SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Amygdala

The amygdala is one of two almond-shaped clusters of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. Shown in research to perform a primary role in the processing of memory, decision-making and emotional responses, the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system; the regions described as amygdala nuclei encompass several structures with distinct connectional and functional characteristics in humans and other animals. Among these nuclei are the basolateral complex, the cortical nucleus, the medial nucleus, the central nucleus, the intercalated cell clusters; the basolateral complex can be further subdivided into the lateral, the basal, the accessory basal nuclei. Anatomically, the amygdala, more its central and medial nuclei, have sometimes been classified as a part of the basal ganglia. In one study, electrical stimulations of the right amygdala induced negative emotions fear and sadness. In contrast, stimulation of the left amygdala was able to induce either pleasant or unpleasant emotions.

Other evidence suggests. Each side holds a specific function in how we process emotion; the right and left portions of the amygdala have independent memory systems, but work together to store and interpret emotion. The right hemisphere is associated with negative emotion, it plays a role in the processing of fear-inducing stimuli. Fear conditioning, which occurs when a neutral stimulus acquires aversive properties, occurs within the right hemisphere; when an individual is presented with a conditioned, aversive stimulus, it is processed within the right amygdala, producing an unpleasant or fearful response. This emotional response conditions the individual to avoid fear-inducing stimuli and more to assess threats in the environment; the right hemisphere is linked to declarative memory, which consists of facts and information from experienced events and must be consciously recalled. It plays a significant role in the retention of episodic memory. Episodic memory consists of the autobiographical aspects of memory, permitting recall of emotional and sensory experience of an event.

This type of memory does not require conscious recall. The right amygdala plays a role in the association of time and places with emotional properties. There is considerable growth within the first few years of structural development in both male and female amygdalae. Within this early period, female limbic structures grow at a more rapid pace than the male ones. Amongst female subjects, the amygdala reaches its full growth potential 1.5 years before the peak of male development. The structural development of the male amygdala occurs over a longer period than in women. Despite the early development of female amygdalae, they reach their growth potential sooner than males, whose amygdalae continue to develop; the larger relative size of the male amygdala may be attributed to this extended developmental period. In addition to longer periods of development, other neurological and hormonal factors may contribute to sex-specific developmental differences; the amygdala is rich in androgen receptors -- nuclear receptors.

Androgen receptors play a role in the DNA binding. Though testosterone is present within the female hormonal systems, women have lower levels of testosterone than men; the abundance of testosterone in the male hormonal system may contribute to development. In addition, the grey matter volume on the amygdala is predicted by testosterone levels, which may contribute to the increased mass of the male amygdala. In addition to sex differences, there are observable developmental differences between the right and left amygdala in both males and females; the left amygdala reaches its developmental peak 1.5–2 years prior to the right amygdala. Despite the early growth of the left amygdala, the right increases in volume for a longer period of time; the right amygdala is associated with response to fearful stimuli as well as face recognition. It is inferred that the early development of the left amygdala functions to provide infants the ability to detect danger. In childhood, the amygdala is found to react differently to same-sex versus opposite-sex individuals.

This reactivity decreases until a person enters adolescence, where it increases at puberty. The amygdala is one of the best-understood brain regions with regard to differences between the sexes; the amygdala is larger in males than females in children ages 7–11, in adult humans, in adult rats. In addition to size, other functional and structural differences between male and female amygdalae have been observed. Subjects' amygdala activation was observed when watching subliminal stimuli; the results of the study showed a different lateralization of the amygdala in women. Enhanced memory for the film was related to enhanced activity of the left, but not the right, amygdala in women, whereas it was related to enhanced activity of the right, but not the left, amygdala in men. One study found evidence that on average, women tend to retain stronger memories for emotional events than men; the right amygdala is linked with taking action as well as being linked to negative emotions, which may help explain why males tend to respond to stressful stimuli physically.

The left amygdala allows for the recall of details, but it results in more thought rather than action in response to em

John L. Sullivan

John Lawrence Sullivan, known as John L. among his admirers, dubbed the "Boston Strong Boy" by the press, was an Irish-American boxer recognized as the first lineal heavyweight champion of gloved boxing, de facto reigning from February 7, 1882, to 1892. He is generally recognized as the last heavyweight champion of bare-knuckle boxing under the London Prize Ring Rules, being the cultural icon of the late 19th century America, arguably the first boxing superstar and one of the world's highest-paid athletes of his era. Newspapers coverage of his career, with latest accounts of his championship fights appeared in the headlines, as cover stories, gave birth for the sports journalism in the United States and set the pattern internationally for covering boxing events in media, photodocumenting the prizefights. Sullivan was born in 1858 in the Roxbury neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts to Irish immigrant parents, Michael Sullivan from Abbeydorney, County Kerry and the former Catherine Kelly from Athlone, County Westmeath.

He attended public schools in his native Boston, attending the Dwight Grammar School and performing well academically. Sullivan's parents aspired for their son to enter the priesthood as a Roman Catholic priest. To this end Sullivan enrolled at Boston College circa 1875 but after only a few months he turned to playing baseball professionally, earning the substantial sum of $30 to $40 a week for his efforts; as Sullivan recalled in 1883: "... I gave myself up to it; this is how I got into the base-ball profession and I left school for good and all. From the base-ball business I drifted into boxing and pugilism." As a professional fighter Sullivan was nicknamed The Boston Strongboy. As a youth he was arrested several times for participating in bouts, he went on exhibition tours offering people money to fight him. Sullivan won more than 450 fights in his career. There is some controversy among boxing historians over whether Sullivan had sparred with black boxer James Young at Schieffelin Hall in Tombstone, Arizona in 1882.

