip strap, a barrel bushing, integral to the slide assembly. By 1934, the Hi-Power design was ready to be produced, it was first adopted by Belgium for military service in 1935 as the Browning P-35. France decided not to adopt the pistol, instead selecting the conceptually similar but lower-capacity Modèle 1935 pistol; the Browning Hi-Power has undergone continuous refinement by FN since its introduction.
The pistols were made in two models: an "Ordinary Model" with fixed sights and an "Adjustable Rear Sight Model" with a tangent-type rear sight and a slotted grip for attaching a wooden shoulder stock. The adjustable sights are still available on commercial versions of the Hi-Power, although the shoulder stock mounts were discontinued during World War II. In 1962, the design was modified to replace the internal extractor with an external extractor, improving reliability. Standard Hi-Powers are based on a single-action design. Unlike modern double-action semi-automatic pistols, the Hi-Power's trigger is not connected to the hammer. If a double-action pistol is carried with the hammer down with a round in the chamber and a loaded magazine installed, the shooter may fire the pistol either by pulling the trigger or by pulling the hammer back to the cocked position and pulling the trigger. In contrast, a single-action pistol can only be fired with the hammer in the cocked position. In common with the M1911, the Hi-Power is therefore carried with the hammer cocked, a round in the chamber and the safety catch on.
The Hi-Power, like many other Browning designs, operates on the short-recoil principle, where the barrel and slide recoil together until the barrel is unlocked from the slide by a cam arrangement. Unlike Browning's earlier Colt M1911 pistol, the barrel is not moved vertically by a toggling link, but instead by a hardened bar which crosses the frame under the barrel and contacts a slot under the chamber, at the rearmost part of the barrel; the barrel and slide recoil together for a short distance but, as the slot engages the bar, the chamber and the rear of the barrel are drawn downward and stopped. The downward movement of the barrel disengages it from the slide, which continues rearward, extracting the spent case from the chamber and ejecting it while re-cocking the hammer. After the slide reaches the limit of its travel, the recoil spring brings it forward again, stripping a new round from the magazine and pushing it into the
Heckler & Koch MP5
The MP5 is a 9x19mm Parabellum submachine gun, developed in the 1960s by a team of engineers from the German small arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch GmbH of Oberndorf am Neckar. There are over 100 variants including some semi-automatic versions; the MP5 is one of the most used submachine guns in the world, having been adopted by 40 nations and numerous military, law enforcement and security organizations. It was used by SWAT teams in North America, but has been supplanted by AR-15 variants in the 21st century. In 1999, Heckler & Koch developed the the MP5's successor. Heckler & Koch, encouraged by the success of the G3 automatic rifle, developed a family of small arms consisting of four types of firearms all based on a common G3 design layout and operating principle; the first type was chambered for 7.62×51mm NATO, the second for the 7.62×39mm M43 round, the third for the intermediate 5.56×45mm NATO caliber, the fourth type for the 9×19mm Parabellum pistol cartridge. The MP5 was created within the fourth group of firearms and was known as the HK54.
Work on the MP5 began in 1964 and two years it was adopted by the German Federal Police, border guard and army special forces. In 1980, the MP5 achieved iconic status as a result of its use on live television by SAS commandos in Operation Nimrod, where they stormed the Iranian Embassy in London, rescuing hostages and killing five terrorists; the MP5 has become a mainstay of SWAT units of law enforcement agencies in the United States since then. However, in the late 1990s, as a result of the North Hollywood shootout, police special response teams have supplanted most MP5s with AR-15-based rifles; the MP5 is manufactured under license in several nations including Greece, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and the United Kingdom. The primary version of the MP5 family is the MP5A2, a lightweight, air-cooled, selective fire delayed blowback operated 9×19mm Parabellum weapon with a roller-delayed bolt, it fires from a closed bolt position. The fixed, free floating, cold hammer-forged barrel has 6 right-hand grooves with a 1 in 250 mm rifling twist rate and is pressed and pinned into the receiver.
