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Amphipolis

Amphipolis is a municipality in the Serres regional unit of Greece. The seat of the municipality is Rodolivos, it was an ancient Greek polis, a Roman city, whose large remains can still be seen. Amphipolis, an Athenian colony, was the seat of the battle between the Spartans and Athenians in 422 BC, the place where Alexander the Great prepared for campaigns leading to his invasion of Asia. Alexander's three finest admirals, Nearchus and Laomedon, resided in Amphipolis, the place where, after Alexander's death, his wife Roxana and their small son Alexander IV were exiled and murdered. Excavations in and around the city have revealed ancient walls and tombs; the finds are displayed at the archaeological museum of Amphipolis. At the nearby vast Kasta burial mound, an ancient Macedonian tomb has been revealed; the Lion of Amphipolis monument nearby is a popular destination for visitors. It was located within the region of Edonis. Throughout the 5th century BC, Athens sought to consolidate its control over Thrace, strategically important because of its primary materials, the sea routes vital for Athens' supply of grain from Scythia.

After a first unsuccessful attempt at colonisation in 497 BC by the Milesian Tyrant Histiaeus, the Athenians founded a first colony at Ennea-Hodoi in 465 BC, but these first ten thousand colonists were massacred by the Thracians. A second attempt took place in 437 BC on the same site under the guidance of Hagnon, son of Nicias, successful; the city and its first walls date from this time. The new settlement took the name of Amphipolis, a name, the subject of much debate about its etymology. Thucydides claims the name comes from the fact that the Strymon River flows "around the city" on two sides. However, a more probable explanation is the one given by Julius Pollux: that the name indicates the vicinity of an isthmus. Amphipolis became the main power base of the Athenians in Thrace and a target of choice for their Spartan adversaries; the Athenian population remained much in the minority in the city. For this reason Amphipolis remained an independent city and an ally of the Athenians, rather than a colony or member of the Athens-led Delian League.

However, in 424 BC the Spartan general Brasidas took control of the city. A rescue expedition led by the Athenian general, historian, Thucydides had to settle for securing Eion and could not retake Amphipolis, a failure for which Thucydides was sentenced to exile. A new Athenian force under the command of Cleon failed once more in 422 BC during the Battle of Amphipolis at which both Cleon and Brasidas lost their lives. Brasidas survived long enough to hear of the defeat of the Athenians and was buried at Amphipolis with impressive pomp. From on he was regarded as the founder of the city and honoured with yearly games and sacrifices; the city itself kept its independence until the reign of king Philip II despite several Athenian attacks, notably because of the government of Callistratus of Aphidnae. In 357 BC, Philip succeeded where the Athenians had failed and conquered the city, thereby removing the obstacle which Amphipolis presented to Macedonian control over Thrace. According to the historian Theopompus, this conquest came to be the object of a secret accord between Athens and Philip II, who would return the city in exchange for the fortified town of Pydna, but the Macedonian king betrayed the accord, refusing to cede Amphipolis and laying siege to Pydna as well.

The city was not incorporated into the Macedonian kingdom, for some time preserved its institutions and a certain degree of autonomy. The border of Macedonia was not moved further east. Nomenclature, the calendar and the currency were all replaced by Macedonian equivalents. In the reign of Alexander the Great, Amphipolis was an important naval base, the birthplace of three of the most famous Macedonian admirals: Nearchus and Laomedon, whose burial place is most marked by the famous lion of Amphipolis; the importance of the city in this period is shown by Alexander the Great's decision that it was one of the six cities at which large luxurious temples costing 1,500 talents were built. Alexander prepared for campaigns here against Thrace in 335 BC and his army and fleet assembled near the port before the invasion of Asia; the port was used as naval base during his campaigns in Asia. After Alexander's death, his wife Roxana and their young son Alexander IV were exiled by Cassander and murdered here.

Throughout Macedonian sovereignty Amphipolis was a strong fortress of great strategic and economic importance, as shown by inscriptions. Amphipolis became one of the main stops on the Macedonian royal road, on the Via Egnatia, the principal Roman road which crossed the southern Balkans. Apart from the ramparts of the lower town, the gymnasium and a set of well-preserved frescoes from a wealthy villa are the only artifacts from this pe

Abraham Hecht

Abraham Hecht was a Chabad-affiliated American Orthodox rabbi, president of the Rabbinical Alliance of America – Igud HaRabanim. Known as a "rabbi's rabbi" and a scholar of Torah, Hecht was regarded by some as one of America's most articulate Orthodox rabbinic leaders. Abraham Hecht was a Hasid of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Menachem Mendel Schneerson, of the previous Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, he had the distinction of being one of the first ten students of Yeshiva Tomchei Tmimim in America. He served as a Shaliah in Boston, Buffalo and New Haven, establishing Yeshiva Achei T'mimim elementary schools for both boys and girls. Hecht was the rabbi of Congregation Shaare Zion of Brooklyn, New York, the largest Sephardic congregation in North America, comprising more than 3,500 families. Hecht served the congregation for more than fifty years. Known as a distinguished orator, Hecht inspired many to study the teachings of the Torah and mitzvot, he was a frequent contributor for over fifty years to various Jewish publications in English and Yiddish.

