De Bijenkorf is a chain of high-end department stores in the Netherlands with its flagship store on Dam Square, Amsterdam. It was founded by Simon Philip Goudsmit, De Bijenkorf is owned by the Weston family that owns Britains Selfridges, Canadas Holt Renfrew and Irelands Brown Thomas. De Bijenkorf was founded in 1870 by Simon Philip Goudsmit, starting as a haberdashery shop at 132 Nieuwendijk. Initially limited to yarn and ribbons and employing a staff of four, after the death of Goudsmit in 1889, Goudsmits widow expanded the business with the help of a cousin, Arthur Isaac, and her son Alfred, eventually buying adjacent buildings. In 1909, these shops were replaced by a new building. That same year, a building was erected on the site of the demolished Beurs van Zocher. In 1926, a store was constructed in The Hague. It was designed by architect Piet Kramer and stands as an example of Amsterdam School architecture, a third store opened in Rotterdam in 1930, designed by Willem Dudok. Some 700,000 people attended the ceremony, the store was heavily damaged in the Rotterdam Blitz of 1940.
The intact part of the store remained open for business until 1957, a new store was designed by Hungarian-American architect Marcel Breuer. As of 2014, de Bijenkorf has 7 stores nationwide, the oldest and largest branches, situated in Amsterdam, The Hague and Rotterdam have retail space ranging between 15,000 and 21,000 square meters. Smaller stores can be found in Amstelveen, Eindhoven and Maastricht, branches in Arnhem, Enschede and Den Bosch closed in late 2014/early 2015 as the parent group decided to focus up-market and online due the new premium service strategy. The Arnhem building was taken over by Primark, a move seen by many Arnhemers as drastically reducing the attractiveness of Arnhem as a shopping centre. During the occupation of Amsterdam by the Nazis, they did not want their soldiers shopping at De Bijenkorf due to it being a Jewish enterprise, during the 20th century, it was owned by the Maxeda group
Social ownership may refer to forms of public, collective, or cooperative ownership, to citizen ownership of equity, or to any combination of these. Although there are varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them. Socialist economic systems can be divided into both non-market and market forms, non-market socialism aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system. Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend, the feasibility and exact methods of resource allocation and calculation for a socialist system are the subjects of the socialist calculation debate. Core dichotomies associated with these concerns include reformism versus revolutionary socialism, the term is frequently used to draw contrast to the political system of the Soviet Union, which critics argue operated in an authoritarian fashion.
By the 1920s, social democracy and communism became the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement, by this time, Socialism emerged as the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century, worldwide. Socialist parties and ideas remain a force with varying degrees of power and influence in all continents. Today, some socialists have adopted the causes of social movements. The origin of the term socialism may be traced back and attributed to a number of originators, in addition to significant historical shifts in the usage, for Andrew Vincent, The word ‘socialism’ finds its root in the Latin sociare, which means to combine or to share. The related, more technical term in Roman and medieval law was societas and this latter word could mean companionship and fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen. The term socialism was created by Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the founders of what would be labelled utopian socialism.
Simon coined socialism as a contrast to the doctrine of individualism. They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism based on the ownership of resources. The term socialism is attributed to Pierre Leroux, and to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud in France, the term communism fell out of use during this period, despite earlier distinctions between socialism and communism from the 1840s. An early distinction between socialism and communism was that the former aimed to only socialise production while the latter aimed to socialise both production and consumption. However, by 1888 Marxists employed the term socialism in place of communism, the contemporary connotation of the words socialism and communism accorded with the adherents and opponents cultural attitude towards religion. In Christian Europe, of the two, communism was believed to be the atheist way of life, in Protestant England, the word communism was too culturally and aurally close to the Roman Catholic communion rite, hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists.
Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when the Communist Manifesto was published, socialism was respectable on the continent and this latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany
Gerrit Thomas Rietveld was a Dutch furniture designer and architect. One of the members of the Dutch artistic movement called De Stijl, Rietveld is famous for his Red and Blue Chair and for the Rietveld Schröder House. Rietveld was born in Utrecht in 1888 as the son of a joiner and he left school at 11 to be apprenticed to his father and enrolled at night school before working as a draughtsman for C. J. Begeer, a jeweller in Utrecht, from 1906 to 1911. By the time he opened his own workshop in 1917. He afterwards set up in business as a cabinet-maker, Rietveld designed his famous Red and Blue Chair in 1917. Hoping that much of his furniture would eventually be mass-produced rather than handcrafted, the contacts that he made at De Stijl gave him the opportunity to exhibit abroad as well. In 1923, Walter Gropius invited Rietveld to exhibit at the Bauhaus and he built, the Rietveld Schröder House, in 1924, in close collaboration with the owner Truus Schröder-Schräder. The design seems like a realization of a Mondrian painting.
