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Amrit

Amrit, the classical Marathus, was a Phoenician port located near present-day Tartus in Syria. Founded in the third millennium BC, Marat was the northernmost important city of ancient Phoenicia and a rival of nearby Arwad. During the 2nd century BC, Amrit was defeated and its site abandoned, leaving its ruins well preserved and without extensive remodeling by generations; the city lies on the Mediterranean coast around 6 km south of modern-day Tartus. Two rivers cross the city: Nahr Amrit, near the main temple, Nahr al-Kuble near the secondary temple, a fact that might be linked to the importance of water in the religious traditions in Amrit; the city was founded by the Arvadites, served as their continental base. It grew to be one of the wealthiest towns in the dominion of Arwad; the city surrendered, along with Arwad, to Alexander the Great in 333 BC. During Seleucid times the town, known as Marathus, was larger and more prosperous than Arwad. In 219 BC Amrit gained independence from Arwad, was sacked by forces from the latter city in 148 BC.

Excavations of the site principally began in 1860 by Ernest Renan. Excavations were again carried out in 1954 by French archaeologist Maurice Dunand. Ceramic ware finds at Amrit indicated the site had been inhabited as early as the third millennium BC. Middle and Late Bronze Age "silo tombs" were excavated, with contents ranging from weapons to original human remains. Excavations at the necropolis south of the town yielded several tomb structures; the funeral art found in some tombs with pyramidal-or cube-shaped towers, is considered some of "the most notable grave-monuments of the Phoenician world." Excavations uncovered the town's ancient harbor, a U-shaped stadium that dates back to the 4th and 3rd centuries BC and measures around 230 m in length. One of the most important excavations at Amrit was the Phoenician temple referred to the "ma'abed," dedicated to the god Melqart of Tyre and Eshmun; the colonnaded temple, excavated between 1955 and 1957, consists of a large court cut out of rock measuring 47 × 49 m and over 3 m deep, surrounded by a covered portico.

In the center of the court a well-preserved cube-shaped cella stands. The open-air courtyard was filled with the waters of a local, traditionally sacred spring, a unique feature of this site; the temple—which was dated to the late 4th century BC, a period following the Persian expansion into Syria—shows major Achaemenid influence in its layout and decoration. According to Dutch archaeologist, Peter Akkermans, the temple is the "best-preserved monumental structure from the Phoenician homeland."A second temple, described by visitors to the site in 1743 and 1860 and thought to have disappeared, was discovered by the Syrian archaeological mission near the Nahr al-Kuble spring. About 200 m northeast of the main temples of ancient Marathos and 180 m north of the Amrit Tell are the remains of a rock-carved Phoenician stadium, it is separated from the other two archaeological sites by the Nahr al-Amrit and a site called by the locals al-Meqla'. The Stadium of Amrit was first described in 1745 by Richard Pococke in Part 2 of his book, A Description of the East, Some Other Countries, as the site where an ancient Circus was held.

Ernest Renan examined it in 1860 and discussed it in his book Mission de Phénicie, making the conclusion that the complex was not Roman in its entirety and that the stadium was undoubtedly Phoenician. The stadium is about 225 to 230 meters long and 30 to 40 meters wide, it has similar dimensions to the stadium of Olympia in Greece. Seven rows of seats have been preserved; the stadium had two entrances on the east side between seats. In addition, there was a tunnel to the interior; the stadium is located at a right angle to the main temple of Amrit, the Maabed. The temples to the north and west have open sides, it is believed that the Amrit stadium was the location for sacred competitions where anointing and funeral games took place. Labib Boutros, former director of athletics at the American University of Beirut has conducted recent studies of the stadium and suggested that its construction may date back as far as 1500 BC, saying that the Amrit stadium was "devoted to sports in Phoenicia several centuries before the Olympic Games".

The Necropolis in the south of Amrit consists of underground burial chambers and two distinguishing burial towers called by the locals "al Maghazil" or The Spindles that stand up to 7.5 m high. The larger tower is composed of a square stone base with a upward tapering cylindrical block with a base diameter of 3.7 m, rising to a pyramid as a top termination, badly damaged. The second is 12 meters southeast and is not quite 7 m tall. At its base are three cylindrical parts whose diameters decrease and terminate in a dome. At the lower cylinder, to the corners of the square base plates, four lions decorate the building, which may not have been completed. Excavations of the burial chambers east of the towers has uncovered finds dated back as far as the 5th century BC. Plain limestone and clay sarcophagus were found arranged in cassette-like formation within the chambers. Other tombs are located south of the Nahr al-Qubli, the "al-Burǧ Bazzāq" or Worm tower, a phenomenal structure, 19.50 meters high and the Hypogeum "Ḥaǧar al-Ḥublā" with three burial chambers, which were still used in Roman times.

