The Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal is a street in the centre of Amsterdam. The street runs more or less north-south, and the Raadhuisstraat runs west, the street name means New Side Front Bastion Wall. In the 14th century, the city of Amsterdam was equally divided in two parts, each at one side of the River Amstel, to defend the city against intruders, a canal with a bastion wall was built. The burgwal protecting the oldest of the two sides was called the Old Side Bastion Wall, the bastion wall at the new side was called the New Side Bastion Wall. When in 1385 a new wall was built with a canal – behind the old bastion walls – those were now called New Side Behind Bastion Wall. The original bastion walls were renamed as New Side Front Bastion Wall, when the canals of the bastion walls at the new side were filled in, the Nieuwezijdsachterburgwal was renamed as Spuistraat. To the east is a series of small alleys, media related to Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal at Wikimedia Commons
Abraham de Vries (painter)
Abraham de Vries was a Dutch painter who was one of the leading portraitists of his age. As he led a lifestyle and worked in France, Antwerp. Little is known about the life and training of Abraham de Vries. It is now believed that the artist was born in The Hague since when he joined the Guild of Saint Luke of The Hague in 1644 he paid the fees of a native son of the city. In the past he was believed to have been a native of Rotterdam. He may have travelled to France as early as 1613 if the date on a drawing made in Lyons that year is correct. By 1617 the artist was registered in the Rotterdam church administration, de Vries traveled to Southern France in the 1620s. During his period of residence in Aix-en-Provence around 1623-1624 he was the teacher of the Flemish artist Jan Cossiers who had travelled from his native Antwerp to the south of France, de Vries spent time in Toulouse, Montpellier and Paris. During his stay in France be became acquainted with the prominent French scientist and humanist Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc who was a friend of Rubens.
De Vries met Rubens in person in 1629 during a stay in Paris, after his return north, he made several trips to Paris and Antwerp. He was recorded in Antwerp in 1628 and again in 1634 when he became a member of the local Guild of Saint Luke in July 1634. The Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria who was the Governor of the Spanish Netherlands saw a portrait by de Vries during his visit to Antwerp on 20 April 1635. This led to an invitation to work in the Brussels court city where his work was deemed superior to that of Anthony van Dyck and he was in Brussels in 1636 as testified by his inscription on a portrait which states it was made in Brussels. In 1639-1640 there are records of de Vries’ presence in Rotterdam and he was recorded in The Hague in 1643 and he became a member of the Guild of Saint Luke of The Hague in 1644. He made his will in The Hague in 1648, various sources indicate that de Vries died in either 1649 or 1650 in The Hague. Abraham de Vries is mainly known for his portraits even though he created some landscapes.
An example of his landscapes is an early Mountainous landscape with a wooden bridge and his early works are reminiscent of the works of contemporary artists in Amsterdam and The Hague such as Thomas de Keyser and Jan van Ravesteyn. In his 1621 Self portrait, the artist depicted himself as learned painter, in the late 1620s to the 1630s there was clearly a Flemish influence recognizable in his portraits as is seen in the Portrait of Simon de Vos of 1634
Jacob van Campen
Jacob van Campen, was a Dutch artist and architect of the Golden Age. He was born into a family at Haarlem, and spent his youth in his home town. Being of noble birth and with time on his hands, he took up painting mainly as a pastime, in 1614, he became a member of the Guild of Saint Luke, and studied painting under Frans de Grebber - a number of Van Campens oils survive. About 1616 to 1624 he is thought to have lived in Italy, on his return to the Netherlands, Van Campen turned to architecture, applying ideas borrowed from Andrea Palladio, Vincenzo Scamozzi and classical influences from Vitruvius. Van Campen was friendly with Constantijn Huygens, and together designed a new house for Huygens. Even after Van Campens death, his work greatly influenced Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen, the designer of the Kleefse gardens, the latter to own a book by Van Campen regardless of the expense. The city hall and the city palace of Potsdam owe a debt to ideas by Van Campen, Van Campens first known building was the Coymans house built in 1625 in Amsterdam.
