The Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station is a United States scientific research station at the South Pole, the southernmost place on the Earth. The station is located on the high plateau of Antarctica at an elevation of 2,835 metres above sea level and is administered by the Division of Polar Programs within the National Science Foundation under the United States Antarctic Program, it is named in honor of Norwegian Roald Amundsen and Englishman Robert F. Scott, who led separate teams that raced to become the first to the South Pole in the early 1900s; the original Amundsen–Scott Station was built by Navy Seabees for the Federal government of the United States during November 1956, as a part of its commitment to the scientific goals of the International Geophysical Year, an international effort lasting from January 1957 through June 1958, to study, among other things, the geophysics of the polar regions of Earth. Before November 1956, there was no permanent human structure at the South Pole, no human presence in the interior of Antarctica at all.
The few scientific stations in Antarctica were located near its seacoast. The station has been continuously occupied since it was built and has been rebuilt, demolished and upgraded several times since 1956. Since the Amundsen–Scott Station is located at the South Pole, it is at the only inhabited place on the land surface of the Earth from which the Sun is continuously visible for six months and is continuously dark for the next six months. Thus, during each year, this station experiences one long "day" and one long "night". During the six-month "day", the angle of elevation of the Sun above the horizon varies continuously; the Sun rises on the September equinox, reaches its maximum angle above the horizon on the southern summer solstice, sets on the March equinox. During this six-month "night", air temperatures can drop below −73 °C; this is the time of the year when blizzards with gale-force winds, strike the Amundsen–Scott Station. Despite these blizzards, the continuous period of darkness and dry atmosphere make the station an excellent place from which to make astronomical observations.
The number of scientific researchers and members of the support staff housed at the Amundsen–Scott Station has always varied seasonally, with a peak population of around 200 in the summer operational season from October to February. In recent years the winter-time population has been around 50 people; the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Scientific Station is the southernmost habitation on Earth. It is continuously inhabited, its name honors Roald Amundsen, whose Norwegian expedition reached the Geographic South Pole in December 1911, Robert F. Scott, whose British expedition of five men reached the South Pole about one month in a race to become the first person to reach the South Pole. All of Scott's expedition perished during the journey back towards the coast, while all of Amundsen's expedition returned safely to their base on the seacoast of the continent; the original Amundsen–Scott Scientific Station was constructed during November 1956 to carry out part of the International Geophysical Year of scientific observations during 1957 through 1958, the station has been continuously occupied since then.
As of 2005, this station lies within 100 meters of the Geographic South Pole. Because this station is located on a moving glacier, this station is, as of 2005, being carried towards the South Pole at a rate of about 10 meters per year. Although the federal government of the United States has continuously maintained an installation at the South Pole since 1957, the central berthing and communications units were constructed and relocated several times; each of the installations containing these central units has been named the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station. Snow accumulation is about 60–80 millimetres per year; the station stands at an elevation of 2,835 meters above sea level on the interior of Antarctica's nearly featureless ice sheet, about 2,700 meters thick at that location. The recorded temperature has varied between −12.3 °C and −82.8 °C, with an annual mean of −49 °C. The average wind speed is 5.5 metres per second. The original South Pole station is now referred to as "Old Pole"; the station was constructed by U.
S Navy Seabees led by LTJG Richard Bowers, the 8-man Advance Party being transported by the VX-6 Air Squadron in 2 R4Ds on 20 Nov. 1956. The U. S. Eighteenth Air Force's C-124 Globemaster IIs airdropped most of the building material; the buildings were constructed from prefabricated 4x8 foot modular panels. Exterior surfaces were four inches thick, with an aluminum interior surface, a plywood exterior surface, sandwiching fiberglass. Skylights were the only windows in flat uniform roof levels, while buildings were connected by a burlap and chicken wire covered tunnel system; the last of the construction crew departed on 4 Jan. 1957. The first wintering-over party consisted of 8 IGY scientists led by Paul Siple and 8 Navy support men led by LTJG John Tuck. Key components of the camp included an astronomical observatory, a Rawin Tower, weather balloon inflation shelter, a 1000 foot snow tunnel with pits for a seismometer and magnetometer; the lowest average temperatures recorded by the group were in the -90s F. though as Siple points out, "even at -60° I had seen men spitting blood because the capillaries of the bronchial tract frosted."On January 3, 1958, Sir Edmund Hillary's team from New Zeal
Jonas Malheiro Savimbi was an anti-communist and anti-colonialist Angolan political and military leader who founded and led the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola. UNITA first waged a guerrilla war against Portuguese colonial rule, 1966–1974 confronted the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola during the Angolan Civil War until Savimbi's death in a clash with government troops in 2002. Savimbi was born in Munhango, Bié Province, a small town on the Benguela Railway, raised in Chilesso, in the same province. Savimbi's father, was a stationmaster on Angola's Benguela railway line and a preacher of the Protestant Igreja Evangélica Congregacional de Angola and maintained by American missionaries. Both his parents were members of the Bieno group of the Ovimbundu, the people who served as Savimbi's major political base. In his early years, Savimbi was educated in Protestant schools, but attended Roman Catholic schools. At the age of 24, he received a scholarship to study in Portugal.