The house has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000 and his involvement in the Schröder House exerted a strong influence on Truus daughter, Han Schröder, who became one of the first female architects in the Netherlands. Rietveld broke with De Stijl in 1928 and became associated with a more functionalist style of architecture, the same year he joined the Congrès Internationaux dArchitecture Moderne. From the late 1920s he was concerned with housing, inexpensive production methods, new materials. In 1927 he was experimenting with prefabricated concrete slabs, a very unusual material at that time. Rietveld designed the Zig-Zag Chair in 1934 and started the design of the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, in 1951 Rietveld designed a retrospective exhibition about De Stijl which was held in Amsterdam and New York. Interest in his work revived as a result, due to irreparable damages caused by regular decay, it was once again rebuilt, this time with new materials, in 2010. In order to all these projects, in 1961 Rietveld set up a partnership with the architects Johan van Dillen and J.
van Tricht built hundreds of homes. His work was neglected when rationalism came into vogue, but he benefited from a revival of the style of the 1920s thirty years later. Gerrit Rietvelds son Wim Rietveld became an industrial designer. Rietveld had his first retrospective exhibition devoted to his work at the Centraal Museum, Utrecht
Dutch East Indies
The Dutch East Indies was a Dutch colony. It was formed from the colonies of the Dutch East India Company. During the 19th century, Dutch possessions and hegemony were expanded and this colony was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empires rule, and contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in the 19th to early 20th century. The colonial social order was based on racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate from. The term Indonesia came into use for the location after 1880. In the early 20th century, local intellectuals began developing the concept of Indonesia as a nation state, Japans World War II occupation dismantled much of the Dutch colonial state and economy. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Indonesian nationalists declared independence which they fought to secure during the subsequent Indonesian National Revolution, the word Indies comes from Latin, Indus. The original name Dutch Indies was translated by the English as the Dutch East Indies, the name Dutch Indies is recorded in the Dutch East India Companys documents of the early 1620s.
Scholars writing in English use the terms Indië, the Dutch East Indies, the Netherlands Indies, centuries before Europeans arrived, the Indonesian archipelago supported various states, including commercially oriented coastal trading states and inland agrarian states. The first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese in the late 15th century, following disruption of Dutch access to spices in Europe, the first Dutch expedition set sail for the East Indies in 1595 to access spices directly from Asia. When it made a 400% profit on its return, other Dutch expeditions soon followed, recognising the potential of the East Indies trade, the Dutch government amalgamated the competing companies into the United East India Company. The VOC was granted a charter to wage war, build fortresses, a capital was established in Batavia, which became the centre of the VOCs Asian trading network. Smuggling, the expense of war and mismanagement led to bankruptcy by the end of the 18th century. The company was dissolved in 1800 and its colonial possessions in the Indonesian archipelago were nationalised under the Dutch Republic as the Dutch East Indies.
From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late 16th century, to the declaration of independence in 1945, although Java was dominated by the Dutch, many areas remained independent throughout much of this time, including Aceh, Bali and Borneo. Piracy remained a problem until the mid-19th century, finally in the early 20th century, imperial dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia. In 1811, British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java, Dutch control was restored in 1816. Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula, the resulting borders between British and Dutch possessions remain between Malaysia and Indonesia
Michel de Klerk
Michel de Klerk was a Dutch architect. Born to a Jewish family, he was one of the architects of the movement Amsterdam School. Early in his career he worked for architects, including Eduard Cuypers. For a while, he employed the Indonesian-born Liem Bwan Tjie. Of his many outstanding designs, very few have actually been built, one of his finest completed buildings is Het Schip in the Amsterdam district of Spaarndammerbuurt. The architectural contribution by Michel de Klerk is shown in this article, suzanne S. Frank, Michel de Klerk 1884-1923 - An Architect of the Amsterdam School, UMI Research Press, Ann Arbor Mich
New Objectivity (architecture)
The New Objectivity is a name often given to the Modern architecture that emerged in Europe, primarily German-speaking Europe, in the 1920s and 30s. It is frequently called Neues Bauen, the New Objectivity remodeled many German cities in this period. The earliest examples of the style actually date to before the First World War, many of the architects who would become associated with the New Objectivity were practicing in a similar manner in the 1910s, using glass surfaces and severe geometric compositions. Examples of this include Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyers 1911 Fagus Factory or Hans Poelzigs 1912 department store in Breslau, however, in the aftermath of the war these architects worked in the revolutionary Arbeitsrat für Kunst, pioneering Expressionist architecture—particularly through the secret Glass Chain group. The early works of the Bauhaus, such as the Sommerfeld House, were in this vein, expressionisms dynamism and use of glass would be a mainstay of the New Objectivity. Also steering German architects away from Expressionism was the influence of Constructivism, particularly of VKhUTEMAS and El Lissitzky, another element was the work in France of Le Corbusier, such as the proposals for the concrete Citrohan house.