The first MP5 models used a double-column straight box magazine, but since 1977 curved, steel magazines are used with a 15-round capacity or a 30-round capacity. The adjustable iron sights consist of a rotating rear diopter drum and a front post installed in a hooded ring; the rear sight is mechanically adjustable for both windage and elevation with the use of a special tool, being adjusted at the factory for firing at 25 metres with standard 8 grams FMJ 9×19mm NATO ammunition. The rear sight drum provides four apertures of varying diameters used to adjust the diopter system, according to the user's preference and tactical situation. Changing between apertures does not change the point of impact down range. For accurate shooting the user should select the smallest aperture that still allows an equal circle of light between the rear sight aperture and the outside of the front sight hood ring; the MP5 has a hammer firing mechanism. The trigger group is housed inside an interchangeable polymer trigger module and equipped with a three-position fire mode selector that serves as the manual safety toggle.
The "S" or Sicher position in white denotes weapon safe, "E" or Einzelfeuer in red represents single fire, "F" or Feuerstoß designates continuous fire. The SEF symbols appear on both sides of the plastic trigger group; the selector lever is actuated with the thumb of the shooting hand and is located only on the left side of the original SEF trigger group or on both sides of the ambidextrous trigger groups. The safety/selector is rotated into the various firing settings or safety position by depressing the tail end of the lever. Tactile clicks are present at each position to provide a positive stop and prevent inadvertent rotation; the "safe" setting disables the trigger by blocking the hammer release with a solid section of the safety axle located inside the trigger housing. The non-reciprocating cocking handle is located above the handguard and protrudes from the cocking handle tube at a 45° angle; this rigid control is attached to a tubular piece within the cocking lever housing called the cocking lever support, which in turn makes contact with the forward extension of the bolt group.
It is not however connected to the bolt carrier and therefore cannot be used as a forward assist to seat the bolt group. The cocking handle is held in a forward position by a spring detent located in the front end of the cocking lever support which engages in the cocking lever housing; the lever is locked back by pulling it to the rear and rotating it clockwise where it can be hooked into an indent in the cocking lever tube. The bolt rigidly engages the barrel extension—a cylindrical component welded to the receiver into which the barrel is pinned; the delay mechanism is of the same design as that used in the G3 rifle. The two-part bolt consists of a bolt head with a bolt carrier; the heavier bolt carrier lies up against the bolt head when the weapon is ready to fire and inclined planes on the front locking piece lie between the rollers and force them out into recesses in the barrel extension. When fired, expanding propellant
Puerto Belgrano Naval Base
Puerto Belgrano Naval Base is the largest naval base of the Argentine Navy, situated next to Punta Alta, near Bahía Blanca, about 560 km south of Buenos Aires. It is named after the brigantine General Belgrano which sounded the area in late 1824. Home of the Argentine Seas Fleet, it concentrates the major arsenals. Designed by Italian engineer Luis Luiggi, Puerto Belgrano opened on November 30, 1896 under the name Puerto Militar. In 1911, the French-owned railway company Ferrocarril Rosario y Puerto Belgrano opened a broad gauge line between Puerto Belgrano and Rosario; the harbor was renamed Puerto Belgrano in 1923. The base grew in importance with the size of the fleet. During World War I and World War II the Rivadavia-class battleships ARA Moreno and ARA Rivadavia were docked here, during the Cold War the aircraft carriers ARA Independencia and ARA Veinticinco de Mayo were docked at this base; the shipyard continues doing maintenance and refits of submarines. On April 2006, the Royal Navy's Antarctic patrol vessel HMS Endurance entered Puerto Belgrano for repairs after damaging its rudder while in Antarctica in February.