About 1645 Van Campen designed the Nieuwe Kerk in Haarlem, a church that influenced Christopher Wren and his best-known work is probably the large Town Hall of Amsterdam, now the Royal Palace in Dam Square. Van Campen worked as an architect, a painter and a designer of decorative schemes and he was assisted in his work by Pieter Post, Daniël Stalpaert, Matthias Withoos, Philips Vingboons, Artus Quellinus, Tielman van Gameren and Rombout Verhulst. During the building of the city hall, Van Campen lived in very expensive lodgings in the nearby Kalverstraat, in 1654 Van Campen left after an argument, probably in connection with the design of the barrel vaults. Stalpaert won, but his completion of the project was reported to be less fine than Van Campens designs, after a long career, Van Campen died in 1657 in his buitenplaats Randenbroek near Amersfoort, which he had inherited from his mother, and was buried there. He had expanded it himself and had it decorated by Caesar van Everdingen, Van Campen never married, but had one son, Alexander Van Campen.
Van Campen was selective in what projects he took on and his best known works are, The Royal Palace, former city hall. In 1647, his name is mentioned for the first time in connection with the design of the new city hall and it was to be a perfect building, perfect in its proportions and in the message it conveyed to the spectator. Its power lies in its strict and perfect proportions and extremely moderate decoration, critics loathed the simple entrance - without stairs - on the ground floor. He is suspected to have had a hand in the alteration of the Rembrandthuis at the Jodenbreestraat in Amsterdam, the Theatre of Van Campen, based on the example of Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza, in Amsterdam. The Paleis Noordeinde, a palace in The Hague. As well as houses and palaces, he designed a number of churches, such as those at Renswoude and at Hooge Zwaluwe
The Kalverstraat is a busy shopping street of Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands. The street runs roughy North-South for about 750 meters, from Dam Square to Muntplein square, the Amsterdam Museum is located in a former orphanage between Kalverstraat and Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal. The Kalverstraat is the most expensive shopping street in the Netherlands, in 2009 it was the 17th most expensive street in the world measured by rent prices. The Kalverstraat is the most expensive street in the Dutch version of Monopoly, after the construction of the medieval city walls, the street between Munttoren and Spui square came to be known as Byndewyck. The street became known as Kalverstraat, after the market that was held here from 1486 until 1629. In 1345 a eucharistic miracle was said to have taken place in a home between the Kalverstraat in the Rokin, the event is commemorated by the annual Stille Omgang procession. A chapel, the Heilige Stede, was built on the spot where the miracle was said to have occurred, the Heiligeweg connected the Kalverstraat with this pilgrim chapel, and with Leidsestraat.
Painter Piet Mondrian lived at Kalverstraat 154 from 1892 to 1895, the first HEMA department store opened on the Kalverstraat in 1926. A fire in the Kalverstraat on May 9,1977, claimed 33 deaths
A carillon is a musical instrument that is typically housed in the bell tower of a church or municipal building. The instrument consists of at least 23 cast bronze, cup-shaped bells, a traditional manual carillon is played by striking a keyboard – the stick-like keys of which are called batons – with the fists, and by pressing the keys of a pedal keyboard with the feet. Although unusual, real carillons have occasionally been fitted to theatre organs, such as the Christie organ installed at the Regal Cinema, Marble Arch, a carillon-like instrument with fewer than 23 bells is called a chime. The carillon is the second heaviest of all extant musical instruments, the heaviest carillon in the world weighs over 100 tons, whereas the Wanamaker organ in Philadelphia weighs 287 tons. The word carillon is from the French quadrillon, meaning four bells, in German, a carillon is called a Glockenspiel, while the percussion instrument called a glockenspiel by English speakers is often called a carillon in French.
In medieval times, swinging bells were first used as a way of notifying people of imminent church services, the use of bells to play melodic musical compositions originated in the 16th century in the Low Countries. The first carillon was in Flanders, where a fool performed music on the bells of Oudenaarde Town Hall in 1510 by using a baton keyboard, major figures in the evolution of the modern carillon were Pieter and François Hemony working in the 17th century. They are credited as being the greatest carillon bell founders in the history of the Low Countries, since each separate note is produced by an individual bell, a carillons musical range is determined by the number of bells it has. Different names are assigned to instruments based on the number of bells they comprise, players of these instruments often use music arranged specifically for their limited range of notes. A concert carillon has a range of at least four octaves and this is sometimes referred to as the standard-sized carillon.
