The Dir is a major Somali clan. Its members inhabit Djibouti, northwestern Somalia and northeastern Kenya; the Dir clan is one of the oldest clans in the oldest clan among the Somalis. The Dir clan according to scholars is reported to have sired the Afar people of the North West and the Ajuran; the Dir clan is clan who have retained their ancient Cushitic culture. The history of Islam being practiced by the Dir clan goes back 1400 years. In Zeila, a Dir city, a mosque called Masjid al-Qiblatayn is known as the site of where early companions of the Prophet established a mosque shortly after the first Migration to Abyssinia By the 7th century, a large-scale conversion to Islam was taking place in Somalia, first spread by the Dir clan family, to the rest of the nation; the early Adal Kingdom was an exclusive Dir Kingdom with its capital being Zeila. In the 10th century, the Jarso clan a sub-division of Dir established the Dawaro Sultanate centred in Hararghe Highlands. Dir is one of the oldest clans in the Horn of Africa.
According to the Muslim chronicles, two of the oldest monarchies in the northern region, the Ifat and Adal sultanates, were led by Dir. The Dir-Madaxweyne Akisho, along with the Gurgura and Gadabuursi subclans of the Dir represent the most native and indigenous Somali tribes in Harar; the city Dire Dawa was called Dir Dhabe and used to be part of Adal Sultanate during the medieval times and was settled by Dir, a major Somali tribe and after the weakening of Adal Sultanate, the Oromos took advantage and were able to penetrate through the city and settle into these areas and assimilate some of the local Gurgura clan. The Dir clan used to be the predominant inhabitants of Hararghe Highlands in the medieval times until the weakening of Adal Sultanate the opportunist Oromos took advantage of the crippling state and decided to invade and occupy the Haraghe Highlands and assimilate the local native Somali population which were Jarso, Gurgura, Metta and Bursuk who were all sub-clans of Dir a major Somali tribe and were confederated into Oromo tribe, the Afran Qallo clan.
The Somalis, principally the Dir clan used to inhabit the Awash River. The Afars were concentrated in the Red Sea and the Lake Abbe while Somalis during the medieval times inhabited Awash river, back called "Webiga Dir" named after its tribe. After the weakening of Adal Sultanate, the Somalis left Awash river and allowed Afars to settle in Awash river to serve as a buffer zone between the Somalis and Abyssinians; the Dir were supporters of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi during his 16th century conquest of Abyssinia. In his medieval Futuh Al-Habash documenting this campaign, the chronicler Shihāb al-Dīn indicates that thousands of Dir soldiers took part in Imam Ahmad's Adal Sultanate army; the Dir clan led a revolt against the Italians during the colonial period. This revolt was led by the Biimaal section of the Dir; the Biimaal clan is known for leading a resistance against the colonials in southern Somalia. The Biimaal violently resisted the imposition of colonialism and fought against the Italian colonialists of Italian Somaliland in a twenty-year war known as the Biimaal revolt in which many of their warriors assassinated several Italian governors.
This revolt can be compared to the war of the Mad Mullah in northern Somalia. The Biimaal lives in Southern Somalia, the Somali region of Ethiopia, which their Gaadsen sub-clan inhabits and in the NEP region of Kenya; the Biimaal are pastoralists. They were successful merchants and traders in the 19th century. In the 19th century they have engaged in multiple wars with the Geledi clan, which they were victorious in. I. M. Lewis and many sources maintain that the Dir together with the Hawiye trace ancestry through Irir son of Samaale. Dir is regarded as the father-in-law of Darod, the progenitor of the Darod clan Although some sources state it was the daughter of Hawiye who Darod married. Dir clan lineages: Madahweyne Dir - Akisho, Barsuug Madaluug Dir - Gadabuursi Madoobe Dir - Issa Meha Dir - Biimaal, Surre,Quranyow-GarreAccording to others, Dir had a fifth son, Qaldho Dir. DNA analysis of Dir clan members inhabiting Djibouti found that all of the individuals belonged to the Y-DNA T1 paternal haplogroup.
