North Holland is a province of the Netherlands located in the northwestern part of the country. It is situated on the North Sea, north of South Holland and Utrecht, west of Friesland and Flevoland. In 2015, it had a population of 2,762,163 and a total area of 2,670 km2. From the 9th to the 16th century, the area was an integral part of the County of Holland. During this period West Friesland was incorporated. In the 17th and 18th century, the area was part of the province of Holland and known as the Noorderkwartier. In 1840, the province of Holland was split into the two provinces of North Holland and South Holland. In 1855, the Haarlemmermeer was turned into land; the capital and seat of the provincial government is Haarlem, the province's largest city is the Netherlands' capital Amsterdam. The King's Commissioner of North Holland is Johan Remkes, serving since 2010. There are three water boards in the province; the province of North Holland as it is today has its origins in the period of French rule from 1795 to 1813.
This was a time of bewildering changes to the Dutch system of provinces. In 1795, the old order was swept away and the Batavian Republic was established. In the Constitution enacted on 23 April 1798, the old borders were radically changed; the republic was reorganised into eight departments with equal populations. Holland was split up into five departments named "Texel", "Amstel", "Delf", "Schelde en Maas", "Rijn"; the first three of these lay within the borders of the old Holland. In 1801 the old borders were restored; this reorganisation had been short-lived, but it gave birth to the concept of breaking up Holland and making it a less powerful province. In 1807, Holland was reorganised; this time the two departments were called "Amstelland" and "Maasland". This did not last long. In 1810, all the Dutch provinces were integrated into the French Empire. Amstelland and Utrecht were amalgamated as the department of "Zuiderzee" and Maasland was renamed "Monden van de Maas". After the defeat of the French in 1813, this organisation remained unchanged for a year or so.
When the 1814 Constitution was introduced, the country was reorganised as regions. Zuiderzee and Monden van de Maas were reunited as the province of "Holland". One of the ministers on the constitutional committee suggested that the old name "Holland and West Friesland" be reintroduced to respect the feelings of the people of that region; this proposal was rejected. However, the division was not reversed; when the province of Holland was re-established in 1814, it was given two governors, one for the former department of Amstelland and one for the former department of Maasland. Though the province had been reunited, the two areas were still being treated differently in some ways and the idea of dividing Holland remained alive. During this reorganisation the islands of Vlieland and Terschelling were returned to Holland and parts of "Hollands Brabant" went to North Brabant; the borders with Utrecht and Gelderland were definitively set in 1820. When the constitutional amendments were introduced in 1840, it was decided to split Holland once again, this time into two provinces called "North Holland" and "South Holland".
The need for this was not felt in West Friesland. The impetus came from Amsterdam, which still resented the 1838 relocation of the court of appeal to The Hague in South Holland. After the Haarlemmermeer was drained in 1855 and turned into arable land, it was made part of North Holland. In exchange, South Holland received the greater part of the municipality of Leimuiden in 1864. In 1942, the islands Vlieland and Terschelling went back to the province of Friesland. In 1950, the former island Urk was ceded to the province of Overijssel. In February 2011, North Holland, together with the provinces of Utrecht and Flevoland, showed a desire to investigate the feasibility of a merger between the three provinces; this has been positively received by the First Rutte cabinet, for the desire to create one Randstad province has been mentioned in the coalition agreement. The province of South Holland, part of the Randstad urban area, visioned to be part of the Randstad province, much supportive of the idea of a merger into one province, is not named.
With or without South Holland, if created, the new province would be the largest in the Netherlands in both area and population. North Holland is situated at 52°40′N 4°50′E in the northwest of the Netherlands with to the northeast the province of Friesland, to the east the province of Flevoland, to the southeast the province of Utrecht, to the southwest the province of South Holland, to the west the North Sea. North Holland is a broad peninsula for the most part, located between the North Sea, the Wadden Sea, the IJsselmeer, the Markermeer. More than half of the province consists of reclaimed polder land situated below sea level; the West Frisian islands of Noorderhaaks and Texel are part of the province. North Holland makes up a single region of the International Organization for Standardization world region code system, having the code ISO 3166-2:NL-NH; as of January 2019, North Holland is divided into 47 municipalities. Af
Labour Party (Netherlands)
The Labour Party is a social democratic political party in the Netherlands. The party was founded in 1946 as a merger of the Social Democratic Workers' Party, the Free-thinking Democratic League, the Christian Democratic Union. Prime Ministers from the Labour Party have been Willem Drees, Joop den Uyl, Wim Kok. From 2012 to 2017, the PvdA formed the second largest parliamental faction and was the junior partner in the Second Rutte cabinet with the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy. Since 2016, Lodewijk Asscher has been Leader of the Labour Party; the party fell to only nine seats in the House of Representatives at the 2017 general election, making it only the seventh-largest faction in the chamber–its worst showing ever. The Labour Party is a member of the European Party of European Socialists and the global Progressive Alliance. In the European Parliament, where the Labour Party has 3 seats, it is part of the parliamentary group Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. During the German Occupation of the Netherlands in the Second World War a group of prominent Dutchmen of all democratic political ideologies were interned as hostages in St. Michielsgestel by the German occupation authorities.