It was the first time since the end of the 1982 Falklands War that a British Royal Navy ship had entered the Argentine naval base. A launch pad is under construction for the future Argentine space launch vehicle "Tronador II". Land for the construction of the facilities were ceded to CONAE; the location was selected because of existing Navy facilities, security measures in place, large enough available area, a favorable location for launches into polar orbits. List of shipyards of Argentina Puerto Belgrano history at Histarmar HMS Endurance completes repairs in Puerto Belgrano Official Site
The AT4 is an 84-mm unguided, single-shot recoilless smoothbore weapon built in Sweden by Saab Bofors Dynamics. Saab has had considerable sales success with the AT4, making it one of the most common light anti-tank weapons in the world; the AT4 is intended to give infantry units a means to destroy or disable armoured vehicles and fortifications, although it is ineffective against current modern main battle tanks. The launcher and projectile are manufactured prepacked and issued as a single unit of ammunition, with the launcher discarded after a single use; the AT4 is a development of the 74-mm Pansarskott m/68, adopted by the Swedish Army in the late 1960s. Like the m/68, the AT4 was designed by Förenade Fabriksverken and manufactured at their facility at Zakrisdal, Sweden. FFV began research in a replacement for the m/68 in 1976, deliberately designing an individual anti-armor weapon that would not be able to defeat the heavy armour protection of MBTs in frontal engagements, believing that to be counterproductive.
The AT4 was designed as a weapon to engage medium to light armoured vehicles from any direction, MBTs from the sides or rear, as an assault weapon against buildings and fortifications. FFV had the design goal of a weapon, simple to use and far more accurate than previous individual antiarmor weapons against moving targets. Another key requirement was that the AT4 not only be able to penetrate armour, but have a devastating beyond-armour effect after penetration. FFV and the Swedish Army began the first evaluation firings of the prototype AT4s in the spring of 1981 with 100 tested by early 1982. Before the AT4 had been adopted by Sweden, it was entered into a US Army competition for a new anti-tank weapon mandated by Congress in 1982 when the FGR-17 Viper failed as a replacement for the M72 LAW. Six weapons were tested in 1983 by the US Army: the British LAW 80, the German Armbrust, the French APILAS, the Norwegian M72E4, the US Viper and the Swedish AT4; the US Army reported to Congress in November 1983 that the FFV AT4 came the closest to meeting all the major requirements established to replace the M72 LAW, with the Armbrust coming in second.
Though impressed with the simplicity and durability of the tested version of the AT4, the US Army saw some room for improvement the addition of rear and front bumpers on the launch tube and changes to the sights and slings. After these changes, the AT4 was adopted by the US Army as the Lightweight Multipurpose Weapon M136; the Swedish Army recognized these improvements and subsequently adopted the Americanized version of the AT4 as the Pansarskott m/86, with the addition of a forward folding hand grip to help steady the AT4 when being aimed and fired. The forward folding grip is the only difference between the AT4 adopted by Sweden and the US Army version. Due to the urban combat conditions that US military forces faced during the Iraq War, the US Army Close Combat Systems manager in charge of purchases of the AT4 suspended orders for the standard version of the AT4 and US military forces are now only ordering the AT4 CS version; the AT4 may be considered a low-cost alternative to a Carl Gustaf recoilless rifle.
The AT4 took many of its design features from the Carl Gustaf, which operates on the principle of a recoilless weapon, where the forward inertia of the projectile is balanced by the inertia of propellant gases ejecting from the rear of the barrel. But unlike the Carl Gustaf, which uses a heavier and more expensive steel tube with rifling, the disposable AT4 design reduces manufacturing costs by using a reinforced smoothbore fiberglass outer tube. In a recoilless weapon, the barrel does not need to contend with the extreme pressures found in traditional guns and can thus be made lightweight; this fact, combined with the complete lack of recoil, means that large projectiles can be utilised, which would otherwise be impossible in a man-portable weapon. In the system developed by FFV for the Carl Gustaf, a plastic blowout plug is placed at the center rear of the shell casing containing the projectile and propellant, which itself is enclosed in the AT4 outer tube; when the gases build up to the correct pressure level, the blowout plug disintegrates, allowing the proper amount of gases to be vented to the rear, balancing the propellant gases pushing the projectile forward.
