International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
USS Mount Whitney (LCC-20)
USS Mount Whitney is one of two Blue Ridge-class amphibious command ships of the United States Navy and is the flagship and command ship of the United States Sixth Fleet. USS Mount Whitney serves as the Afloat Command Platform of Naval Striking and Support Forces NATO; the ship had served for years as the COMSTRIKFLTLANT / US Second Fleet's command ship. She is one of only a few commissioned ships to be assigned to Military Sealift Command. Mount Whitney was classified as LCC-20 on 1 January 1969, her keel was laid down on 8 January by Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Company, Newport News, Virginia. At the time of her commissioning, Mt. WHITNEY joined her sister ship Blue Ridge as having the distinction of carrying the world's most sophisticated electronics suites, it was said to be some thirty percent larger than that of the aircraft carrierUSS John F. Kennedy, the most complex. Mt WHITNEY was armed with a "main battery" of computers, communications gear, other electronic facilities to fulfill her mission as a command ship.
An refined communications system was an integral part of the ship's radical new design. Through an automated patch panel and computer controlled switching matrix her crew could use any combination of communication equipment desired; the clean topside area is the result of careful design intended to minimize the ship's interference with her own communications system. US Navy long range communications were reliant on high frequency radio systems in the 1970s and have evolved to predominantly satellite communications in the 2000s; this is illustrated by the long wire antennas and the directional HF yagi or log-periodic antenna installed on Mount Whitney and removed and replaced with a number of satellite communications antennas. The ship is named for a peak in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California. Mount Whitney is the highest summit in the contiguous United States with an elevation of 14,505 feet. Mount Whitney is the most sophisticated Command, Communications and Intelligence ship commissioned, She incorporates various elements of the most advanced C4I equipment and gives the embarked Joint Task Force Commander the capability to command all units under their command.
Mount Whitney can transmit and receive large amounts of secure data to and from any point on earth through HF, UHF, VHF, SHF communications channels. This electronic technology enables the Joint Intelligence Center and Joint Operations Center to provide the most timely intelligence and operational support available in the Navy. From 1971 to 2005, Mount Whitney served as the flagship for Commander Second Fleet/Commander Striking Fleet Atlantic. In 1994, during the FleetEx 2/94 "George Washington" war game exercise, the Argentine Navy, acting as the enemy and using the diesel submarine ARA San Juan, went undetected, penetrated the destroyer defense and "sank" Mount Whitney, acting as the command ship during the exercise. Mount Whitney deployed in 1994 to Haiti with Lieutenant General Hugh Shelton, the commander of the XVIII Airborne Corps, in command of the Joint Task Force that conducted Operation Uphold Democracy. On 12 November 2002, Mount Whitney deployed to the Central Command area of responsibility in support of Operation Enduring Freedom.
She was acting as the initial command post for Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa. During the deployment, the ship embarked elements of the 2nd Marine Division and II Marine Expeditionary Force, based at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, under the command of Major General John F. Sattler and Captain Morton W. Kenyon. In 2004, Military Sealift Command civilian sailors were integrated into her crew, she remains a commissioned warship in the United States Navy, but the size of her crew was reduced from about 600 sailors to about 170 Navy officers and enlisted personnel and 155 civilians. In February 2005, Mount Whitney left Norfolk for Gaeta, Italy where she was redesignated and assumed duties as the 6th Fleet flagship relieving USS La Salle, she assumed duties as the command ship for the Commander, Joint Command Lisbon and the Commander, Striking Force NATO. In August 2008, Mount Whitney was deployed to the Black Sea in support of Operation Assured Delivery to deliver humanitarian aid to those affected by the Russo-Georgian War and became the first NATO ship to deliver aid to port of Poti, Georgia.