They came to the consensus that the pre-war fragmentation of Dutch political life, known as "Pillarization," should be overcome after the war in a so-called doorbraak. These people formed the Dutch People's Movement after the war ended in 1945; the new movement promoted the foundation of the Labour Party ) on 9 February 1946, through a merger of three pre-war parties: the Social Democratic Workers' Party, the social liberal Free-thinking Democratic League and progressive-Protestant Christian Democratic Union. They were joined by individuals from Catholic resistance group Christofoor, as well as some of the more progressive members of the Protestant parties Christian Historical Union and Anti-Revolutionary Party; the founding Congress was chaired by NVB-member Willem Banning. The founders of the PvdA wanted to create a broad party, breaking with the historic tradition of pillarisation; the party combined socialists with progressive Christians. However, the party was unable to break pillarisation.
Instead the new party renewed. In 1948 some of the left-liberal members, led by former VDB leader Pieter Oud, left the PvdA after concluding it had become too socialist for their liking. Together with the Freedom Party, they formed the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, a conservative liberal party. Between 1946 and 1958, the PvdA led coalition governments with the Catholic People's Party, combinations of VVD, ARP and CHU, with the PvdA's Willem Drees as prime minister; the KVP and the PvdA together had a large majority in parliament. Under his leadership the Netherlands recovered from the war, began to build its welfare state and Indonesia became independent. After the cabinet crisis of 1958, the PvdA was replaced by the VVD; the PvdA was in opposition until 1965. The electoral support of PvdA voters began to decline. In 1965 a conflict in the KVP-ARP-CHU-VVD cabinet made continuation of the government impossible; the three confessional, Christian-influenced parties turned towards the PvdA.
Together they formed the Cals cabinet, with KVP leader Jo Cals as prime minister. This cabinet was short lived and conflict ridden; the conflicts culminated in the fall of the Cals cabinet over economic policy. Meanwhile, a younger generation was attempting to gain control of the PvdA. A group of young PvdA members, calling themselves the New Left, changed the party; the New Left believed the party should become oriented towards the new social movements, adopting their anti-parliamentary strategies and their issues, such as women's liberation, environmental conservation and Third World development. Prominent New Left members were André van der Louw and Bram Peper. One of their early victories followed the fall of the Cals cabinet; the party Congress adopted a motion that made it impossible for the PvdA to govern with the KVP and its Protestant allies. In response to the growing power of the New Left group, a group of older, centrist party members, led by Willem Drees' son, Willem Drees, Jr. founded the New Right.
They split in 1970, after it was clear that they had lost the conflict with the New Left, founded a new moderate Social Democratic party, Democratic Socialists'70. Under the New Left, the PvdA started a strategy of polarisation, striving for a cabinet based on a progressive majority in parliament. In order to form that cabinet the PvdA allied itself with the social liberal party Democrats 66 and the progressive Christian Political Party of Radicals; the alliance was called the Progressive Accord. In the 1971 and 1972 elections, these three parties promised to form a cabinet with a radical common programme after the elections, they were unable to gain a majority in either election. In 1971, they were kept out of cabinet, the party of former PvdA members, DS70, became a partner of the First Biesheuvel cabinet. In the 1972 elections, neither the PvdA and its allies or the KVP and its allies were able to gain a majority; the two sides were forced to work together. Joop den Uyl, the leader of the PvdA, led the cabinet.