Amrit was included on the 2004 and 2006 World Monuments Fund watch lists of endangered archaeological sites. The Fund called attention to the si

Culhwch and Olwen

Culhwch and Olwen is a Welsh tale that survives in only two manuscripts about a hero connected with Arthur and his warriors: a complete version in the Red Book of Hergest, c. 1400, a fragmented version in the White Book of Rhydderch, ca. 1325. It is the longest of the surviving Welsh prose tales; the prevailing view among scholars was that the present version of the text was composed by the 11th century, making it the earliest Arthurian tale and one of Wales' earliest extant prose texts, but a 2005 reassessment by linguist Simon Rodway dates it to the latter half of the 12th century. The title is a invention and does not occur in early manuscripts. Lady Charlotte Guest included this tale among those. Besides the quality of its storytelling it contains several remarkable passages: the description of Culhwch riding on his horse is mentioned for its vividness, the fight against the terrible boar Twrch Trwyth has antecedents in Celtic tradition, the list of King Arthur's retainers recited by the hero is a rhetorical flourish that preserves snippets of Welsh tradition that otherwise would be lost.

Culhwch's father, King Cilydd son of Celyddon, loses his wife Goleuddydd after a difficult childbirth. When he remarries, the young Culhwch rejects his stepmother's attempt to pair him with his new stepsister. Offended, the new queen puts a curse on him so that he can marry no one besides the beautiful Olwen, daughter of the giant Ysbaddaden Pencawr. Though he has never seen her, Culhwch becomes infatuated with her, but his father warns him that he will never find her without the aid of his famous cousin Arthur; the young man sets off to seek his kinsman. He finds him at his court in Celliwig in Cornwall. Arthur agrees to help, sends six of his finest warriors to join Culhwch in his search for Olwen; the group meets some relatives of Culhwch's that agree to arrange a meeting. Olwen is receptive to Culhwch's attraction, but she cannot marry him unless her father agrees, he, unable to survive past his daughter's wedding, will not consent until Culhwch completes a series of about forty impossible-sounding tasks.

The completion of only a few of these tasks is recorded and the giant is killed, leaving Olwen free to marry her lover. The story is on one level a typical folktale, in which a young hero sets out to wed a giant's daughter, many of the accompanying motifs reinforce this. However, for most of the narrative the title characters go unmentioned, their story serving as a frame for other events. Culhwch and Olwen is much more than a simple folktale. In fact, the majority of the writing is taken up by two long lists and the adventures of King Arthur and his men; the first of these occurs when Arthur welcomes his young kinsman to his court and offers to give him whatever he wishes. Culhwch, of course, asks that Arthur help him get Olwen, invokes some two hundred of the greatest men, dogs and swords in Arthur's kingdom to underscore his request. Included in the list are names taken from Irish legend and sometimes actual history. Writers and Tolkien scholars, Tom Shippey and David Day have pointed out the similarities between The Tale of Beren and Lúthien, one of the main cycles of J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, Culhwch and Olwen.

The British painter/poet David Jones wrote a poem called "The Hunt" based on the tale of Culwhch ac Olwen. A fragment of a larger work, "The Hunt" takes place during the pursuit of the boar Twrch Trwyth by Arthur and the various war-bands of Celtic Britain and France. In 1988 Gwyn Thomas released a retelling of the story, Culhwch ac Olwen, illustrated by Margaret Jones. Culhwch ac Olwen won the annual Tir na n-Og Award for Welsh language nonfiction in 1989. A shadow play adaptation of Culhwch and Olwen toured schools in Ceredigion during 2003; the show was supported by Theatr Felinfach. The tale of Culhwch and Olwen was adapted by Derek Webb in Welsh and English as a dramatic recreation for the reopening of Narberth Castle in Pembrokeshire in 2005; the Ballad of Sir Dinadan, the fifth book of Gerold Morris's The Squire's Tales series, features an adaptation of Culhwch's quest. Bromwich. Rachel and Evans, D. Simon Culhwch and Olwen: An Edition and Study of the Oldest Arthurian Tale University of Wales Press, 1992.