On 6 November 2008, Mount Whitney was unable to enter the port at Sevastopol. City authorities and representatives of the Ukrainian Navy refused to comment on the event. Individuals working for the city administration reported that the failure was due to issues with Mount Whitney's border crossing documents, while others suggested anti-NATO protests were the cause. From 19 March 2011, Mount Whitney served in the Mediterranean as the main command vessel for the enforcement of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 against Libya, she was the flagship for Admiral Samuel J. Locklear, who had tactical command of the Operation Odyssey Dawn joint task force; the vessel was serving as a command-and-control vessel for the United States' involvement in the coalition campaign aimed to enforce a Libya no-fly zone and prevent Muammar Gaddafi's forces from attacking the rebel stronghold of Benghazi. In February 2013, Mount Whitney transferred to the San Giorgio del Porto Shipyard in Genoa, Italy for a major 60-day overhaul and repair project.
The ship returned to active duty in April 2013 at the end of the maintenance window. On 31 January 2014, Mount Whitney left her homeport of Italy. Mount Whitney, along with USS Taylor, were the first two US Navy ships to operate in the Black Sea during the Sochi
Landing craft are small and medium seagoing watercraft such as boats, barges, used to convey a landing force from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault. The term excludes landing ships. Production of landing craft peaked during World War II, with a significant number of different designs produced in large quantities by the United Kingdom and United States; because of the need to run up onto a suitable beach, World War II landing craft were flat-bottomed, many designs had a flat front with a lowerable ramp, rather than a normal bow. This made them difficult to control and uncomfortable in rough seas; the control point was at the extreme rear of the vessel, as were the engines. In all cases, they were known by an abbreviation derived from the official name rather than by the full title. In the days of sail, the ship's boats were used as landing craft; these rowing boats were sufficient, if inefficient, in an era when marines were light infantry, participating in small-scale campaigns in far-flung colonies against less well-equipped indigenous opponents.
In order to support amphibious operations during the landing in Pisagua by carrying significant quantities of cargo, landing troops directly onto an unimproved shore, the Government of Chile built flat-bottomed landing craft, called Chalanas. They transported 1,200 men in the first landing and took on board 600 men in less than 2 hours for the second landing. During World War I, the mass mobilization of troops equipped with rapid-fire weapons rendered such boats obsolete. Initial landings during the Gallipoli campaign took place in unmodified rowing boats that were vulnerable to attack from the Turkish shore defenses. In February 1915, orders were placed for the design of purpose built landing craft. A design was created in four days resulting in an order for 200'X' Lighters with a spoon-shaped bow to take shelving beaches and a drop down frontal ramp; the first use took place after they had been towed to the Aegean and performed in the 6 August landing at Suvla Bay of IX Corps, commanded by Commander Edward Unwin.'X' Lighters, known to the soldiers as'Beetles', carried about 500 men, displaced 135 tons and were based on London barges being 105 feet 6 inches long, 21 feet wide, 7 ft 6 inches deep.
The engines ran on heavy oil and ran at a speed of 5 knots. The sides of the ships were bulletproof, was designed with a ramp on the bow for disembarkation. A plan was devised to land British heavy tanks from pontoons in support of the Third Battle of Ypres, but this was abandoned; the Imperial Russian Navy soon followed suit, building a series of similar landing motor barges of the so-called Bolinder-class, named after the supplier of the diesels installed in them. These, proved too small and unseaworthy for their intended Black sea theater — they were intended for the planned Marmara Sea landings. Instead, a new class was designed, based on the widespread pattern of the Black sea merchant steamers; these were very light at the bow, having all their machinery concentrated at the stern, which allowed easy beaching on any sloping coast, were equipped with a bow ramp for fast unloading. This resulted in a 1300-ton, 1500 hp Elpidifor-class, named after the Rostov-on-Don merchant Elpidifor Paramonov, whose eponymous grain carrier served as a pattern on which they were based.