The Riverside Carillon in New York City has the largest tuned bell in the world. Travelling or mobile carillons are not placed in a tower, some of them can even be played indoors—in a concert hall or church—like the mobile carillon of Frank Steijns. The World Carillon Federation defines a carillon as A musical instrument composed of tuned bronze bells which are played from a baton keyboard, only those carillons having at least 23 bells may be taken into consideration. The carillonneur or carillonist is the title of the musician who plays the carillon, the carillonneur/carillonist usually sits in a cabin beneath the bells and presses down, with a loosely closed fist, on a series of baton-like keys arranged in the same pattern as a piano keyboard. The batons are almost never played with the fingers as one does a piano, though this is sometimes used as a special carillon playing technique. The keys activate levers and wires that directly to the bells clappers, thus, as with a piano. In addition to the keys, the heavier bells are played with a pedal keyboard.
These notes can either be played with the hands or the feet, poorly tuned bells often give an out of tune impression and can be out of tune with themselves
The Waag is a 15th-century building on Nieuwmarkt square in Amsterdam. It was originally a city gate and part of the walls of Amsterdam, the building has served as a guildhall, fire station and anatomical theatre, among others. The Waag is the oldest remaining building in Amsterdam. The building has held rijksmonument status since 1970, the Waag is depicted in Rembrandts 1632 painting The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp. The surgeons guild commissioned this painting for their guildhall in the Waag, the building was one of the gates in the city wall, the Sint Antoniespoort. The gate was located at the end of the Zeedijk dike, after the Lastage area was added to the city in the 16th century, the Sint Antoniesdijk became the Sint Antoniesbreestraat and a new Sint Antoniespoort city gate was built near the Hortus Botanicus. The city gate was part of the city walls along the moat formed by the current Singel canal and the canals of the Kloveniersburgwal. These walls were constructed during the period 1481–1494 and consisted of defensive towers, all that remains of the walls is some sandstone in the Geldersekade canal wall.
The only remains of the city gates are the Waag and part of the Regulierspoort gate, the Schreierstoren is the only remaining defensive tower. The oldest gable stone in Amsterdam adorns the facade of the tower at the corner of Zeedijk and it carries the inscription MCCCCLXXXVIII de XXVIII dach in April wart deerste steen van dese poert gheleit. The year of construction 1488, as given on the stone and in many sources. There are clues that the gate may be of an older date. For instance, there are documents in the city archives of Amsterdam that pre-date 1488. De Graauw found that Saint Anthonys Gate was originally much smaller and this is evident from the remains of merlons halfway up the towers of the Guild of Saint Eligius and the schuttersgilde - the two big towers on either side of the main gate. Also, the front gate, which differs from the gate in several ways, was probably added to the main gate at a date. These kinds of additions were commonplace at that time, as a protection against the threat posed by canons.
In Haarlem, for example, a front gate was added to the Amsterdam Gate in 1482 which is similar to the front gate of Saint Anthonys Gate. Presumably the gable stone in Saint Anthonys Gate with the date 1488 refers simply to the addition of the front gate to the existing main gate
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League
History of Amsterdam
Amsterdam has a long and eventful history. Wooden locks under the bridge served as a dam protecting the village from the rising IJ waters, the oldest document referring to the settlement of Aemstelredamme dam in the river Amstel comes from a document dated October 27,1275 CE. Inhabitants of the village were, by document, exempted from paying a bridge toll in the County of Holland by Count Floris V. Excavations between 2005 and 2012 found evidence that the origins of Amsterdam are much older than only the twelfth century. During the construction of the Metro Noord-Zuid lijn archeologists discovered, some 30 meters below street level, pole-axes and this would mean Amsterdam or its predecessor would have seen human habitation since about 2600 BCE. This event was used by the Dutch poet Joost van den Vondel to write a historical play, the Gijsbrecht van Aemstel. A hundred years later, his descendent, Gijsbrecht van Aemstel VI, tried to claim his rights over the Amsterdam regions. A more important year in the history of Amsterdam was 1275 and this document, dated October 27,1275, is the oldest recorded usage of the name Aemstelredamme - Amsterdam.
This meant the inhabitants from the vicinity of Aemstelredamme acquired a right to travel freely through the County of Holland without having to pay tolls at bridges, after the murder of Count Floris V in 1296, Amstelland again belonged to the Sticht. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, in 1306, Gwijde van Henegouwen, bishop of Utrecht, gave Amsterdam city rights. After his death, Count Willem III inherited the Aemstelland, whereby Amsterdam fell under the County of Holland, in 1323, Willem III established a toll on the trade of beer from Hamburg. In 1342, Count Willem IV awarded the city Groot Privilege, during the 15th century, Amsterdam became the granary of the northern low countries and the most important trading city in Holland. According to legend, on 12 March 1345, the miracle of Amsterdam occurred, the town grew considerably thanks to the pilgrims. A Roman Catholic procession occurs every year to celebrate the miracle, two great fires swept through the city in 1421 and 1452.