However the fullest early exploration of a new, non-expressionist avant-garde idiom was in the 1923–24 Italienischer Garten in Celle by Otto Haesler, contrary to the white box idea popularised by the International Style, these were frequently painted in bright colors. The strongest proponent of color among the architects was Bruno Taut. The major expansion of this came with the appointment of Ernst May to the position of city architect, however their advanced techniques often alienated the building profession, much of whom were made superfluous by the lack of ornament and speed of construction. May would employ other architects in Frankfurt such as Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, the immediate effect of Mays work can be seen in Gropiuss 1926 Torten Estate in Dessau, which pioneered prefabrication technology. Further Werkbund Estate-exhibitions were mounted in Wrocław and Vienna in subsequent years, at the same time there was a massive expansion of the style across German cities. Tauts designs featured controversially modern flat roofs, humane access to sun and gardens, and generous amenities like gas, electric light, critics on the political Right complained that these developments were too opulent for simple people.
The progressive Berlin mayor Gustav Böss defended them, We want to bring the levels of society higher. The term Functionalism began to be used to denote the rather severe, nothing superfluous ethos of the New Objectivity, in 1928 the CIAM had formed, and its earliest conferences, dedicated to questions of Existenzminimum were dominated by the social programmes of German architects. A leftist, technologically oriented wing of the movement had formed in Switzerland and the Netherlands and it was made up of collaborators of El Lissitzky such as Mart Stam and Hannes Meyer, whose greatest work was the glassy expanse of the Van Nelle Factory in Rotterdam. The Great Depression, beginning in 1929, had an effect on the New Building. But the political mood turned uglier through that time, with open hostile press, many prominent German modernists went to the Soviet Union. Russia had colossal plans for cities of worker housing
Jan Duiker was a Dutch architect. Partnership with Bernard Bijvoet from 1919 until 1925, for the commission of the Zonnestraal project the architects were recommended by Hendrik Berlage. Bijvoet left the Netherlands in 1925 to work in Paris with Pierre Chareau for projects such as Maison de Verre et al, Jan Duiker is one of the most important representatives of the Constructivist movement. He is buried at Zorgvlied cemetery, town houses in The Hague, J. v. Oldenbarneveldtlaan, Jacob Catslaan, Ieplaan, Thomsonplein etc. Meer en Bosch, residential area with villas in The Hague-Kijkduin, residential building in The Hague. Openluchtschool, open air school in Amsterdam-South, derde Ambachtschool, third technical school in The Hague-Scheveningen. Winter, department store in Amsterdam, gooiland and theatre in Hilversum, finished by Bernard Bijvoet in 1936. Jan Molema, Jan Duiker and projects, preface by Kenneth Frampton, Barcelona 1991
Eduard Cuypers was a Dutch architect. He worked in Amsterdam and the Dutch East Indies, Cuypers was trained in the architectural practice of his uncle P. J. H. Cuypers and in 1881 set up his own office in Amsterdam and his good contacts with businessmen earned him commissions for offices and houses. In spite of his training by his uncle, the major architect of neo-Gothic, his work was closely related to Neo-renaissance. Although he designed churches, unlike his uncle and his cousin Joseph Cuypers. Instead, he designed a few railway stations, which were mostly built in the north of the country, several hospitals. Cuypers and his employees designed pieces of furniture and other objects for interiors, in 1905 Cuypers published Het Huis, Oud & Nieuw, a magazine for interior design that was published until he died in 1927. He was buried at Zorgvlied cemetery, the office of Eduard Cuypers is considered as the origin of the Amsterdam School because the leaders of this style, Michel de Klerk, Johan van der Mey and Piet Kramer, were all trained there.
Berend Tobia Boeyinga, one of the most important followers of the Amsterdam school, after Cuypers died in 1927, his office was continued by others. The current name is A/D Amstel Architects, Cuypers opened an agency in the Dutch East Indies to work on major projects such as the headquarters and branch office of De Javasche Bank in Indonesia. With Marius J. Hulswit, Cuypers opened the largest architectural agency in the East Indies, called Hulswit-Fermont and Cuypers, Javasche Bank, Jakarta Javasche Bank, Medan
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands, and the capital city of the province of South Holland. With a population of 520,704 inhabitants and more than one million including the suburbs, it is the third-largest city of the Netherlands. The Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation. The Hague is the seat of the Dutch government, the Supreme Court, and the Council of State, but the city is not the capital of the Netherlands, which constitutionally is Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands plans to live at Huis ten Bosch and works at Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and numerous other major Dutch companies. The Hague originated around 1230, when Count Floris IV of Holland purchased land alongside a pond, in 1248, his son and successor William II, King of the Romans, decided to extend the residence to a palace, which would be called the Binnenhof.