The cabinet was an extra-parliamentary cabinet and it was composed of members of the three progressive parties and members of the KVP and the ARP. The cabinet attempted to radically reform government and the economy, a wide range
Haarlemmerbuurt is a neighbourhood in Amsterdam, in the Dutch province of North Holland, is part of the borough Centrum. The central artery of the area is formed by the streets Haarlemmerdijk and Haarlemmerstraat, the old road to Haarlem; the neighbourhood is bordered to the south by Brouwersgracht, to the west by Singelgracht, on the north by the railway embankment and on the east by Singel. Haarlemmerplein, with the Haarlemmerpoort or Willemspoort city gate, is a square located at the western end of the neighbourhood. On the north side there used to be a timber storage area, why this part is called Haarlemmer Houttuinen. With the construction of the railway line between Singelgracht and Central Station through the Haarlemmer Houttuinen in 1878 this became the northern boundary. In the 1970s, a traffic thoroughfare was built alongside the railway, for which a large part of the Haarlemmer Houttuinen and part of the buildings on the north facade of Haarlemmerplein were demolished; this caused the square to lose its cohesion.
Since a new block on the north facade was finished in 2012, the square is once again complete. The West-Indisch Huis is located at Haarlemmerstraat 75, is the former headquarters of the Dutch West India Company; the Posthoornkerk, a church by architect Pierre Cuypers, is located further down the street at numbers 124-126. Haarlemmerstraat and Haarlemmerdijk are known for the great quality and diversity of their shops and restaurants, were voted "best shopping street of The Netherlands" in 2011. There are a couple of coffeeshops located on Haarlemmerstraat
The Stopera is a building complex in Amsterdam, housing both the city hall of Amsterdam and the Dutch National Opera and Ballet, the principal opera house in Amsterdam, home of Dutch National Opera, Dutch National Ballet and Holland Symfonia. The building was designed by Cees Dam; the name is an abbreviation of the protest slogan "Stop the Opera" and not a portmanteau of "st"adhuis and "opera" as is claimed. Because the word'Stopera' was a name for the protests against the building, the theater has never used this name in their communication; the Stopera is located in the center of Amsterdam at a bend of the Amstel River between Waterlooplein Square and the Zwanenburgwal Canal, on a plot of land called Vlooienburg, reclaimed in the 16th century. The opera house building is shaped with a curved front facing the city, its facade is covered in corrugated metal panels. The curved face of the theatre is faced with white marble punctuated by large windows that provide panoramic views of the river from the curved interior foyers and multi-level terraces.
Next to the Stopera is the Joods Verzetsmonument, a 1988 monument to the Jewish victims of World War II. A remembrance of the Kristallnacht is held at the monument every year; the construction of the Stopera was at least 60 years in the making. As early as 1915, discussions were held about building a new opera house as well as a new city hall. Various sites were considered for the new city hall, until they chose an expansive area of the Jewish district, abandoned during the late 1940s as its occupants were deported to concentration camps; the Amsterdam city council established a commission in 1955 to create a design with the architectural firm of Berghoef and Vegter. After ten years, the council rejected their final proposal in 1964 and held a competition in 1967 for a new design; the council selected a design by Viennese architect Wilhelm Holzbauer. However, plans for the new city hall were delayed again by budget constraints, as were the opera house plans. In 1979, it was proposed that the city opera house should be combined into one complex.
The opera and the Dutch National Ballet would have a shared performance space. In 1980 the Amsterdam city council approved the new design by Wilhelm Holzbauer. Approval from the provincial and national governments followed in 1981; the Stopera was a controversial project that met with heavy protests from local counterculture and leftwing groups like the squatter movement and Provo movement, leading to riots when construction began in 1982. The project went over budget and the final cost was 112 million Dutch guilders more than budgeted; the opera opened on September 23, 1986. Max van Rooy en Bas Roodnat De Stopera, een Amsterdamse geschiedenis, Dutch publication
The Jodenbuurt is a neighborhood of Amsterdam, Netherlands. For centuries before World War II, it was the center of the Jews of Amsterdam — hence, its name, it is best known as the birthplace of Baruch Spinoza, the home of Rembrandt, the Jewish ghetto of Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. Traditionally, the boundaries of the Jodenbuurt, east of the city center, are the Amstel River in the southwest, the Zwanenburgwal and Oudeschans canals in the northwest, Rapenburg, a street in the northeast and the Nieuwe Herengracht in the southeast, but it grew to include parts of Nieuwmarkt, Sint Antoniesbreestraat, the Plantage, Weesperzijde after 1882, when two canals, the Leprozengracht and the Houtgracht, were filled. The first Jews to settle in Amsterdam were the Sephardim, expelled from Portugal and Spain in 1493, they were joined in the following decades by the Ashkenazi from Central and Eastern Europe, the first of whom had come from Germany in 1600. In those years, the only available land for them was at the outskirts of the eastern side of the Centrum — the island of Vlooienburg, surrounded by the Amstel River and the canals — so they settled along the island's main street, which became known as Jodenbreestraat.