The main sub-clans of the Dir today are the Four main 1. Mahe 2. Madaluug 3. Madoode 4. Madahweyne Akisho "Akisho" Issa "Essa" Bimaal "Bimal" Gadabuursi "Gadabursi" Jaarso "Jaarso" Surre Quranyow of the Garre Gurgura "Gurgure" Garrire "Gerire" Gurre "Goora" Bajimal "Bajumal" Barsuug "Bursuk"For the first time since several centuries the DIR clan which dispersed in the Horn of Africa has convened a meeting with all the major Dir subclans in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Suldaan Dhawal, of the Habr'Affan Gadabuursi was elected the head and representative of the Dir clan in the Horn of Africa region. Political groups associated with the Dir clans include the following groups in Somalia and Ethiopia: Front for the Liberation of the Somali Coast Democratic Union Issa Gurgura Liberation Front led by Abdelasis Ahmed Western Somali Liberation Front, led by Abdi Ismail and representing the Gadabursi. United Somali Front, USF, representing the Issa in Somalia. Horyal Democratic Front, representing the Gadabursi in Ethiopia Issa and Gurgura Liberation Front of Ethiopia.
Somali Democratic Alliance, SDA, representing the Gadabursi in Somalia. Southern Somali National Movement of the M
Somali are an ethnic group belonging to the Cushitic peoples inhabiting the Horn of Africa. The overwhelming majority of Somalis speak the Somali language, part of the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic family, they are predominantly Sunni Muslim. Ethnic Somalis number around 28-30 million and are principally concentrated in Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti. Somali diasporas are found in parts of the Middle East, African Great Lakes region, Southern Africa, North America and Western Europe. Samaale, the oldest common ancestor of several Somali clans, is regarded as the source of the ethnonym Somali; the name "Somali" is, in turn, held to be derived from the words soo and maal, which together mean "go and milk" — a reference to the ubiquitous pastoralism of the Somali people. Another plausible etymology proposes that the term Somali is derived from the Arabic for "wealthy", again referring to Somali riches in livestock. Alternatively, the ethnonym Somali is believed to have been derived from the Automoli, a group of warriors from ancient Egypt described by Herodotus, who were of Meshwesh origin according to Flinders Petrie.
Asmach is thought to have been their Egyptian name, with Automoli being a Greek derivative of the Hebrew word Semoli. An Ancient Chinese document from the 9th century CE referred to the northern Somalia coast —, part of a broader region in Northeast Africa known as Barbara, in reference to the area's Berber inhabitants — as Po-pa-li; the first clear written reference of the sobriquet Somali, dates back to the 15th century. During the conflict between the Sultanate of Ifat based at Zeila and the Solomonic Dynasty, the Abyssinian emperor had one of his court officials compose a hymn celebrating a military victory over the Sultan of Ifat's eponymous troops. Simur was an ancient Harari alias for the Somali people. Somalis overwhelmingly prefer the demonym Somali over the incorrect Somalian since the former is an endonym, while the latter is an exonym with double suffixes; the hypernym of the term Somali from a geopolitical sense is Horner and from a ethnic sense, it is Cushite. Ancient rock paintings, which date back 5000 years, have been found in the Northern Somalia.
These engravings depict early life in the territory. The most famous of these is the Laas Geel complex, it contains some of the earliest known rock art on the African continent and features many elaborate pastoralist sketches of animal and human figures. In other places, such as the northwestern Dhambalin region, a depiction of a man on a horse is postulated as being one of the earliest known examples of a mounted huntsman. Inscriptions have been found beneath many of the rock paintings, but archaeologists have so far been unable to decipher this form of ancient writing. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here with their respective industries and factories; the oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to 4th millennium BC. The stone implements from the Jalelo site in northern Somalia are said to be the most important link in evidence of the universality in palaeolithic times between the East and the West.