It is significant. If it did occur, Sullivan had a brief sparring session with the resident from Tombstone, didn't regard it as a bout. In 1883–84 Sullivan went on a coast-to-coast tour by train with five other boxers, they were scheduled to hold 195 fights in 136 different towns over 238 days. To help promote the tour, Sullivan announced that he would box anyone at any time during the tour under the Queensberry Rules for $250, he knocked out eleven men during the tour. In Sullivan's era, no formal boxing titles existed, he became a champion after defeating Paddy Ryan in Mississippi City, near Gulfport, Mississippi on February 7, 1882. Modern authorities have retroactively labelled Ryan the "Heavyweight Champion of America", but any claim to Ryan's being a "world champion" would have been dubious. Depending on the modern authority, Sullivan was first considered world heavyweight champion either in 1888 when he fought Charley Mitchell in France, or in 1889 when he knocked out Jake Kilrain in round 75 of a scheduled 80-round bout.

Arguably the real first World Heavyweight champion was Jem Mace, who defeated Tom Allen in 1870 at Kenner, but strong anti-British sentiment within the Irish-American boxing community of the time chose to disregard him. When the modern authorities write of the "heavyweight championship of the world," they are referring to the championship belt presented to Sullivan in Boston on August 8, 1887; the belt was inscribed Presented to the Champion of Champions, John L. Sullivan, by the Citizens of the United States, its centerpiece featured the flags of the US, the United Kingdom. Mitchell came from Birmingham and fought Sullivan in 1883, knocking him down in the first round, their third meeting took place in 1888 on the grounds of a chateau at Chantilly, with the fight held in driving rain. It went on for more than two hours, by the end of the bout, both men were unrecognisable and had suffered so much damage that neither could lift their arms up to punch. Both men couldn't continue and the contest was considered a draw.

At this point, the local gendarmerie arrested Mitchell. He was confined to jail for a few days and fined by the local magistrate, as bare-knuckle boxing was illegal in France at that time. Swathed in bandages, Sullivan was helped to evade the law and taken across the English Channel to spend the next few weeks convalescing in Liverpool; the Kilrain fight is considered to be a turning point in boxing history because it was the last world title bout fought under the London Prize Ring Rules, therefore was the last bare-knuckle heavyweight title bout. It was one of the first sporting events in the United States to receive national press coverage. For the first time, newspapers carried extensive pre-fight coverage which included reporting on the fighters' training and speculating on where the bout would take place; the traditional center of bare-knuckle fighting was New Orleans, but the governor of Louisiana had forbidden the fight in that state. Sullivan had trained for months in Belfast, New York under trainer William Muldoon, whose biggest problem had been keeping Sullivan from liquor.

A report on Sullivan's training regimen in Belfast was written by famed reporter Nellie Bly and published in the New York World. Rochester reporter Arch Merrill commented that Sullivan would "escape" from his guard. In Belfast village, the cry was heard, "John L. is loose again! Send for Muldoon!" Muldoon would snatch the champ away from the bar and take him back to their trai

Torajiro Imada

Torajirō Imada was a Japanese police chief who became the first director of Sotojima Hoyoen, a leprosy sanatorium in Osaka, Japan from 1909 to 1926. He admitted the autonomy right of the patients' association; the Sotojima sanatorium was destroyed in Muroto Typhoon in 1934 and it was reconstructed as Oku-Komyo-En Sanatorium, Okayama Prefecture. He was born in Okayama Prefecture in 1859. After becoming the chief of several police stations in Osaka, he became the marshal of the most important Sonezaki Polic Station of Osaka. In 1909, he was appointed the director of the Sotojima Hoyōen Sanatorium, situated in Osaka Prefecture, he lived in Sakai, Osaka Prefecture. After 8 months, Masataka Murata became the second director of the sanatorium, he died around July 1940 in Sakai. At the start of the sanatorium, it was a lawless area with wandering vagabonds; however and safety were established by his efforts. He used a free hand admitted the director of the sanatorium. With the exception of Kyushu Sanatorium, directors of leprosy sanatoriums came from police, since wandering leprosy patients included criminals.

However, physicians took the parts of directors in other sanatoriums. Imada exceptionally stayed long as the director of the sanatorium for 17 years, he appeared a well-built important person. The first chief doctor of the hospital was Takekichi Sugai, who studied leprosy intensively, wrote many papers and guided other doctors. There were about 300 leprosy patients, the capacity of the sanatorium in one and a half year; the problems of food, drinking water and clothing, first appeared difficult, became stabilized. A patient recreation organization was formed at his proposal; those who could work were given money, farms and gardens were made. A church was established, he was an able administrator and was loved by patients. In 1919, when the patient organization wanted to withdraw their autonomy right, Imada inspired the spirit of autonomy; the records of Sotojima Hoyoen, Sakurai H. -, Kaede.1968-1971 A photograph of Torajiro Imada was in. History of leprosy in Japan. Shun-ichi Yamamoto, 1993. ISBN 4-13-066401-8 C3047