He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished by his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal and it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onwards, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative centre, the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Haga in a charter dating from 1242. In the 15th century, the smarter des Graven hage came into use, literally The Counts Wood, with connotations like The Counts Hedge, s-Gravenhage was officially used for the city from the 17th century onwards. Today, this name is used in some official documents like birth. The city itself uses Den Haag in all its communication and their seat was located in The Hague. At the beginning of the Eighty Years War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, in 1575, the States of Holland even considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William of Orange.
From 1588, The Hague became the seat of the government of the Dutch Republic, in order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges normally granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, city rights have no place anymore, only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France, as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, when the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague quickly expanded. The growing city annexed the rural municipality of Loosduinen partly in 1903, the city sustained heavy damage during World War II
Constructivist architecture was a form of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s. It combined advanced technology and engineering with an avowedly Communist social purpose, although it was divided into several competing factions, the movement produced many pioneering projects and finished buildings, before falling out of favour around 1932. It has left marked effects on developments in architecture, Constructivist architecture emerged from the wider constructivist art movement, which grew out of Russian Futurism. Constructivist art had attempted to apply a three-dimensional cubist vision to wholly abstract non-objective constructions with a kinetic element, after the Russian Revolution of 1917 it turned its attentions to the new social demands and industrial tasks required of the new regime. A split occurred in 1922 when Pevsner and Gabo emigrated, the movement developed along socially utilitarian lines. The productivist majority gained the support of the Proletkult and the magazine LEF, though it remained unbuilt, the materials—glass and steel—and its futuristic ethos and political slant set the tone for the projects of the 1920s.
Another famous early Constructivist project was the Lenin Tribune by El Lissitzky, immediately after the Russian Civil War, the USSR was too impoverished to commission any major new building projects. Nonetheless, the Soviet avant-garde school Vkhutemas started an architectural wing in 1921, which was led by the architect Nikolai Ladovsky, the teaching methods were both functional and fantastic, reflecting an interest in gestalt psychology, leading to daring experiments with form such as Simbirchevs glass-clad suspended restaurant. Among the architects affiliated to the ASNOVA were El Lissitzky, Konstantin Melnikov, Vladimir Krinsky, projects from 1923 to 1935 like Lissitzky and Mart Stam’s Wolkenbügel horizontal skyscrapers and Konstantin Melnikov’s temporary pavilions showed the originality and ambition of this new group. Melnikov would design the Soviet Pavilion at the Paris Exposition of Decorative Arts of 1925, modern offices for the mass press were popular, such as the Izvestia headquarters.
In 1925 the OSA Group, ties to Vkhutemas, was founded by Alexander Vesnin. This group had much in common with Weimar Germanys Functionalism, such as the projects of Ernst May. Housing, especially collective housing in specially designed dom kommuny to replace the collectivised 19th century housing that was the norm, was the priority of this group. The term social condenser was coined to describe their aims, which followed from the ideas of V. I, collective housing projects that were built included Ivan Nikolaevs Communal House of the Textile Institute, and Ginzburgs Moscow Gosstrakh flats and, most famously, his Narkomfin Building. Flats were built in a Constructivist idiom in Kharkiv and Leningrad, ginzburg designed a government building in Alma-Ata, while the Vesnin brothers designed a School of Film Actors in Moscow. OSA published a magazine, SA or Contemporary Architecture from 1926 to 1930, the leading rationalist Ladovsky designed his own, rather different kind of mass housing, completing a Moscow apartment block in 1929.
The new forms of the Constructivists began to symbolise the project for a new life of the Soviet Union. Other notable works included the aluminum parabola and glazed staircase of Mikhail Barsch, the popularity of the new aesthetic led to traditionalist architects adopting Constructivism, as in Ivan Zholtovskys 1926 MOGES power station or Alexey Shchusevs Narkomzem offices, both in Moscow
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over 260 million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia consists of hundreds of native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese, a shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it.
Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, articulates the diversity that shapes the country, Indonesias economy is the worlds 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP, the largest in Southeast Asia, and is considered an emerging market and newly industrialised country. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, Indonesia is a member of the G20 major economies and World Trade Organization. The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós, the name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, in the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia, they preferred Malay Archipelago, the Netherlands East Indies, popularly Indië, the East, and Insulinde