ISBN 0-7083-1127-X. Patrick K. Ford and Olwen, from The Mabinogi and Other Medieval Welsh Tales, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977. ISBN 0-520-03414-7 Idris Llewelyn Foster, "Culhwch and Olwen and Rhonabwy's Dream" in Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, Roger S. Loomis. Clarendon Press: Oxford University, 1959. ISBN 0-19-811588-1 Jeffrey Gantz and Olwen, from The Mabinogion, November 18, 1976. ISBN 0-14-044322-3 Culhwch ac Olwen e-text Culhwch ac Olwen translation Article on Culhwch and Olwen on Celtic website Transceltic.com bbc.co.uk – Wales – History

Hanmi Pharmaceutical

Hanmi Pharmaceutical is a South Korean pharmaceutical company, headquartered in Seoul. Hanmi was founded in 1973 by Lim Sung-ki, a pharmacist, it was named Lim, Sung-ki Pharmaceutical Co. but it was changed to Hanmi Pharmaceutical. The company started selling Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole powder, would expand to produce Cephalosporin antibiotics in 1985 and injectable Ceftriaxone antibiotics in 1987. By 1988 the company was listed in the Korea Exchange. Hanmi started selling drugs in China in 1996. In 1994, the company began developing Cyclosporin; the company broke the ₩100,000,000,000 barrier in sales in 1997. The company began moving into the European market in 1998; the company still was developing new drugs, with Paclitaxel in 2000, Itraconazole tablets in 2001, 24-hour controlled-release Nifedipine tablets and a new salt form of Amlodipine in 2004, an anti-obesity drug using sibutramine mesilate in 2007. Hanmi and Crystal Genomics formed a strategic partnership in 2008. By around 2010, Hanmi's R&D had two areas of interest: developing longer-lasting peptide and protein therapeutics using its "Lapscovery" technology, developing small molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitors for cancer and autoimmune diseases.

Its strategy was to developmental incremental modifications of existing drugs, create new combination drugs, to develop novel drugs. In August 2014 Hanmi licensed rights in China for poziotinib, a small molecule EGFR inhibitor, to the Chinese company Luye Pharma. In March 2015 Hanmi and Lilly signed an exclusive license outside of Asia for Hanmi's small molecule Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor in the field of autoimmune diseases. In November 2015 Hanmi signed three agreements: An exclusive license outside of South Korea and China with Sanofi for Hanmi's Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist drug candidates for diabetes; the deal included a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. An exclusive license outside of South Korea and China with the J&J subsidiary Janssen Pharmaceuticals for Hanmi's oxyntomodulin-analog metabolic disease programs, including HM12525A. In April 2016 Hanmi announced that it had acquired land near Yantai in the Shandong province of China, where it would build a manufacturing plant and R&D facility.

In July Hanmi said it intended to invest more in developing candidate substances of promising new drugs at an early stage in new pharmaceutical and biotech related fields, including through a venture capital firm set up by Sung-ki and colleagues. In May 2016 the Korean regulatory authority approved olmutinib as a second-line treatment for certain kinds of non-small cell lung cancer. On September 28 Hanmi and Zentec Pharmaceuticals agreed that Zentec would market Hanmi's small molecule cancer drug candidate, HM95573. On September 29, Hanmi and Roche's cancer subsidiary Genentech announced a deal for Hanmi's Phase I cancer drug candidate, HM95573, which targets the MAPK/ERK pathway. In December 2016 the Sanofi deal was reduced in scope, with Hanmi receiving back rights to the once-weekly insulin and the combination GLP1-RA/insulin product, agreeing to repay Sanofi $250 million of the $434 million upfront payment. On December 3, 2019 Rapt Therapeutics and Hanami Pharmaceutical announced collaboration to develop and commercialize FLX475 in Asia.

FLX475 is an oral, small molecule CCR4 antagonist in development for the treatment of multiple cancers. On the evening of September 29, 2016, Hanmi announced the Roche deal. Hanmi's offices were raided by Korean regulatory authorities in mid-October based on evidence that insider knowledge of the Boehringer termination was passed to third parties, who shorted the stock prior to the announcement on the 30th. In December three Hanmi employees were among 17 people indicted for insider trading. On September 30, 2016, Korean regulatory authorities issued a safety alert about olmutinib in which it described two cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis, one of, fatal, a case of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. In April 2018 Hanmi was found to have violated two laws in Korea by not disclosing adverse effects of olmutinib sooner. In that month Zai said it was dropping olmutinib and a few days Hanmi said it was terminating development of the drug. Economy of South Korea Official website