By 1612, the population was about 500 people but it doubled to about 1,000 in 1620 and again to 2,500 in 1672. The Jews gave their new home, its Hebrew name, Mokum to show that they had felt at home in the city; this was because, with the Union of Utrecht in 1579, all the residents of the Dutch Republic were to be given religious freedom, the first time a European country had established and enshrined the freedom of religion as the law of the land. So the Jews were allowed to build their own synagogues; the first of them was the Beth Jakob, built between 1602 and 1610, followed by the second synagogue, Neve Shalom, constructed between 1608 and 1612, the third, Beth Israel, founded in 1618. They were all Sephardic, they were all therefore not visible from the streets. But the Jews were not alone in the Jodenbuurt, they were joined by several Christians. One of them was the artist Rembrandt, fascinated by the "Biblical" faces of his new neighbors. In 1641, a group of Franciscans came to establish a Catholic clandestine church in a house called "Moses", out of the reach of the Protestant authorities of Amsterdam.
Known as the "Jewish Church", it began as the Sint-Anthoniuskerk but it grew into the Mozes en Aäronkerk. It is still standing today at the Waterlooplein. On 8 November 1616, the Jews were made legal citizens by the City of Amsterdam, but they were still not allowed to enter certain occupations. So they were limited to street trading, book printing and diamond cutting — the only occupations that were open to them. From 1622, the synagogues began to cooperate for the good of the Jodenbuurt. On 3 April 1693, they merged their districts into a single municipality under the name of Talmud Torah. In that year, they opened the first synagogue, visible from the streets, it stood at the present Waterlooplein. Next to the new synagogue on Nieuwe Amstelstraat was a meat market, where the residents of the neighborhood could buy their kosher meat; the Sephardi did not have proper knowledge about Judaism. They were not allowed to be Jews in Portugal and Spain but they were allowed to live as the so-called Marranos or fake Christians.
So in Amsterdam they sent for the rabbis to come out of Italy, North Africa, the Ottoman Empire to teach them the ways of Judaism in the Jodenbuurt. The first Ashkenazi shul, the Great Synagogue, the fifth Sephardi shul, the Portuguese-Israelite Synagogue, were opened in 1671 and 1675 immortalized by the engravings of the Dutchman, Romeyn de Hooghe; the Portuguese Synagogue was the place where Spinoza was placed under the ban by the Sephardic Jewish community in 1656. Because of their knowledge of Spanish and Portuguese, many of the Sephardim were involved with trade and plantations in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in South America. Several Jews, such as Isaac de Pinto and his father David, had a great influence on the national government of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces but they came under heavy criticism from the Doelisten, a political coalition of Orangists, moderates and democrats. In the days of the Batavian Republic, several residents of the Jodenbuurt, including Jonas Daniel Meijer, the first Jewish lawyer in the Netherlands, Carel Asser, a judge, were admitted to the bar, the civil societies and municipal politics but they came in conflict with the parnassiem, the religious leaders of their neighborhood.
The achievements of Isaac da Costa, Abraham Capadose and other Jews were made possible by the emancipation of the Jews around 1825. In the 19th Century, many Jews were active in processing and trading diamonds, leading to the first trade union in the Netherlands – the Algemene Nederlandse Diamantbewerkersbond, chaired by Henri Polak, its headquarters, the Beurs van Berlage, named in honor of
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy is a conservative liberal political party in the Netherlands. The VVD, whose forerunner was the Freedom Party, supports private enterprise and economic liberalism. Mark Rutte has been the party's leader since 31 May 2006 and on 14 October 2010 became Prime Minister of the Netherlands, marking the first time that the VVD led a government; the First Rutte cabinet's parliamentary majority was provided by the Christian Democratic Appeal and the Party for Freedom, but this majority became unstable when the latter refused to support austerity measures amid the Euro crisis. Therefore, a general election was held in September 2012; the VVD remained the largest party, with 41 seats. From November 2012 until March 2017, the VVD was the senior partner in the Second Rutte cabinet, a "purple" coalition government with the Labour Party. VVD remained the largest party in the March 2017 election. However, continuing the existing coalition was impossible, as the Labour Party had lost 29 seats, therefore a centre-right coalition was negotiated with the D66, CU and CDA, which became the Third Rutte Cabinet.