With a 1.8 m loaded draft, equipped with the ballast tanks and reinforced hull for safe beaching, they were able to land 1000 troops with their train at any available beach. While the landings for which they were created never happened, the ships themselves turned out quite useful and had a long career, supporting the Caucasus Campaign and as minesweepers and utility transports. During the inter-war period, the combination of the negative experience at Gallipoli and economic stringency contributed to the delay in procuring equipment and adopting a universal doctrine for amphibious operations in the Royal Navy. Despite this outlook, the British produced the Motor Landing Craft in 1920, based on their experience with the early'Beetle' armoured transport; the craft could put a medium tank directly onto a beach. From 1924, it was used with landing boats in annual exercises in amphibious landings. A prototype motor landing craft, designed by J. Samuel White of Cowes, was built and first sailed in 1926.
It had a box-like appearance, having a square bow and stern. To prevent fouling of the propellers in a craft destined to spend time in surf and be beached, a crude waterjet propulsion system was devised by White's designers. A Hotchkiss petrol engine drove a centrifugal pump which produced a jet of water, pushing the craft ahead or astern, steering it, according to how the jet was directed. Speed was 5-6 knots and its beaching capacity was good. By 1930, three MLC were operated by the Royal Navy; the United States revived and experimented in their approach to amphibious warfare between 1913 and mid-1930s, when the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps became interested in setting up advanced bases in opposing countries during wartime. In 1939, during the annual Fleet Landing Exercises, the FMF became interested in the military potential of Andrew Higgins's design of a powered, shallow-draught boat; these LCPL, dubbed the'Higgins Boats', were reviewed and passed by the U. S. Naval Bureau of Construction and Repair.
Soon, the Higgins boats were developed to a final design with a ramp - the LCVP, were pr
The lead ship, name ship, or class leader is the first of a series or class of ships all constructed according to the same general design. The term is applicable to larger civilian craft. Large ships may take as much as five to ten years to construct. Any changes or advances that are available when building a ship are to be included, so it is rare to have two that are identical. Constructing one ship is likely to reveal better ways of doing things and errors; the second and ships are started before the first one is completed and tested. Building copies is still more efficient and cost-effective than building prototypes, the lead ship will be followed by copies with some improvements rather than radically different versions; the improvements will sometimes be retrofitted to the lead ship. The lead ship will be launched and commissioned for shakedown testing before following ships are completed, making the lead ship a combination of template and prototype, rather than expending resources on a prototype that will never see actual use.
Ship classes are named in one of two ways. If a ship class is produced for another fleet, the first active unit will become the lead ship for that fleet. Larger civilian craft, such as Sun Princess, the lead ship of the Sun-class cruise ships, sometimes follow this convention as well. Example of a lead ship announcement from US Navy USS Pennsylvania BB-38
United States Sixth Fleet
The Sixth Fleet is a numbered fleet of the United States Navy operating as part of United States Naval Forces Europe. The Sixth Fleet is headquartered at Italy; the stated mission of the Sixth Fleet in 2011 is that it "conducts the full range of Maritime Operations and Theater Security Cooperation missions, in concert with coalition, joint and other parties, in order to advance security and stability in Europe and Africa." The current commander of the Sixth Fleet is Vice Admiral Lisa M. Franchetti; the Sixth Fleet was established in February 1950 by redesignation of the former Sixth Task Fleet, which in turn was the 1948 redesignation of U S Naval Forces, Mediterranean. Since that time, it has been continually engaged in world affairs around the Mediterranean, and, on occasion, further afield, it was involved in numerous NATO maritime exercises, the U. S. Lebanese intervention of 1958, confrontation with the Soviets during the Yom Kippur War of 1973, clearance of the Suez Canal after 1973, several confrontations with Libya during the 1980s, maintenance of task forces in the Adriatic during the wars in former Yugoslavia in the 1990s.