After the second, when three quarters of the city were destroyed, Emperor Charles decreed that new houses were to be built from stone, few wooden buildings remain from this period, a notable example being the Houten Huis at the Begijnhof. The 16th century brought a rebellion by the Dutch against the Habsburg king Philip II of Spain, the uprising was mainly caused by the lack of political power for the local nobility and by the religious intolerance of the Spanish. Although Amsterdam began the war on the Spanish side, it changed sides with the Alteratie of 1578, the rebellion led to the Eighty Years War and Dutch independence. One of the results of the war was that Spanish religious intolerance gave way to Dutch tolerance, in Amsterdam people were free to believe what they wanted
Hendrick de Keyser
Hendrick de Keyser was a Dutch sculptor and architect born in Utrecht, who was instrumental in establishing a late Renaissance form of Mannerism in Amsterdam. He was the father of Thomas de Keyser who was an architect, as a young man the Utrecht-born artist Hendrick de Keyser was apprenticed to master Cornelis Bloemaert the elder. At the age of 26 he followed Bloemaert to Amsterdam, soon he set to work as an independent artist. When his talent became generally appreciated he was appointed city stonemason, in fact his duties included all of the tasks now associated with the job of city architect. De Keyser is famous for a number of important buildings which belong to the core of Dutch historic sites, today the Zuiderkerk and accompanying tower, the Delft Town Hall, the Westerkerk and Westertoren are among the historic buildings which provide important insights into De Keyser’s work. His Commodity Exchange of 1608-1613 was pulled down in the 19th century, Hendrick de Keysers projects in Amsterdam during the early decades of the 17th century helped establish a late Mannerist style referred to as Amsterdam Renaissance.
The Amsterdam Renaissance style deviates in many respects from sixteenth-century Italian Renaissance architecture, classical elements such as pilasters and frontons were used on a large scale, but mainly as decorative elements. De Keyser never slavishly followed the tenets of classical architecture as laid down in the Italian treatises. His version came to bloom at the end of the second decade of the 17th century. The East India House in Amsterdam was most likely designed by him. Apart from pursuing a career as an architect, De Keyser remained active as a sculptor and he designed the tomb of William the Silent for the Nieuwe Kerk at Delft. However, De Keyser did not live to see the finished product and he died in Amsterdam, and his son Pieter completed the project. In 1631, ten years after De Keyser’s death, Cornelis Danckertsz included the architect’s most important sketches in his book ’Architectura Moderna’, De Keysers career was not limited to Amsterdam, and his international contacts helped him to keep in touch with the mainstream of European architecture.
The Amsterdam city administrators sent him to England where he worked with Inigo Jones, Jones was the first English architect who went to Italy to learn all he could about classical architecture. He studied the famous treatises written by the Roman architect Vitruvius, the Banqueting House in London, designed for the Stuart monarchs, became the prototype of classical architecture in England. When De Keyser returned to Amsterdam one of Jones’ assistants, Nicholas Stone, Stone worked with De Keyser in Amsterdam from 1607 to 1613 and even became his son-in-law. De Keyser attention to England and English architecture reflect Amsterdams position as a centre in Europe. 1611, Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser, Amsterdam, 1614-1623, Praalgraf Willem van Oranje, Delft
Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities and even the countryside. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public, the goal of serving researchers is increasingly shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, the city with the largest number of museums is Mexico City with over 128 museums. According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries, the English museum comes from the Latin word, and is pluralized as museums. The first museum/library is considered to be the one of Plato in Athens, Pausanias gives another place called Museum, namely a small hill in Classical Athens opposite to the Akropolis. The hill was called Mouseion after Mousaious, a man who used to sing on the hill, the purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public.
The purpose can depend on ones point of view, to a family looking for entertainment on a Sunday afternoon, a trip to a local history museum or large city art museum could be a fun, and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the health of a city. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museums mission, Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithsons bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution for the increase, Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of classification of a field of knowledge for research. As American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students, while many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums.
While there is a debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museums collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect. Much care and expense is invested in efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artworks. All museums display objects that are important to a culture, as historian Steven Conn writes, To see the thing itself, with ones own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting. Museum purposes vary from institution to institution, some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects and they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia