Amyl nitrite is a chemical compound with the formula C5H11ONO. A variety of isomers are known, but they all feature an amyl group attached to the nitrite functional group; the alkyl group is unreactive and the chemical and biological properties are due to the nitrite group. Like other alkyl nitrites, amyl nitrite is bioactive in mammals, being a vasodilator, the basis of its use as a prescription medicine; as an inhalant, it has a psychoactive effect, which has led to its recreational use with its smell being described as that of old socks or dirty feet. It is referred to as banapple gas, it was first documented in 1844 and came into medical use in 1867. Amyl nitrite is employed medically to treat heart diseases as well as angina. Amyl nitrite is sometimes used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning, it can act as an oxidant. Methemoglobin in turn can sequester cyanide as cyanomethemoglobin. Amyl nitrite is used as a cleaning agent and solvent in industrial and household applications, it replaced dichlorodifluoromethane, an industrial chemical universally banned in 1996 due to damage to the ozone layer, as a printed circuit board cleaner.
A small amount is added to some perfumes. It is used recreationally as an inhalant drug that induces a brief euphoric state, when combined with other intoxicant stimulant drugs such as cocaine or MDMA, the euphoric state intensifies and is prolonged. Once some stimulative drugs wear off, a common side effect is a period of depression or anxiety, colloquially called a "come down"; this effect, combined with its dissociative effects, has led to its use as a recreational drug. The term "amyl nitrite" encompasses several isomers. For example, a common form of amyl nitrite with the formula 2CHCH2CH2ONO may be more referred to as isoamyl nitrite; when the amyl group is a linear or normal alkyl group, the resulting amyl nitrite would have the structural formula CH34ONO. The similarly-named amyl nitrate has different properties. At the same time, isopropyl nitrite has a similar structure and similar uses but with worse side-effects. Alkyl nitrites are prepared by the reaction of alcohols with nitrous acid: ROH + HONO → RONO + H2O, where R = alkyl groupThe reaction is called esterification.
Synthesis of alkyl nitrites is, in general and can be accomplished in home laboratories. A common procedure includes the dropwise addition of concentrated sulfuric acid to a cooled mixture of an aqueous sodium nitrite solution and an alcohol; the intermediately-formed stoichiometric mixture of nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide converts the alcohol to the alkyl nitrite, due to its low density, will form an upper layer that can be decanted from the reaction mixture. Isoamyl nitrite decomposes in the presence of base to give nitrite salts and the isoamyl alcohol: C5H11ONO + NaOH → C5H11OH + NaNO2Amyl nitrite, like other alkyl nitrites, reacts with carbanions to give oximes. Amyl nitrites are useful as reagents in a modification of the Sandmeyer reaction; the reaction of the alkyl nitrite with an aromatic amine in a halogenated solvent produces a radical aromatic species, this frees a halogen atom from the solvent. For the synthesis of aryl iodides diiodomethane is used, whereas bromoform is the solvent of choice for the synthesis of aryl bromides.
Amyl nitrite, in common with other alkyl nitrites, is a potent vasodilator. Amyl nitrite may be used during cardiovascular stress testing in patients with suspected hypertrophic cardiomyopathy to cause vasodilation and thereby reduce afterload and worsen an otherwise occult left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Alkyl nitrites are a source of nitric oxide, which signals for relaxation of the involuntary muscles. Physical effects include decrease in blood pressure, flushing of the face, increased heart rate and relaxation of involuntary muscles the blood vessel walls and the internal and external anal sphincter. There are no withdrawal symptoms. Overdose symptoms include nausea, hypotension, shortness of breath, fainting; the effects set in quickly within a few seconds and disappear within a few minutes. Amyl nitrite may intensify the experience of synesthesia
The 1944 Orange Bowl was a postseason college football bowl game between the LSU Tigers and Texas A&M Aggies. It was the 10th edition of the Orange Bowl; the teams had met in the regular season, with Texas A&M winning at LSU 28–13. LSU however defeated Texas A&M 19–14 in the bowl rematch. Despite A&M coach Homer Norton devising a game-plan to stop him, halfback Steve Van Buren was responsible for all points scored by the Tigers, as he ran for two touchdowns, threw for one more, kicked LSU's only successful extra point attempt. LSU - Van Buren 11-yard run reverse LSU - Goode 24-yard pass from Van Buren Texas A&M - Burditt 21-yard pass from Hallmark LSU - Van Buren 63-yard run Texas A&M - Settegast 18-yard pass from Hallmark
The Trinity Monastery of St. Jonas is a Ukrainian Orthodox monastery in the Kievan neighbourhood of Zverinets, a short distance from the medieval Vydubychi Monastery, it was Jonas, a Vydubychi hegumen, who founded this monastery in 1864. Princess Vasilchikov, the widow of Kiev's Governor General, decided to support the undertaking and presented her dacha to the brethren, it was on these grounds. The monastery's bell tower, at 110 meters, was to be the tallest in the Orthodox world, its construction was halted due to the outbreak of World War I. As many as 800 monks resided there at the time; the monastery was closed in 1934 and its grounds were taken over by the M. M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden; the monks of the revived monastery now help to restore the nearby Zverinets caves
Edinglassie is a heritage-listed farm and homestead located at 710 Denman Road, Muswellbrook in the Muswellbrook Shire local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was built from 1880 to 1895, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The land on which both Edinglassie and Rous Lench are located was the original Portion 4 of the Parish of Brougham in the County of Durham; this comprised an area of 520 hectares the deed of grant for, issued to George Forbes on 1 August 1839. Like many grants of the period the land had been occupied for many years before it was surveyed and the deed grant issued. A two-storey sandstone house with hipped iron roof of simplified Italianate style built in two stages c. 1880, c. 1895, for James White, designed by John Horbury Hunt. The house is approached through original iron gates and through well kept grounds containing many fine mature trees, including some Queensland species brought from other White family properties.