In antiquity, the ancestors of the Somali people were an important link in the Horn of Africa connecting the region's commerce with the rest of the ancient world. Somali sailors and merchants were the main suppliers of frankincense and spices, items which were considered valuable luxuries by the Ancient Egyptians, Phoenicians and Babylonians. According to most scholars, the ancient Land of Punt and its native inhabitants formed part of the ethnogenesis of the Somali people; the ancient Puntites were a nation of people that had close relations with Pharaonic Egypt during the times of Pharaoh Sahure and Queen Hatshepsut. The pyramidal structures and ancient houses of dressed stone littered around Somalia are said to date from this period. In the classical era, the Macrobians, who may have been ancestral to the Automoli or ancient Somalis, established a powerful tribal kingdom that ruled large parts of modern Somalia, they were reputed for their longevity and wealth, were said to be the "tallest and handsomest of all men".
The Macrobians were warrior seafarers. According to Herodotus' account, the Persian Emperor Cambyses II, upon his conquest of Egypt, sent ambassadors to Macrobia, bringing luxury gifts for the Macrobian king to entice his submission; the Macrobian ruler, elected based on his stature and beauty, replied instead with a challenge for his Persian counterpart in the form of an unstrung bow: if the Persians could manage to draw it, they would have the right to invade his country. The Macrobians were a regional power reputed for their advanced architecture and gold wealth, so plentiful that they shackled their prisoners in golden chains. After the collapse of Macrobia, several ancient city-states, such as Opone, Sarapion, Malao and Mosylon near Cape Guardafui, which competed with the Sabaeans and Axumites for the wealthy Indo-Greco-Roman trade flourished in Somalia; the birth of Islam on the opposite side of Somalia's Red Sea coast meant that Somali merchants and expatriates living in the Arabian Peninsula came under the influence of the new religion through their converted Arab Muslim trading partners.
With the migration of fleeing Muslim families from the Islamic world to Somalia in the early centuries of Islam, the peaceful conv
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal, was a Muslim Somali kingdom and sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat; the kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Zeila. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region east of the Ethiopian Empire; the Adal Empire maintained a robust political relationship with the Ottoman Empire. Adal is believed to be an abbreviation of Havilah. Eidal or Aw Abdal, was the Emir of Harar in the eleventh century. In the thirteenth century, Arab writer Al Dimashqi refers to the Adal Sultanate's capital, Zeila, by its Somali name "Awdal"; the modern Awdal region, part of the Adal Sultanate, bears the kingdom's name. The Kingdom of Adal was centered around its capital, it was established by the local Somali tribes in the early 9th century. Zeila attracted merchants from around the world. Zeila is an ancient city and it was one of the earliest cities in the world to embrace Islam.
In the late 9th century, Al-Yaqubi, an Armenian Muslim scholar and traveller, wrote that the Kingdom of Adal was a small wealthy kingdom and that Zeila served as the headquarters for the kingdom, which dated back to the beginning of the century. Islam was introduced to the Horn region early on from the Arabian peninsula, shortly after the hijra. Zeila's two-mihrab Masjid al-Qiblatayn dates to about the 7th century, is the oldest mosque in Africa. In the late 9th century, Al-Yaqubi wrote that Muslims were living along the northern Somali seaboard; the polity was governed by local Somali dynasties established by the Adelites. Adal's history from this founding period forth would be characterized by a succession of battles with neighbouring Abyssinia. Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn was born in Zeila during the Adal Kingdom period. Al-Kawneyn is a Somali Muslim saint, he is believed to be the founder and ancestor of the royal family known as the Walashma Dynasty, which governed both the Ifat Sultanate and the Adal Sultanate during the Middle Ages.
