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Amphibious warfare

Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or hostile shore at a designated landing beach. Through history the operations were conducted using ship's boats as the primary method of delivering troops to shore. Since the Gallipoli Campaign, specialised watercraft were designed for landing troops and vehicles, including by landing craft and for insertion of commandos, by fast patrol boats and from mini-submersibles; the term amphibious first emerged in the United Kingdom and the United States during the 1930s with introduction of vehicles such as Vickers-Carden-Loyd Light Amphibious Tank or the Landing Vehicle Tracked. Amphibious warfare includes operations defined by their type, purpose and means of execution. In the British Empire at the time these were called combined operations which were defined as "...operations where naval, military or air forces in any combination are co-operating with each other, working independently under their respective commanders, but with a common strategic object."

All armed forces that employ troops with special training and equipment for conducting landings from naval vessels to shore agree to this definition. Since the 20th century an amphibious landing of troops on a beachhead is acknowledged as the most complex of all military maneuvers; the undertaking requires an intricate coordination of numerous military specialties, including air power, naval gunfire, naval transport, logistical planning, specialized equipment, land warfare and extensive training in the nuances of this maneuver for all personnel involved. An amphibious operation is similar to but in many ways different from land and air operations. At its basic, such operations include phases of strategic planning and preparation, operational transit to the intended theatre of operations, pre-landing rehearsal and disembarkation, troop landings, beachhead consolidation and conducting inland ground and air operations. Within the scope of these phases a vital part of success was based on the military logistics, naval gunfire and close air support.

Another factor is the variety and quantity of specialised vehicles and equipment used by the landing force that are designed for the specific needs of this type of operation. Amphibious operations can be classified as tactical or operational raids such as the Dieppe Raid, operational landings in support of a larger land strategy such as the Kerch–Eltigen Operation, a strategic opening of a new Theatre of Operations, for example the Operation Avalanche; the purpose of amphibious operations is always limited by the plan and terrain. Landings on islands less than 5,000 km2 in size are tactical with the limited objectives of neutralising enemy defenders and obtaining a new base of operation; such an operation may be prepared and planned in days or weeks, would employ a naval task force to land less than a division of troops. The intent of operational landings is to exploit the shore as a vulnerability in the enemy's overall position, forcing redeployment of forces, premature use of reserves, aiding a larger allied offensive effort elsewhere.

Such an operation requiring weeks to months of preparation and planning, would use multiple task forces, or a naval fleet to land corps-size forces, including on large islands, for example Operation Chromite. A strategic landing operation requires a major commitment of forces to invade a national territory in the archipelagic, such as the Battle of Leyte, or continental, such as Operation Neptune; such an operation may require multiple naval and air fleets to support the landings, extensive intelligence gathering and planning of over a year. Although most amphibious operations are thought of as beach landings, they can exploit available shore infrastructure to land troops directly into an urban environment if unopposed. In this case non-specialised ships can offload troops and cargo using organic or facility wharf-side equipment. Tactical landings in the past have utilised small boats, small craft, small ships and civilian vessels converted for the mission to deliver troops to the water's edge.

Preparation and planning the naval landing operation requires the assembly of vessels with sufficient capacity to lift necessary troops employing combat loading. It can include conducting amphibious reconnaissance; the military intelligence services produce a briefing on the expected opponent which guides the organisation and equipping of the embarked force. First specially designed landing craft were used for the Gallipoli landings, armoured tracked vehicles were available for the Guadalcanal Campaign. Helicopters were first used to support beach landings during Operation Musketeer. Hovercraft have been in use for naval landings by military forces since the 1960s. Recorded amphibious warfare goes back to ancient times; the Sea Peoples menaced the Egyptians from the reign of Akhenaten as captured on the reliefs at Medinet Habu and Karnak. The Hellenic city states resorted to opposed assaults upon each other's shores, which they reflected upon in their plays and other expressions of art; the landing at Marathon by the ancient Persians on 9 September 490 BC, was the largest amphibious until eclipsed by the landings at Battle of Gallipoli.

