Amy Jade Winehouse was an English singer and songwriter. She was known for her deep, expressive contralto vocals and her eclectic mix of musical genres, including soul and blues and jazz. A member of the National Youth Jazz Orchestra during her youth, Winehouse's influences were Sarah Vaughan and Dinah Washington, she signed to Simon Fuller's 19 Management in 2002 and soon recorded a number of songs before signing a publishing deal with EMI. She formed a working relationship with producer Salaam Remi through these record publishers. Winehouse's debut album, was released in 2003. Produced by Remi, many of the album's songs were influenced by jazz and, apart from two covers, were co-written by Winehouse. Frank was nominated for the Mercury Prize; the song "Stronger Than Me" won her the Ivor Novello Award for Best Contemporary Song from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors. Winehouse's follow-up album, Back to Black, was an international success. At the 2007 Brit Awards it was nominated for British Album of the Year, she received the award for British Female Solo Artist.
The song "Rehab" won her a second Ivor Novello Award. At the 50th Grammy Awards in 2008, she won five awards, tying the record for the most wins by a female artist in a single night and becoming the first British woman to win five Grammys, including three of the General Field "Big Four" Grammy Awards: Best New Artist, Record of the Year and Song of the Year, as well as Best Pop Vocal Album. Winehouse was plagued by alcohol addiction, she died of alcohol poisoning on 23 July 2011 at the age of 27. After her death, Back to Black became the UK's best-selling album of the 21st century temporarily, it is among the best-selling albums in UK history. VH1 ranked Winehouse 26th on their list of the 100 Greatest Women in Music list. Amy Winehouse was born in Chase Farm Hospital, in north London, to Jewish parents, her father, Mitchell "Mitch" Winehouse, was a window panel installer and a taxi driver. Winehouse's ancestors were Russian Polish Jewish immigrants to London. Amy had an older brother and the family lived in London's Southgate area, where she attended Osidge Primary School.
Winehouse as a child attended a Jewish Sunday school. After she rose to fame, during an interview she expressed her dismissal towards the school by saying that she used to beg her father to allow her not to go and that she learned nothing about being Jewish by going anyway. In the same interview, Winehouse said she only went to a synagogue once a year on Yom Kippur "out of respect". Many of Winehouse's maternal uncles were professional jazz musicians. Amy's paternal grandmother, was a singer and dated the English jazz saxophonist Ronnie Scott, she and Amy's parents influenced Amy's interest in jazz. Her father, Mitch sang Frank Sinatra songs to her, whenever she got chastised at school, she would sing "Fly Me to the Moon" before going up to the headmistress to be told off. Winehouse's parents separated when she was nine, she lived with her mother and stayed with her father and his girlfriend in Hatfield Heath, Essex, on weekends. In 1992, her grandmother Cynthia suggested that Amy attend the Susi Earnshaw Theatre School, where she went on Saturdays to further her vocal education and to learn to tap dance.
She attended the school for four years and founded a short-lived rap group called Sweet'n' Sour, with Juliette Ashby, her childhood friend, before seeking full-time training at Sylvia Young Theatre School. Winehouse was expelled at 14 for "not applying herself" and for piercing her nose. Sylvia Young has denied this—"She changed schools at 15... I've heard. I'd never have expelled Amy" --, she appeared in an episode of The Fast Show, 1997, with other children from the Sylvia Young School and attended the Mount School, Mill Hill. After toying around with her brother Alex's guitar, Winehouse bought her own when she was 14 and began writing music a year later. Soon after, she began working for a living, including, at one time, as an entertainment journalist for the World Entertainment News Network, in addition to singing with local group the Bolsha Band. In July 2000, she became the featured female vocalist with the National Youth Jazz Orchestra. Amy's best friend, soul singer Tyler James, sent her demo tape to an A&R person.
Winehouse signed to Simon Fuller's 19 Management in 2002 and was paid £250 a week against future earnings. While being developed by the management company, she was kept as a recording industry secret although she was a regular jazz standards singer at the Cobden Club, her future A&R representative at Island, Darcus Beese, heard of her by accident when the manager of The Lewinson Brothers showed him some productions of his clients, which featured Winehouse as key vocalist. When he asked who the singer was, the manager told him. Having decided that he wanted to sign her, it took several months of asking around for Beese to discover who the singer was. However, Winehouse had recorded a number of songs and signed a publishing deal with EMI by this time. Incidentally, she formed a working relationship with producer Salaam Remi through these record publishers. Beese introduced Winehouse to his boss, Nick Gatfield, the Island head shared his enthusiasm in signing the young artist. Winehouse was signed to Island, as rival interest i
The year 1529 in art involved some significant events and new works. Carlo de' Medici acquires the Adoration of the Magi by Filippino Lippi Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara creates the most magnificent gallery of his time, his studiolo or Camerini d'alabastro, now known as his "Camerino" Jan van Scorel and Maarten van Heemskerck are painting portraits in Haarlem First record of Qian Gu painting in Ming Dynasty China Albrecht Altdorfer'sThe Battle of Alexander at Issus Hans Baldung's Allegory of Music and Woman with Mirror and Queue Lucas Cranach the Elder's Martin Luther, The Stag Hunt of the Elector Frederick the Wise and Venus Standing in a Landscape Maarten van Heemskerck's Portrait of Anna Codde Pontormo's Madonna with Child, Saint Anne and Four Saints Valerio Cioli, Italian sculptor Giambologna, Sculptor of marble and bronze statuary Alessandro Araldi, Italian painter active in Parma Giovanni della Robbia, Italian Renaissance ceramic artist Guillaume de Marcillat, French painter and stained glass artist Urs Graf, Swiss Renaissance painter and printmaker of woodcuts and engravings Rocco Marconi, Italian painter active in Venice and Treviso Francesco Morone, Italian painter active in Verona Gerino da Pistoia - Italian painter and designer of the Renaissance Lo Spagna, Spanish-born Italian painter of the High-Renaissance Peter Vischer the Elder, German sculptor 1526/1529: Hans Maler zu Schwaz, German painter and portraitist
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation. GSLV was used in thirteen launches with more launches planned. Though GSLV Mk III shares the name, it is an different launcher; the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle project was initiated in 1990 with the objective of acquiring an Indian launch capability for geosynchronous satellites. GSLV uses major components that are proven in the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle launchers in the form of the S125/S139 solid rocket booster and the liquid-fueled Vikas engine. Due to the thrust required for injecting the satellite in a GTO orbit the third stage was to be powered by a LOX/LH2 Cryogenic engine which at that time India did not possess or had the technology know-how to build one; the first development flight of the GSLV was launched on 18 April 2001 was a failure as the payload failed to reach the intended orbit parameters. The launcher was declared operational after the second development flight launched the GSAT-2 satellite.