Hecht was an advocate for Mihu Yehudi—Giyur K'halacha Who is a Jew?, Shleimus HaTorah and Shleimus HaAretz—Pikuach Nefesh. Hecht led protests against the film Monty Python's Life of Brian, claiming that it "was produced in hell." Hecht promoted awareness on behalf of "Family Values" within the Jewish community, as well as in the larger population. He worked to raise awareness of the Seven Universal Laws of Noah in greater society. Hecht was featured in a June 23, 1995, article by Larry Yudelson, for his assertion, at a rabbinical gathering, that Jewish Law could permit the assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Foreign Minister Shimon Peres for their proposal at Oslo to withdraw from parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. On June 19, 1995, Hecht told the gathered members of the International Rabbinical Coalition for Israel "that by handing over Israeli land and property, Israeli leaders are betraying Jews to non-Jews" and that, according to Maimonides, "such people should be killed before they can perform the deed."

An October 1995 article in New York Magazine referred to Hecht as the rabbi who "sentenced" Yitzak Rabin to death, quoted Hecht as praising Israeli mass murderer and American expatriate Baruch Goldstein, as "a great man, a holy man". At the time, Hecht was a senior rabbi of Congregation Shaare Zion in Brooklyn, the largest Sephardic Jewish congregation in the U. S. Rabin was assassinated in Israel by Yigal Amir for signing the Oslo Accords. After the assassination, Hecht was placed on a six-month paid leave by his synagogue and was, along with six other American Jews, barred for "security" reasons by the Israeli government from entering the country, he was subsequently let go from his position by the synagogue. The congregation issued a formal apology to Hecht in 2012. On the night of January 5, 2013, Hecht died in New York, he was 90 years old. Hecht is survived by their families, his funeral service was held the next day at the Shomrei Hadas chapel in Brooklyn. Spiritual Horizons Spiritual Freedom Autobiography

Dead Gods

Dead Gods is an adventure module for the second edition of the Advanced Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game. Dead Gods is composed of two adventures which revolve around the theme of death and resurrection of a god: "Out of the Darkness" and "Into the Light"; each adventure can be played separately, although the two plots can be woven together by the Dungeon Master."Out of the Darkness" consists of nine chapters. Long ago, Orcus the tanar'ri lord of the undead had grown fat and inattentive towards his realm in the Abyss; the minor demipower Kiaransalee, drow goddess of vengeance, conspired against Orcus and slew him, supplanting his realm and position and banishing his name across the planes. Orcus’ corpse lay dead on the Astral Plane for some time, until he began to stir in the not-so-distant past, his form changed to become thin and shadowy, but rather than being restored to life he had become an undead god much less powerful than before. Orcus disappeared from the Astral and chose a new name for himself: Tenebrous.

He sought to gain revenge on everyone in the multiverse, raised his former demonic servants as undead called visages to gather information to aid in his vengeance. He returned to an old base of his, a fortress on the Negative Energy Plane, on the plane of Arborea he found a magical force called the Last Word, potent enough to slay a god. Kiaransalee had sent two of her drow followers to bury his powerful artifact, the Wand of Orcus, in an unreachable vault of stone on the plane of Pandemonium. In his search for his Wand, Tenebrous used the Last Word to slay Primus, the lord of the modrons, using Primus's form he began using the modrons to search for his Wand; when the modrons discovered the two drow who had buried the Wand, Tenebrous began making preparations to take back the Abyss. The player characters must follow the clues to discover Tenebrous's scheme and keep the Wand away from him long enough for the power of the Last Word to consume him. "Into the Light" consists of three parts, takes place in the city of Sigil.

Many years ago, the last worshippers of a dead god brought the pieces of his body from the Astral Plane to Sigil and used the body to construct a monument of five standing stones. Some time when the significance of the monument had been forgotten, adherents of another religion built a temple around the standing stones; this church stood vacant for centuries until bought by a wealthy man named Cruigh Manathas, who ordered his workmen to tear it down. The workmen disappeared one day – unknown to all, they had been absorbed into the standing stones, as were those who came to investigate what happened to the workmen. Secretly, a fighter named Argesh Fiord has been in control of the situation and is using it in an attempt to foment a war between some of the city's factions in revenge for the death of his wife; the player characters must uncover Fiord's plot in order to prevent the war. Dead Gods was published in 1997, was written by Monte Cook, with cover art by rk post and interior art by rk post, Adam Rex, Josh Timbrook.

Dead Gods was ranked the 14th greatest Dungeons & Dragons adventure of all time by Dungeon magazine in 2004, on the 30th anniversary of the Dungeons & Dragons game. Http://www.rpg.net/news+reviews/reviews/rev_2746.html