In 1565, the island of Malta was invaded by the Ottoman Turks during the Great Siege of Malta, forcing its defenders to retreat to the fortified cities. A strategic choke point in the Mediterranean Sea, its loss would have been so menacing for the Western European kingdoms that forces were urgently raised in order to relieve the island, but it took four months to train and move a 5,50

Nakhon Si Thammarat National Museum

Nakhon Si Thammarat National Museum is a museum located on Rachadamnoen Road in the town of Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province in southern Thailand. At the centre of the museum is the 9th century statue of Vishnu in the Pala style of southern India, it was found in the base of a tree in Kapong district near Takua Pa in Phang Nga Province a major transit point for Indians colonizing the south. Two bronze drums made by the Dong Son peoples of northern Vietnam are another display in the museum; the Thai gallery displays religious art from Dvaravati and Srivijayan periods to the Rattanakosin era. Various images of Buddha exist in the displays made in the distinctive local Sing style, characterized by stumpy features and animated faces; the museum covers the area of the former temple Wat Suan Luang Tawan Ok. Lenzi, Iola. Museums of Southeast Asia. Singapore: Archipelago Press. P. 200 pages. ISBN 981-4068-96-9

Electoral district of Nedlands

The Electoral district of Nedlands is a Legislative Assembly electorate in the state of Western Australia. Nedlands is named for the inner western Perth suburb of Nedlands. Nedlands was created at the 1929 redistribution, at which five new metropolitan electorates were created to replace former Goldfields seats in Parliament, its first member was elected at the 1930 election, it has always been a safe seat for the Liberal Party and its predecessors. Its first member, Hon. Sir Norbert Keenan, was an Attorney-General, whilst two of its members, Hon. Sir Charles Court and his son Hon. Richard Court who between them held the seat for 48 consecutive years, have been State Premiers, making them one of only three father-son combinations in Australia to have achieved this. At the 2001 state election, the Labor Party won government and Court's own margin was cut to 4.93% by Independent candidate Liz Davenport, a prominent fashion designer and member of the Liberals for Forests party. In the days after the election, Court was attempting to organise a succession whereby he and his deputy leader, Cottesloe MLA Colin Barnett, would both resign their seats.

Federal Curtin MP Julie Bishop would resign her seat and hand it to Barnett succeed either Court in Nedlands or Barnett in Cottesloe at a state by-election and assume the Liberal leadership in Court's stead. The aim was to prevent Barnett from succeeding Court. However, the plan ended up on the front page of The West Australian, Bishop decided against a switch to State politics, Court shortly thereafter resigned both the leadership and his seat. At the resulting by-election in 2001, Sue Walker, a DPP lawyer, won the seat for the Liberals against the unrelated Steve Walker, a Greens candidate, who overtook the ALP on preferences. Walker served in the Shadow Ministry in a variety of roles, most prominently as Shadow Attorney-General; when Matt Birney attempted to remove her from the Ministry in March 2006, he lost his own leadership in a party-room ballot to Paul Omodei, who reinstated her. Walker resigned from the Liberal party on 8 February 2008 after Troy Buswell attained the leadership, sitting as an independent thereafter.

She contested the 2008 state election. However, at the 2008 Western Australian election, Bill Marmion won the seat for the Liberal Party, defeating Walker by 10,266 to 9,280 on the two-candidate-preferred vote. At the 2017 state election, the two-party preferred margin in favour of the Liberal Party versus the Labor Party in Nedlands dropped to its lowest level since 1933. Nedlands is bounded by the Swan River to the south and southeast, Thomas Street and Kings Park to the east, Loch Street and Brockway Road to the west, Cambridge Street to the north, its boundaries include the suburbs of Crawley, Dalkeith, Nedlands, Shenton Park, West Leederville, along with parts of Floreat and Wembley. Major features within the electorate include Subiaco Oval, Karrakatta Cemetery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, University of Western Australia and Parliament House; the 2007 redistribution, which took effect at the 2008 election, resulted in the seat losing most of Wembley and all of West Leederville while gaining part of Floreat and a non-residential section of Shenton Park north of the railway.