According to the 16th-century explorer Leo Africanus, the Adal Sultanate's realm encompassed the geographical area between the Bab el Mandeb and Cape Guardafui. It was therefore flanked to the west by the Abyssinian Empire. Adal is mentioned by name in the 14th century in the context of the battles between the Muslims of the Somali and Afar seaboard and the Abyssinian King Amda Seyon I's Christian troops. Adal had its capital in the port city of Zeila, situated in the northwestern Awdal region; the polity at the time was an Emirate in the larger Ifat Sultanate ruled by the Walashma dynasty. In 1332, the King of Adal was slain in a military campaign aimed at halting Amda Seyon's march toward Zeila; when the last Sultan of Ifat, Sa'ad ad-Din II, was killed by Dawit I of Ethiopia at the port city of Zeila in 1410, his children escaped to Yemen, before returning in 1415. In the early 15th century, Adal's capital was moved further inland to the town of Dakkar, where Sabr ad-Din II, the eldest son of Sa'ad ad-Din II, established a new Adal administration after his return from Yemen.
During this period, Adal emerged as a center of Muslim resistance against the expanding Christian Abyssinian kingdom. Adal would thereafter govern all of the territory ruled by the Ifat Sultanate, as well as the land further east all the way to Cape Guardafui, according to Leo Africanus. After 1468, a new breed of rulers emerged on the Adal political scene; the dissidents opposed Walashma rule owing to a treaty that Sultan Muhammad ibn Badlay had signed with Emperor Baeda Maryam of Ethiopia, wherein Badlay agreed to submit yearly tribute. This was done to achieve peace in the region. Adal's Emirs, who administered the provinces, interpreted the agreement as a betrayal of their independence and a retreat from the polity's longstanding policy of resistance to Abyssinian incursions; the main leader of this opposition was the Emir of the Sultanate's richest province. As such, he was expected to pay the highest share of the annual tribute to be given to the Abyssinian Emperor. Emir Laday Usman subsequently marched to Dakkar and seized power in 1471.
However, Usman did not dismiss the Sultan from office, but instead gave him a ceremonial position while retaining the real power for himself. Adal now came under the leadership of a powerful Emir who governed from the palace of a nominal Sultan. Adalite armies under the leadership of rulers such as Sabr ad-Din II, Mansur ad-Din, Jamal ad-Din II, Shams ad-Din and general Mahfuz subsequently continued the struggle against Abyssinian expansionism. Emir Mahfuz, who would fight with successive emperors, caused the death of Emperor Na'od in 1508, but he was in turn killed by the forces of Emperor Dawit II in 1517. After the death of Mahfuz, a civil war started for the office of Highest Emir of Adal. Five Emirs came to power in only two years, but at last, a matured and powerful leader called. When Garad Abogne was in power he was defeated and killed by Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad, In 1554, under his initiative, Harar became the capital of Adal; this time not only the young Emirs revolted, but the whole country of Adal rose against Sultan Abu Bakr, because Garad Abogne was loved by the people of the sultanate.
Many people went to join the force of a young imam called Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, who claimed revenge for Garad Abogne. Al-Ghazi assumed power in Adal in 1527, however he did no
Somali aristocratic and court titles
This is a list of Somali aristocratic and court titles that were used by the Somali people's various sultanates and empires. Included are the honorifics reserved for Islamic notables as well as traditional leaders and officials within the Somali customary law, in addition to the nobiliary particles set aside for distinguished individuals. Below is a list of the royal court titles retained by the Somali monarchies and aristocracies. Suldaan: From the Arabic for Sultan or English "Chief". Common title for rulers in the pre-colonial and colonial periods. Famous Sultans include Fakr ad-Din, the first Sultan of the Sultanate of Mogadishu, who built the 13th-century Fakr ad-Din Mosque; the title was employed by the leaders of the influential Ajuran Sultanate, the House of Garen. Ughaz: Authentic Somali term for "Sultan". Used throughout the northern and western Somali territories; the Gadabuursi in particular is the only clan with a longstanding tradition of Sultan. The Gadabursi gave their sultan the title of "Ughaz".