The VVD was founded in 1948 as a continuation of the Freedom Party, a continuation of the interbellum Liberal State Party, which in turn was a continuation of Liberal Union. They were joined by the Comité-Oud, a group of liberal members of the Labour Party, led by Pieter Oud; the liberals within the Labour Party were members of the pre-war social liberal Free-thinking Democratic League, who went on to join the Labour Party in the post-war Doorbraak movement. However, they believed. Oud became the merged party's first leader. Between 1948 and 1952 the VVD took part in the broad cabinets led by the Labour Party Prime Minister Willem Drees; the party was a junior partner with only eight seats to the Catholic People's Party and Labour Party, which both had around thirty seats. The Drees cabinets laid the foundation for the welfare state and decolonisation of the Dutch East Indies. In the Dutch general election of 1952 the VVD did not join the government. In the Dutch general election of 1956 they increased their total, receiving thirteen seats, but were still kept out of government until the general election of 1959, held early because of cabinet crisis.
This time they gained nineteen seats and the party entered government alongside the Protestant Anti-Revolutionary Party, Christian Historical Union CHU and the Roman Catholic KVP. In 1963, Oud retired from politics, was succeeded by the Minister of the Interior Edzo Toxopeus. With Toxopeus as its Leader, the VVD lost three seats in the 1963 election, but remained in government. In 1962, a substantial group of disillusioned VVD-members founded the Liberal Democratic Centre, intended to introduce a more twentieth-century liberal direction pointing to the classical liberal VVD. In 1966, frustrated with their hopeless efforts, LDC members departed the VVD altogether and went on now to form an political party, the Democrats 66. In 1965, there occurred a conflict between VVD Ministers and their counterparts from the KVP and ARP in the Marijnen cabinet; the cabinet fell and without an election it was replaced by the KVP–ARP–PvdA cabinet under Jo Cals, which itself fell the next year. In the following 1967 election the VVD remained stable and entered yet again the cabinet under Prime Minister Piet de Jong.
During this period the VVD had loose ties with other liberal organisations and together they formed the neutral pillar. This included the liberal papers Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant and Algemeen Handelsblad, the broadcaster AVRO and the employers' organisation VNO. In the Dutch general election of 1971 the VVD lost the cabinet lost its majority. A cabinet was formed by the Christian democratic parties, the VVD and the Labour Party offshoot Democratic Socialists'70; this cabinet collapsed after a few months. Meanwhile, the charismatic young MP Hans Wiegel had attracted considerable attention, he became the new leader of the VVD: in 1971 he became the new parliamentary leader, in 1972 he was appointed lijsttrekker. Under Wiegel's leadership, the party oriented towards a new political course, reforming the welfare state, cutting taxes etc. Wiegel did not shrink from conflict with the trade unions. With this new course came a new electorate: working class and middle-class voters who, because of individualisation and depillarisation, were more easy to attract.