During the initial years from the initial launch to 2014 the launcher had a checkered history with only 2 successful launches out of 7. The third stage was to be procured from Russian company Glavcosmos, including transfer of technology and design details of the engine based on an agreement signed in 1991. Russia backed out of the deal after US objected to the deal as in violation of the Missile Technology Control Regime May 1992; as a result, ISRO initiated the Cryogenic Upper Stage Project in April 1994 and began developing its own cryogenic engine. A new agreement was signed with Russia for 7 KVD-1 cryogenic stages and 1 ground mock-up stage with no technology transfer, instead of 5 cryogenic stages along with the technology and design as per the earlier agreement; these engines were used for the initial flights and were named GSLV Mk.1. The 49 metres tall GSLV, with a lift-off mass of 415 metric tons, is a three-stage vehicle with solid and cryogenic stages respectively; the payload fairing, 7.8 metres long and 3.4 metres in diameter, protects the vehicle electronics and the spacecraft during its ascent through the atmosphere.
It is discarded. GSLV employs S-band telemetry and C-band transponders for enabling vehicle performance monitoring, range safety / flight safety and preliminary orbit determination; the Redundant Strap Down Inertial Navigation System/Inertial Guidance System of GSLV housed in its equipment bay guides the vehicle from lift-off to spacecraft injection. The digital auto-pilot and closed loop guidance scheme ensure the required altitude maneuver and guide injection of the spacecraft to the specified orbit; the GSLV can place 5,000 kg into an easterly Low Earth orbit or 2,500 kg into an 18° geostationary transfer orbit. The first GSLV flight, GSLV-D1 used the L40 stage. Subsequent flights of the GSLV used high pressure engines in the strap-on boosters called the L40H; the GSLV uses four L40H liquid strap-on boosters derived from the L37.5 second stage, which are loaded with 42.6 tons of hypergolic propellants. The propellants are stored in tandem in two independent tanks 2.1 metres diameter. The engine generates 760 kilonewtons of thrust, with a burn time of 150 seconds.
GSLV-D1 used the S125 stage which contained 125 metric tons of solid propellant and had a burn time of 100 seconds. All subsequent launches have used enhanced propellant loaded S139 stage; the S139 stage has a nominal burn time of 109 seconds. The stage generates a maximum thrust of 4700 kN; the GS2 stage is powered by the Vikas engine. It has a diameter of 2.8 metres. The third stage of the GSLV Mk. II is propelled by the Indian CE-7.5 cryogenic rocket engine while the older defunct Mk. I is propelled using a Russian made KVD-1, it uses liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen The Indian cryogenic engine was built at the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre The engine has a default thrust of 75 kilonewtons but is capable of a maximum thrust of 93.1 kilonewtons. GSLV rockets using the Russian Cryogenic Stage are designated as the GSLV Mk I while versions using the indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage are designated the GSLV Mk II. All GSLV launches have been conducted from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota.
The first developmental flight of GSLV Mark I had a 129 tonne first stage and was capable of launching around 1500 kg into geostationary transfer orbit. The second developmental flight replaced the S125 stage with S139, it used the same solid motor with 138 tonne propellant loading. The chamber pressure in all liquid engines were enhanced, enabling a higher propellant mass and burn time; these improvements allowed GSLV to carry an additional 300 kg of payload. The fourth operational flight of GSLV Mk I, GSLV-F06, has a 15 tonne propellant loading in the third stage, called the C-15; this variant uses an Indian cryogenic engine, the CE-7.5, is capable of launching 2500 kg into geostationary transfer orbit. Previous GSLV vehicles have used Russian cryogenic engines. For launches from 2018 a 6% increased thrust version of the Vikas engine was developed, it was demonstrated on 29 March 2018 in the GSAT 6A launch second stage. It will be used for the four Vikas engines first stage boosters on future missions.