The AT4 uses a unique method developed earlier by FFV and adopted for the AT4: the spring-loaded firing rod is located down the side of the outer tube, with the firing pin at the rear of the tube. When released, the firing pin strikes a primer located in the side of the casing's rim; the disadvantage of the recoilless design is that it creates a large back blast area behind the weapon, which can cause severe burns and overpressure injuries to friendly personnel in the vicinity of the user and sometimes to the users themselves in confined spaces. The back blast may reveal the user's position to the enemy; the problem of back blast was solved with the AT4-CS version, specially designed for urban warfare. This version uses a saltwater countermass in the rear of the launcher to absorb the back blast, it should be noted that the AT4-CS version reduced its muzzle velocity from the original 290 m/s to 220 m/s as part of its effort to be user-safe in a confined space, making the AT4-CS version more difficult to use as the dr
The Falklands War known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, the Guerra del Atlántico Sur, was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. It began on Friday, 2 April 1982, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands in an attempt to establish the sovereignty it had claimed over them. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force before making an amphibious assault on the islands; the conflict lasted 74 days and ended with the Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982, returning the islands to British control. In total, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities; the conflict was a major episode in the protracted confrontation over the territories' sovereignty.
Argentina asserted that the islands are Argentine territory, the Argentine government thus characterised its military action as the reclamation of its own territory. The British government regarded the action as an invasion of a territory, a Crown colony since 1841. Falkland Islanders, who have inhabited the islands since the early 19th century, are predominantly descendants of British settlers, favour British sovereignty. Neither state declared war, although both governments declared the Islands a war zone. Hostilities were exclusively limited to the territories under dispute and the area of the South Atlantic where they lie; the conflict has had a strong effect in both countries and has been the subject of various books, articles and songs. Patriotic sentiment ran high in Argentina, but the outcome prompted large protests against the ruling military government, hastening its downfall. In the United Kingdom, the Conservative government, bolstered by the successful outcome, was re-elected with an increased majority the following year.
The cultural and political effect of the conflict has been less in the UK than in Argentina, where it remains a common topic for discussion. Diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Argentina were restored in 1989 following a meeting in Madrid, at which the two governments issued a joint statement. No change in either country's position regarding the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands was made explicit. In 1994, Argentina's claim to the territories was added to its constitution. In the period leading up to the war—and, in particular, following the transfer of power between the military dictators General Jorge Rafael Videla and General Roberto Eduardo Viola late in March 1981—Argentina had been in the midst of a devastating economic stagnation and large-scale civil unrest against the military junta, governing the country since 1976. In December 1981 there was a further change in the Argentine military regime, bringing to office a new junta headed by General Leopoldo Galtieri, Air Brigadier Basilio Lami Dozo and Admiral Jorge Anaya.
Anaya was the main architect and supporter of a military solution for the long-standing claim over the islands, calculating that the United Kingdom would never respond militarily. By opting for military action, the Galtieri government hoped to mobilise the long-standing patriotic feelings of Argentines towards the islands, thus divert public attention from the country's chronic economic problems and the regime's ongoing human rights violations of the Dirty War; such action would bolster its dwindling legitimacy. The newspaper La Prensa speculated in a step-by-step plan beginning with cutting off supplies to the islands, ending in direct actions late in 1982, if the UN talks were fruitless; the ongoing tension between the two countries over the islands increased on 19 March when a group of Argentine scrap metal merchants raised the Argentine flag at South Georgia Island, an act that would be seen as the first offensive action in the war. The Royal Navy ice patrol vessel HMS Endurance was dispatched from Stanley to South Georgia on the 25th in response.
The Argentine military junta, suspecting that the UK would reinforce its South Atlantic Forces, ordered the invasion of the Falkland Islands to be brought forward to 2 April. The UK was taken by surprise by the Argentine attack on the South Atlantic islands, despite repeated warnings by Royal Navy captain Nicholas Barker and others. Barker believed that Defence Secretary John Nott's 1981 review had sent a signal to the Argentines that the UK was unwilling, would soon be unable, to defend its territories and subjects in the Falklands. On 2 April 1982, Argentine forces mounted amphibious landings, known as Operation Rosario, on the Falkland Islands; the invasion was met with a nominal defence organised by the Falkland Islands' Governor Sir Rex Hunt, giving command to Major Mike Norman of the Royal Marines. The events of the invasion included the landing of Lieutenant Commander Guillermo Sanchez-Sabarots' Amphibious Commandos Group, the attack on Moody Brook barracks, the engagement between the troops of Hugo Santillan and Bill Trollope at Stanley, the final engagement and surrender at Government House.