The course proved to be profitable: in the polarised general election of 1972 the VVD gained six seats. The VVD was kept out of government by the social democratic and Christian democratic cabinet led by Joop den Uyl. Although the ties between the VVD and other organisations within the neutral pillar became looser, the number of neutral organisations, friendly to the VVD, expanded; the TROS and Veronica, new broadcasters which entered the Netherlands Public Broadcasting, were friendly to the VVD. In 1977 the VVD again won six seats bringing its total to twenty-eight seats; when lengthy formation talks between the social democrats and Christian democrats led to a final break between the two parties, the VVD formed cabinet with the Christian Democratic Appeal, with a majority of only two seats. In the general election of 1981 the VVD lost two seats and its partner the CDA lost more; the cabinet was without a majority and a CDA
Amsterdam Centraal station
Amsterdam Centraal is the largest railway station of Amsterdam, Netherlands. A major international railway hub, it is used by 162,000 passengers a day, making it the second busiest railway station in the country after Utrecht Centraal and the most visited Rijksmonument of the Netherlands. National and international railway services at Amsterdam Centraal are provided by NS, the principal rail operator in the Netherlands. Amsterdam Centraal is the northern terminus of Amsterdam Metro Routes 51, 53, 54, stop for 52 operated by municipal public transport operator GVB, it is served by a number of GVB tram and ferry routes as well as local and regional bus routes operated by GVB, Connexxion and EBS. Amsterdam Centraal was designed by Dutch architect Pierre Cuypers and first opened in 1889, it features a Gothic, Renaissance Revival station building and a cast iron platform roof spanning 40 metres. Since 1997, the station building, underground passages, metro station and the surrounding area have been undergoing major reconstruction and renovation works to accommodate the North-South Line metro route, opened on 22 July 2018.
Amsterdam Centraal has the second longest railway platform in the Netherlands with a length of 695 metres. Amsterdam Centraal was designed by Pierre Cuypers, known for his design of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. While Cuypers was the principal architect, it is believed that he focused on the decoration of the station building and left the structural design to railway engineers; the station was built by contractor Philipp Holzmann. The new central station replaced Amsterdam Willemspoort Station, which had closed in 1878, as well as the temporary Westerdok Station used from 1878 to 1889; the idea for a central station came from Johan Rudolph Thorbecke the Netherlands Minister of the Interior and responsible for the national railways, who, in 1884, laid two proposals before the Amsterdam municipal council. In the first proposal, the station would be situated between the Amstel river. In the other, it would be built in the open harbour front allowing for the station to be connected to the existing main lines in the area to the west and the south, but to a projected new northern line.
Cuypers' design of the station building in many ways resembled his other architectural masterpiece, the Rijksmuseum, of which the construction had begun in 1876. It features a palace-like, Gothic/Renaissance Revival facade, with two turrets and many ornamental details and stone reliefs referring to the capital city's industrial and commercial importance. Cuypers' station reflects the romantic nationalistic mood in the late nineteenth-century Netherlands, with its many decorative elements glorifying the nation's economic and colonial power at the time; as with the Rijksmuseum, the station's overall architecture reminded many contemporaries of medieval cathedrals. For that reason, as well as for the fact that it became clear that the national government wanted the station to be built at the city's waterfront separating the city from the IJ lake, the plan was controversial. In his book on the history of city, Amsterdam historian Geert Mak writes that: Almost all of Amsterdam's own experts and others involved thought this to be a catastrophic plan,'the most disgusting possible attack on the beauty and glory of the capital'.
The building of the Central Station in front of the open harbour was forced through by the railway department of the Ministry of Transport in The Hague, the Home Secretary, Thorbecke. The plan made its way through the Amsterdam municipal council by a narrow majority. Construction works started in 1882; the station is built on three interconnected artificial islands in the IJ lake. These islands were created with sand taken from the dunes near Velsen, which had become available as a result of the excavation of the North Sea Canal; the islands together are known as Stationseiland. Like many other structures in Amsterdam, the station was built on wooden piles; the construction of the station was delayed because of the instability of the soil, which set back the completion of the work by several years. The station building was completed in 1884, but the commission to Cuypers did not include the roofwork of the platforms. Therefore, the station did not yet feature its distinctive station roof; this roof, consisting of 50 curved trusses and a span of 45 meters, was designed by L.
J. Eijmer, a civil engineer with the private railroad company Staatsspoorwegen; the roof was manufactured by Andrew Company of Derby, England. Cuypers did design the decorations for the gable ends. On 15 October 1889, the station was opened, drawing large numbers of crowds; the visitors were charged 0.25 guilders to see the station. The opening of the central station marked the city's transition from a waterfront city to an inland city, spurring further redevelopment activities in the city centre which included the realignment of streets and the filling up of canals; the waterways would soon be replaced by tramways and cars as the primary modes of transport in the city. In 1920, the East Wing of the station was demolished and replaced by "The East", a postal service building designed by Cuypers' son Joseph. A second and longer but similar roof on the north side of the station was completed in 1922. In the 1950s, a pedestrian tunnel was created between the station and the road in front of it, which terminated inside the station.
With the construction of the metro tunnel in the late 1970s, both the pedestrian tunnel