Boqor: Literally denotes King. However, in practice, it is the primus inter pares or "King of Kings"; the title is etymologically derived from one of the Afro-Asiatic Somali language terms for "belt", in recognition of the official's unifying role within society. According to Kobishchanow, Boqor is related to the style Paqar, employed by rulers in the early Nile Valley state of Meroe. Various Somali honorifics and designations have Boqor as their root; the latter include Boqortooyo, signifying "monarchy", "kingdom" or "empire". The title was used by rulers in the northeastern Puntland region of Somalia; the most prominent Boqor in recent times was Osman Mahamuud, who governed the Majeerteen Sultanate during its 19th-century heyday. Used among the Gadabuursi as the law of the King and the 100 men'. Gerad/Garad: Often employed interchangeably with "Suldaan" to denote a Sultan. Etymologically signifies "wisdom", "mind" or "understanding". According to Basset, the title corresponds with the honorific Al-Jaraad, used during the Middle Ages by Muslim governors in the Islamic parts of Ethiopia.
Gerad was employed throughout northern Somalia. Notable Gerads include Gerad Dhidhin, the founder of the Warsangali Sultanate, Gerad Lado, who built the sturdy wall around the ancient northern port city of Zeila. Imam: Denotes the Head of State. Style was used by rulers in the Sultanate of Adal and the Ajuran Sultanate. Notable Imams include Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi known as Ahmed Gurey or Gran, who led a military campaign during the Middle Ages known as the Conquest of Abyssinia. Emir: Used by leaders in the Adal Sultanate. Employed by commanders in the Ajuran Sultanate's armed forces and navy. Prominent Emirs include the Emir of Harar who built the great wall around the city. Amir: Prince. Honorific set aside for the hereditary son of the Sultan. Notable Princes include Ali Yusuf Kenadid, the son and heir of Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid of the Sultanate of Hobyo. Ina Boqor: Alternate court style for the Prince. A term used by Ajuran Empire and a powerful Ajuran princess called Faduma Sarjelle Wazir: Minister and/or tax and revenue collector.
Title used in the northern Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo, as well as the southern Ajuran Sultanate. Wazirs were quite common at the royal court of the medieval Sultanate of Mogadishu; when the Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta visited Mogadishu in 1331, he indicated that the city was ruled by a Somali Sultan from the northern Barbara region, who had a retinue of wazirs, legal experts, royal eunuchs, other officials at his service. Other notable wazirs include the maternal grandfather of the Somali General Abdullahi Ahmed Irro, part of the Sultanate of Hobyo's aristocratic contingent in the southern town of Kismayo. Boqortiishe: Viceroy. Style reserved for court officials governing territory on behalf of their Kingdom was used by Ajuran Empire that established many colonies and a famous ruler was Abd al-Aziz of Mogadishu who ruled Maldive islands on behalf of Ajuran Empire Wakiil-Boqor: Alternate court title designating a Viceroy. Na'ib/Naïb: Deputy or representative of the Sultan.
Duties included the administration of tribute, collected by court soldiers. Style was used in the Ajuran Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo. Qadi: Denotes a Chief Judge. Common title in northern Somalia, but used in the southern Ajuran Sultanate. Prominent Qadis include Abd al Aziz al-Amawi, an influential 19th-century diplomat, poet and scholar, appointed Qadi of the Kilwa Sultanate at the age of 18 by Muscat and Oman's Sultan Said bin Sultan. Boqorad: Literally translates as "Queen". Title reserved for the queen consort of the King. Amirad: Princess. Honorific set aside for the h
A temple is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. It is used for such buildings belonging to all faiths where a more specific term such as church, mosque or synagogue is not used in English; these include Hinduism and Jainism among religions with many modern followers, as well as other ancient religions such as Ancient Egyptian religion. The form and function of temples is thus variable, though they are considered by believers to be in some sense the "house" of one or more deities. Offerings of some sort are made to the deity, other rituals enacted, a special group of clergy maintain, operate the temple; the degree to which the whole population of believers can access the building varies significantly. Temples have a main building and a larger precinct, which may contain many other buildings, or may be a dome shaped structure, much like an igloo; the word comes from Ancient Rome, where a templum constituted a sacred precinct as defined by a priest, or augur.