Word of the invasion first reached the UK from Argentine sources. A Ministry of Defence operative in London had a short telex conversation with Governor Hunt's telex operator, who confirmed th
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area. Examples of reconnaissance include patrolling by troops, ships or submarines, manned/unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, satellites, or by setting up covert observation posts. Espionage is not reconnaissance, because reconnaissance is a military's special forces operating ahead of its main forces. Called "recce" or "recon", the associated verb is reconnoitre. Traditionally, reconnaissance was a role, adopted by the cavalry. Speed was key in these maneuvers, thus infantry was ill-suited to the task. From horses to vehicles, for warriors throughout history, commanders procured their ability to have speed and mobility, to mount and dismount, during maneuver warfare. Military commanders favored specialized small units for speed and mobility, to gain valuable information about the terrain and enemy before sending the main troops into the area, covering force and exploitation roles.
Skirmishing is a traditional skill of reconnaissance, as well as harassment of the enemy. Reconnaissance conducted by ground forces includes special reconnaissance, armored reconnaissance, amphibious reconnaissance and civil reconnaissance. Aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance carried out by aircraft; the purpose is to survey weather conditions, map terrain, may include military purposes such as observing tangible structures, particular areas, movement of enemy forces. Naval forces use aerial and satellite reconnaissance to observe enemy forces. Navies undertake hydrographic surveys and intelligence gathering. Reconnaissance satellites provide military commanders with photographs of enemy forces and other intelligence. Military forces use geographical and meteorological information from Earth observation satellites. A tracker needs to pay close attention to the psychology of his enemy. Knowledge of human psychology and cultural backgrounds is necessary to know the actions of the enemy and where the enemy is heading.
The celebrated Chief of Scouts Frederick Russell Burnham had this to say: It is imperative that a scout should know the history, religion, social customs, superstitions of whatever country or people he is called on to work in or among. This is as necessary as to know the physical character of the country, its climate and products. Certain people will do certain things without fail. Certain other things feasible, they will not do. There is no danger of knowing too much of the mental habits of an enemy. One should neither underestimate the credit him with superhuman powers. Fear and courage are latent in every human being, though roused into activity by diverse means. Types of reconnaissance: Terrain-oriented reconnaissance is a survey of the terrain. Force-oriented reconnaissance may include target acquisition. Civil-oriented reconnaissance focuses on the civil dimension of the battlespace; the techniques and objectives are not mutually exclusive. Units tasked with reconnaissance are armed only for self-defense, rely on stealth to gather information.
Others are well-enough armed to deny information to the enemy by destroying their reconnaissance elements. Reconnaissance-in-force is a type of military operation or military tactics used to probe an enemy's disposition. By mounting an offensive with considerable force, the commander hopes to elicit a strong reaction by the enemy that reveals its own strength and other tactical data; the RIF commander retains the option to fall back with the data or expand the conflict into a full engagement. Other methods consist of hit-and-run tactics using rapid mobility, in some cases light-armored vehicles for added fire superiority, as the need arises. Nazi Germany's reconnaissance during world war II is described in the following way: The purpose of reconnaissance and the types of units employed to obtain information are similar in the U. S. and the German Armies. German tactical principles of reconnaissance, diverge somewhat from those of the U. S; the Germans stress aggressiveness, attempt to obtain superiority in the area to be reconnoitered, strive for continuous observation of the enemy.
They believe in employing reconnaissance units in force as a rule. They are prepared to fight to obtain the desired information, they assign supplementary tasks to their reconnaissance units, such as sabotage behind enemy lines, harassment, or counter-reconnaissance. Only enough reconnaissance troops are sent on a mission to assure superiority in the area to be reconnoitred. Reserves are kept on hand to be committed when the reconnaissance must be intensified, when the original force meets strong enemy opposition, or when the direction and area to be reconnoitred are changed; the Germans encourage aggressive action against enemy security forces. When their reconnaissance units meet superior enemy forces, they fight a delaying action while other units attempt to flank the enemy. Reconnaissance by fire is the act of firing