There he finished his secondary studies, with the exception of the subject "political organization", compulsory during the regime established by António de Oliveira Salazar, so that he was unable to start studying medicine as intended. Instead he became associated with students from Angola and other Portuguese colonies who were preparing themselves for anti-colonial resistance and had contacts with the clandestine Portuguese Communist Party, he knew Agostinho Neto, at that time studying medicine and who went on to become president of the MPLA and Angola's first state President. Under increasing pressure from the Portuguese secret police, Savimbi left Portugal for Switzerland with the assistance of Portuguese and French communists and other sympathizers, wound up in Lausanne. There he was able to obtain a new scholarship from American missionaries and studied social sciences, he went on to the University at Fribourg for further studies. While there in August 1960, he met Holden Roberto, a rising star in émigré circles.
Roberto was a founding member of the UPA and was known for his efforts to promote Angolan independence at the United Nations. He tried to recruit Savimbi who seems to have been undecided whether to commit himself to the cause of Angolan independence at this point in his life. In late September 1960, Savimbi was asked to give a speech in Kampala, Uganda on behalf of the UDEAN, A student organization affiliated with the MPLA. At this meeting he met Tom Mboya, they both urged him to join the UPA. He told French interviewers “J’ai été convaincu par Kenyatta”, he wrote a letter to Roberto putting himself at his service, taken in person to New York by Mboya. Upon his return to Switzerland, Roberto telephoned him, they met in Léopoldville in December 1960, left for America. It was the first of many visits. There are considerable differences in the source material about the date of Savimbi's official induction into the UPA. Fred Bridgland, who wrote a much-cited biography of Savimbi, says that Savimbi was "inducted into the UPA” on February 1, 1961.
Nonetheless, he may not have joined the UPA until late 1961. It seems that Savimbi was not in the inner circle of UPA activists in early 1961, he took no part in planning the uprising of March 1961, nor did he participate in it. Savimbi stayed in Léopoldville until the end of March 1961 went to Switzerland to prepare for examinations, he may have failed since he abandoned medical studies in Fribourg, in December 1961 enrolled at Lausanne University in Law and International Politics. By September 1961, Africans from the Portuguese colonies studying abroad formed the UGEAN at a meeting in Rabat, Morocco. Again, this organization was affiliated with the MPLA. Holden Roberto and the UPA wanted a student organization affiliated with their party. In December 1961, Roberto chaired a meeting at Camp Green Lane near Pennsylvania. Savimbi attended this meeting and became one of a number of organizers who created the UNEA, in March 1962 at Lucerne Switzerland. Savimbi was elected Secretary-General. Savimbi participated in UPA activities.
He traveled on behalf of the organization. In a short time, he was a member of the Executive Committee of the UPA, it was he who encouraged the PDA to join in a united front with the UPA, creating the FNLA and when these parties formed the GRAE on April 3, 1962, Savimbi became Foreign Minister of this organization. Savimbi sought a leadership position in the MPLA by joining the MPLA Youth in the early 1960s, he was rebuffed by the MPLA, joined forces with the National Liberation Front of Angola in 1964. The same year he conceived UNITA with Antonio da Costa Fernandes. Savimbi was promised arms and military training. Upon returning to Angola in 1966 he launched UNITA and began his career as an anti-Portuguese guerrilla fighter, he fought the FNLA and MPLA, as the three resistance movements tried to position themselves to lead a post-colonial Angola. Portugal late
American singer Frank Ocean has released two studio albums, one mixtape, 21 singles and eight music videos. Following the flooding and destruction of his recording studio during Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Ocean moved from his hometown of New Orleans to the Californian city of Los Angeles, where he sought to continue his musical career landing himself a songwriting contract. In 2009, Ocean signed to Def Jam Recordings as a solo artist. Ocean formed a friendship with rapper Tyler, The Creator, leader of the Los Angeles-based hip hop collective Odd Future and subsequently became a member of Odd Future, as well as making three guest appearances on the album Goblin, including the single "She". In February 2011, he released his first major project, his first mixtape Nostalgia, which produced two singles: "Novacane" and "Swim Good". "Novacane" became his first single to chart on the US Billboard Hot 100, where it peaked at number 82. Ocean made two guest appearances on the Kanye West and Jay Z collaborative album Watch the Throne, including the single "No Church in the Wild", which peaked at number 72 on the Billboard Hot 100.
Ocean has written songs for several artists, such as Damienn Jones, Brandy Norwood, John Legend, Beyoncé, Bridget Kelly, Justin Bieber. Ocean started writing songs for his debut studio album in February 2011 with songwriter and producer James "Malay" Ho, his friend and creative partner since their start in the music industry as songwriters; the album, Channel Orange, was released on July 10, 2012. Upon release, the album received universal acclaim from music critics, who praised the album for its bold lyrical content; the album peaked at number two on both the US Billboard 200 and the UK Albums Chart, while it hit number one on the US Billboard Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart. It became the first album in chart history to chart within the UK Albums Chart top 20 based on digital sales. Five singles were released from the album: "Thinkin Bout You", "Pyramids", "Sweet Life", "Lost" and "Super Rich Kids". "Thinkin Bout You" peaked at number 32 on the Billboard Hot 100, becoming Ocean's first top 40 entry on the chart.
"Lost" became a top five single in New Zealand and achieved chart success in Australia and Denmark. After a four year hiatus, Ocean returned by releasing Endless, a visual album that marked the end of contract with Def Jam. Endless was released on August 19, 2016, shortly followed by the release of the "Nikes" music video which would be the first single off of Blonde, his second studio album, released a day on August 20, 2016. "Endless" was a 45-minute-long album that intertwined the music with a video of Ocean building a spiral staircase. Odd Future discography Official website Frank Ocean at AllMusic Frank Ocean discography at Discogs Frank Ocean discography at MusicBrainz Frank Ocean at MixtapeMonkey