It has the same root as the word "template", a plan in preparation of the building, marked out on the ground by the augur. Templa became associated with the dwelling places of a god or gods. Despite the specific set of meanings associated with the word, it has now become used to describe a house of worship for any number of religions and is used for time periods prior to the Romans; the temple-building tradition of Mesopotamia derived from the cults of gods and deities in the Mesopotamian religion. It spanned several civilizations; the most common temple architecture of Mesopotamia is the structure of sun-baked bricks called a Ziggurat, having the form of a terraced step pyramid with a flat upper terrace where the shrine or temple stood. Ancient Egyptian temples were meant as places for the deities to reside on earth. Indeed, the term the Egyptians most used to describe the temple building, ḥwt-nṯr, means "mansion of a god". A god's presence in the temple linked the human and divine realms and allowed humans to interact with the god through ritual.
These rituals, it was believed, sustained the god and allowed it to continue to play its proper role in nature. They were therefore a key part of the maintenance of maat, the ideal order of nature and of human society in Egyptian belief. Maintaining maat was the entire purpose of Egyptian religion, thus it was the purpose of a temple as well. Ancient Egyptian temples were of economic significance to Egyptian society; the temples stored and redistributed grain and came to own large portions of the nation's arable land. In addition, many of these Egyptian temples utilized the Tripartite Floor Plan in order to draw visitors to the center room. Though today we call most Greek religious buildings "temples," the ancient Greeks would have referred to a temenos, or sacred precinct, its sacredness connected with a holy grove, was more important than the building itself, as it contained the open air altar on which the sacrifices were made. The building which housed the cult statue in its naos was a rather simple structure, but by the middle of the 6th century BCE had become elaborate.
Greek temple architecture had a profound influence on ancient architectural traditions. The rituals that located and sited Roman temples were performed by an augur through the observation of the flight of birds or other natural phenomenon. Roman temples faced east or toward the rising sun, but the specifics of the orientation are not known today. In ancient Rome only the native deities of Roman mythology had a templum; the Romans referred to a holy place of a pagan religion as fanum. Medieval Latin writers sometimes used the word templum reserved for temples of the ancient Roman religion. In some cases it is hard to determine whether a temple was an outdoor shrine. For temple buildings of the Vikings, the Old Norse term hof is used. A Zoroastrian temple may be called a Dar-e-mehr and a Atashkadeh. A fire temple in Zoroastrianism is the place of worship for Zoroastrians. Zoroastrians revere fire in any form, their temples contains an eternal flame, with Atash Behram as the highest grade of all, as it combines 16 different types of fire gathered in elaborate rituals.
In the Zoroastrian religion, together with clean water, are agents of ritual purity. Clean, white "ash for the purification ceremonies is regarded as the basis of ritual life," which, "are the rites proper to the tending of a domestic fire, for the temple fire is that of the hearth fire raised to a new solemnity". Hindu temples are known by many different names, varying on region and language, including Alayam, Mandira, Gudi, Koil, Kovil, Déul, Devasthana, Deva Mandiraya and Devalaya. A Hindu temple is the seat and dwelling of Hindu gods, it is a structure designed to bring human gods together according to Hindu faith. Inside its Garbhagriha innermost sanctum, a Hindu temple contains a Hindu god's image. Hindu temples are magnificent with a rich history. There is evidence of use of sacred ground as far back as the Bronze Age and during the Indus Valley Civilization. Outside of the Indian subcontinent (India