Nedlands and the neighbouring electorates of Churchlands to the north and Cottesloe to the west comprise the affluent western suburbs of Perth—the Australian Bureau of Statistics's SEIFA index ranked them as the highest three electorates by socio-economic status in Western Australia, with high scores on educational and employment opportunity. At the 2006 census, the median individual income in the Nedlands electorate, based on its 2005 boundaries, was $666 per week compared to $513 in the Perth metropolitan area, the median weekly household income was $1,392 compared to $1,086 across Perth. 58.7 % of the population were managers. All three seats are comfortably safe Liberal seats, are located entirely within the blue-ribbon Liberal seat of Curtin. Green, Antony. "Electorate Profile". Australian Broadcasting Corporation

2018–19 Wichita State Shockers men's basketball team

The 2018–19 Wichita State Shockers men's basketball team represented Wichita State University in the 2018–19 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. They played their home games at Charles Koch Arena in Wichita and were led by 12th-year head coach Gregg Marshall as members of the American Athletic Conference. Samajae Haynes-Jones and Dexter Dennis have, in total, three notable buzzer-beaters at SMU, UConn and Tulane; this season was the first time not making the NCAA field of 68 since the 2010-11 season. They finished the season 22–15 overall, 10–8 in AAC play to finish in sixth place; as a No. 6 seed in the AAC Tournament, they advanced to the semifinals, where they were defeated by Cincinnati. With a 19–14 record, they were awarded an at-large bid to the NIT Tournament; as a No. 6 seed, they were winners of the Indiana bracket when they defeated No. 3 seed Furman in the first round, No. 2 seed Clemson in the second round, No. 1 seed Indiana in the quarterfinals. In the semifinal matchup at Madison Square Garden, they were defeated by the winners of the UNC Greensboro bracket, Lipscomb, 64–71.

The Shockers finished the 2017–18 season 25–8, 14–4 in AAC play to finish a tie for second place. As the No. 2 seed in the AAC Tournament, they defeated Temple in the quarterfinals before losing to Houston in the semifinals. They received an at-large bid to the NCAA Tournament for the seventh straight season; as the No. 4 seed in the East region, they were upset in the First Round by Marshall. In addition to the departing players, two of the three assistants in the 2017–18 season left during the offseason. Kyle Lindsted left after three seasons on the Shockers' staff to take the same position at Minnesota under Richard Pitino. Donnie Jones left after one season to join the Dayton staff under Anthony Grant, his colleague from 1996 to 2006 as part of Billy Donovan's staff at Florida. Source

Xing'an Province

Hsingan refers to a former province, which once occupied western Heilongjiang and part of northwest Jilin provinces of China. The name is related to that of the Greater Khingan Mountains. Another name used for this land was Barga, the name used for the western part of the province, the Barga district; the capital of Hsingan was the town of Hailar, on the China Eastern Railway line near the Russian border. Hsingan was divided into various sub-prefectures, similar in form to other Manchukuo provinces; the second city of importance was Manzhouli. Hsingan anto was first created in 1932 as an administrative sub-division of the Japanese-controlled Empire of Manchukuo. From 1939 to 1943, the province was divided into four parts, labeled Hsingan North, Hsingan East, Hsingan South and Hsingan West; these four provinces were reunited into a Xing'an Consolidated Province in 1943. Hsingan at 148,000 square miles encompassed nearly one third of the land area of Manchukuo; the population of Hsingan, estimated at 965,000 in 1935, was predominantly ethnically Mongol, Hsingan was therefore administered by a local Mongol prince.

Hsingan was the site of a number of clashes in the Soviet-Japanese Border Wars, most notably the Nomonhan Incident where Japanese Kwantung Army and Manchukuo Imperial Army forces were defeated by the Soviet Red Army in 1939. After the annexation of Manchukuo by the Republic of China after the end of World War II, the Kuomintang continued to recognize the area as Hsingan Province, with the capital in Hailar. However, under the administration of the People's Republic of China from 1949, the area was annexed to the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is now referred to as the Hulunbuir Prefecture-level city; the population is now estimated to be over 80% ethnic Han Chinese. Under the Manchukuo period, Hsingan was an agricultural area, with food grains wheat and corn, as well as cattle, sheep and other livestock; the primary economic asset of Hsingan was its extensive coal deposits at Chalai Nor hill, 25 kilometers from the frontier station of Manchouli, where 290,000 metric tonnes were extracted annually.