Most it launched airstrikes on Libya again during the Libyan Civil War of 2011. The United States has maintained a naval presence in the Mediterranean since the early 19th century, when U. S. Naval forces first engaged the Barbary pirates to prevent them from interfering with commercial shipping; the earliest unit was the Mediterranean Squadron. On 1 February 1946, U. S. Naval Forces, Northwest African Waters, was redesignated U. S. Naval Forces, Mediterranean; the force was responsible to U. S. Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean in London, had as its flagship a destroyer tender, anchored at Naples, Italy. In 1946, President Truman dispatched the battleship Missouri to the Eastern Mediterranean, ostensibly to return the body of Münir Ertegün, former Turkish Ambassador to Washington, back to Istanbul; however a much stronger motive was to demonstrate U. S. power in view of Soviet threats to Turkey and Iran. The cruiser Dayton began operating with the fleet. In June 1946 Fargo, flying the flag of Vice Admiral Bernhard Bieri, Naval Forces Mediterranean, was despatched to Trieste.
On 5 September 1946, USS Franklin D. Roosevelt, flying the flag of Rear Admiral John H. Cassady, Commander Carrier Division 1, accompanied by USS Little Rock, USS Cone, USS New and USS Corry, visited Piraeus, the port of Athens. USS Randolph, escorted by USS Fargo and USS Perry, visited Greece in December 1946; the title of Naval Forces Mediterranean was changed to Commander Sixth Task Fleet and in 1950, Sixth Fleet. Sixth Fleet's NATO guise was the principal player in Exercise Longstep during November 1952. In 1957, a naval exercise, Operation Deep Water, took place within the Allied Forces Southern Europe area of responsibility, it was conducted by Naval Striking and Support Forces Southern Europe, commanded by Vice Admiral Charles R. Brown USN, who commanded the Sixth Fleet. STRIKEFORSOUTH was the NATO designation for the U. S. Sixth Fleet, though additional NATO headquarters personnel would be assigned, while maintaining American control over its nuclear weapons on board U. S. aircraft carriers as mandated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946.
Sixth Fleet supported American land forces during Operation Blue Bat in Lebanon in 1958. On 20 January 1967, following France's withdrawal from the NATO Military Command Structure, the removal of NATO troops from France, Sixth Fleet Headquarters was moved from Villefranche-sur-Mer, France to Gaeta, Italy. During the Cold War, the Sixth Fleet had several confrontations with the Soviet Navy's 5th Operational Squadron, notably during the 1973 Yom Kippur War. During the Yom Kippur War Elmo Zumwalt describes part of the Sixth Fleet buildup as follows: On 25 October JCS directed TG 20.1, John F. Kennedy and escorts, to... ComSixthFleet as TG 60.3 and proceed to join TG 60 south of Crete. Additionally, Franklin D. Roosevelt and escorts and TF61/62 were directed to join TG 60.1 south of Crete.... TG 100.1 were ordered to proceed to the Mediterranean and chop to ComSixthFleet... In an exchange of notes on 13 and 25 April 1974, the United States and Egypt agreed that the United States would provide extensive assistance to clear the Suez Canal of mines, unexploded ordnance, sunken ships.
These operations took the form of Nimbus Star, Nimbus Moon, Nimrod Spar, in which a private salvage contractor would clear the canal of the ten sunken ships under the supervision of the Sixth Fleet's Task Force 65. Captain J. Huntly Boyd, the Navy's Supervisor of Salvage, was sent to the Canal Zone as Commander, Salvage Task Group, he supervised the actual salvage clearing operation, carried out by the Murphy Pacific Marine Salvage Company of New York. A total of ten ships blocked the canal; the canal reopened on 5 June 1975, with the Sixth Fleet flagship Little Rock in attendance. In 1999, changes to CINCUSNAVEUR's area of responsibility were announced, after amendments to the Unified Command Plan; the United States Atlantic Command areas that had included the waters off Europe and the west coast of Africa were to be transferred to European Command. U. S. European Command had responsibility for all U. S. land and air military planning in Europe and most of Africa. The change gave EUCOM, NAVEUR, the respon