Hsingan was a trade zone between Manchukuo, the Soviet Union, Soviet-dominated Mongolia. Map showing the locations of provinces of the ROC Hinggan League The Mongols of Manchuria: Their Tribal Divisions, Geographical Distribution, Historical Relations with Manchus and Chinese, Present Political Problems. By Owen Lattimore Pacific Affairs, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 367–371 Map of Eastern Xingan province of Manchukuo Map of Western Xingan province of Manchukuo Map of Northern Xingan province of Manchukuo Map of Southern Xingan province of Manchukuo

Melanie Klein

Melanie Klein née Reizes was an Austrian-British author and psychoanalyst, known for her work in child analysis. She was the primary figure in the development of object relations theory. Klein suggested that pre-verbal existential anxiety in infancy catalyzed the formation of the unconscious, resulting in the unconscious splitting of the world into good and bad idealizations. In her theory, how the child resolves that splitting depends on the constitution of the child and the character of nurturing the child experiences. Melanie Klein was spent most of her early life in Vienna, she was the fourth and final child of parents Moriz, a doctor, Libussa Reizes. Educated at the Gymnasium, Klein planned to study medicine, her family's loss of wealth caused her to change her plans. At the age of 21 she married an industrial chemist, Arthur Klein, soon after gave birth to their first child, Melitta. While she would go on to bear two additional children, Klein suffered from clinical depression, with these pregnancies taking quite a toll on her.

This and her unhappy marriage soon led Klein to seek treatment. Shortly after her family moved to Budapest in 1910, Klein began a course of therapy with psychoanalyst Sándor Ferenczi, it was during their time. Encouraged by Ferenczi, Klein began her studies by observing her own children; until this time, only minimal documentation existed on the topic of psychoanalysis in children, Klein took advantage of this by developing her "play technique". Similar to that of free association in adult psychoanalysis, Klein's play technique sought to interpret the unconscious meaning behind the play and interaction of children. During 1921, with her marriage failing, Klein moved to Berlin where she joined the Berlin Psycho-Analytic Society under the tutelage of Karl Abraham. Although Abraham supported her pioneering work with children, neither Klein nor her ideas received much support in Berlin; as a divorced woman whose academic qualifications did not include a bachelor's degree, Klein was a visible iconoclast within a profession dominated by male physicians.

Klein's early work had a strong influence on the developing theories and techniques of psychoanalysis in Great Britain. Her theories on human development and defense mechanisms were a source of controversy, as they conflicted with Freud's theories on development, caused much discussion in the world of developmental psychology. Around the same time Klein presented her ideas, Anna Freud was doing the same; the two became unofficial rivals of sorts, amid the protracted debates between the followers of Klein and the followers of Freud. Amid these so-called'controversial discussions', the British Psychoanalytical Society split into three separate training divisions: Kleinian and Independent; these debates ceased with an agreement on a dual approach to instruction in the field of child analysis. Klein was one of the first to use traditional psychoanalysis with young children, she was innovative in both her theories on infant development. Opinionated and demanding the respect of those in the academic community, Klein established a influential training program in psychoanalysis.

By observing and analyzing the play and interactions of children, Klein built onto the work of Freud's unconscious mind. Her dive into the unconscious mind of the infant yielded the findings of the early Oedipus complex, as well as the developmental roots of the superego. Klein's theoretical work incorporates Freud's belief in the existence of the death pulsation, reflecting the notion that all living organisms are inherently drawn toward an "inorganic" state, therefore, towards death. In psychological terms, the postulated sustaining and uniting principle of life, is thereby presumed to have a companion force, which seeks to terminate and disintegrate life. Both Freud and Klein regarded these "biomental" forces as the foundations of the psyche; these primary unconscious forces, whose mental matrix is the id, spark the ego—the experiencing self—into activity. Id, ego and superego, to be sure, were shorthand terms referring to complex and uncharted psychodynamic operations. Klein’s work on the importance of observing infants began in 1935 with a public lecture on weaning.

Klein states that mother–infant relationships are built on more than feeding and developing the infant’s attachment. Klein came to this conclusion by using actual observations of herself and mothers, she described how infants show interest in their mothers face, the touch of their mothers hands, the infant’s pleasure in touching their mothers breast. The relationship is built on affection that emerges soon after birth. Klein says that as early as two months, infants show interest in the mother that goes beyond feeding, she observed that the infant will smile up at the mother and cuddle against her chest. The way the infant reacts and responds to their mother's attitude and feelings, the love and interest which the infant shows, accounts for an object relation. Klein goes on to say that infants recognize the joy that their achievements give their parents; these achievements include walking. In one observation, Klein says that the infant wishes to evoke love in their mother with their achievements.

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