The homestead is set back from the access road, a substantial line of screening trees fronts the entrance. The siting of the homestead is intrinsic to its significance. A two-storey sandstone house with hipped iron roof of simplified Italianate style built in two stages c. 1880, c. 1895, for James White. Each elevation is asymmetrical about a large full height projecting bay with a continuous single storey verandah supported on cast iron columns stamped `F. REVETT, W. MAITLAND.'The fourteen principal rooms have a variety of pressed metal ceilings and marble and timber fireplaces whilst the fine joinery throughout is of cedar. All joinery has been sensitively restored. A timber bridge links across a large trussed roof breezeway to a two-storey service wing containing the original kitchen. Close to the house is the fine stables group of buildings designed by Hunt in timber and built in the 1880s. Although lacking in the more exuberant details characteristic of Hunt's work, these buildings nonetheless form a coherent and impressive whole.
Other buildings include a meat house, killing dovecote. The following modifications have been made to the site: 2004 – Power line installed across front of property, involving the removal of three trees. An arborist report, submitted as part of the application identifies this fabric as one yellow box, 40–45 years old, 12 metres high; as at 31 July 2007, the Edinglassie property including the Edinglassie homestead, associated buildings and Rous Lench cottage are associated with the earliest European occupation of the area and collectively represent one of the earliest land grants of the initial settlement of the Hunter Valley. The Edinglassie property demonstrates various phases of human activities such as settlement and clearing, water supply and management and cattle running, development of specialist cattle breeding activities, recreation and horse breeding; the Edinglassie homestead with its associated outbuildings and Rous Lench cottage are good architectural examples of their type and style.
The Edinglassie property demonstrates an excellent application of the Arcadian design approach to the siting of structures and elements in the landscape, rare in the region. The place is significant because it is associated with George Forbes, the original grantee, one of the "gentry" settlers in the early settlement of the area, it is associated with a prominent family, the Whites, a leading pastoral dynasty, who were synonymous with the opening and development of the region. It illustrates the degree of opulence achieved and lifestyles led by the leading pastoral families in the area, it is associated with John Horbury Hunt. It is a well known landmark, has provided a community focus over a number of generations form the turn of the 19th century, it has extant and potential intact archaeological evidence capable of helping interpret past occupation and lifestyles of the area. The siting of the homestead is intrinsic to its significance. Edinglassie was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.
Australian residential architectural styles Bailey, Hansen. Bengalla Mining Company European Heritage Management Plan. Heritas. Edinglassie - Conservation Management Plan. Tropman & Tropman, Architects. Edinglassie & Rous Lench - preliminary Conservation Management Plan. Pacific Power. Section 170 register; this Wikipedia article was based on Edinglassie, entry number 00170 in the New South Wales State Heritage Register published by the State of New South Wales and Office of Environment and Heritage 2018 under CC-BY 4.0 licence, accessed on 1 June 2018
Plainfield is a NJ Transit railroad station on the Raritan Valley Line, in Plainfield, Union County, New Jersey, United States. One of two train stations in Plainfield, this station serves the central part of the city; the ticket office and waiting area are in the south side station house. It was the westernmost station on the line with ADA accessibility, until Somerville's new high-level platforms were opened on December 7, 2010. Plainfield station was built by Bradford L. Gilbert and Joseph Osgood for the Central Railroad of New Jersey in 1902; as with the rest of the CNJ, the station was subsidized by the New Jersey Department of Transportation in 1964 and absorbed into Conrail in 1976. The station is one of the two surviving CNJ stations in Plainfield, whereas the community had five, it been listed in the state and federal registers of historic places since 1984 and along with Netherwood is part of the Operating Passenger Railroad Stations Thematic Resource. The station kept its listing; the station has two high-level side platforms.
List of New Jersey Transit stations National Register of Historic Places listings in Union County, New Jersey Media related to Plainfield at Wikimedia Commons world.nycsubway.org - NJT Raritan Line including Plainfield Station Raritan Valley Line Watchung Avenue entrance from Google Maps Street View Station House from Google Maps Street View Park Avenue entrance from Google Maps Street View
B. P. R. D.: Hollow Earth & Other Stories is the first trade paperback collection in the Bureau for Paranormal Research and Defense series. This was the first B. P. R. D. Mini-series. Three issues long, it was written by Mike Mignola, Christopher Golden and Tom Sniegoski with art by Ryan Sook and Curtis Arnold, it was published from January to June 2002. Hellboy novelist Golden and his long-time writing partner Sniegoski wrote the story with regular input from Mignola. Sook was chosen to draw the book following a meeting with Mignola at a convention in Oakland, CA in 1995 and saw it as a chance to have a book all to himself although Arnold joined as inker when schedules started running tight halfway through production; the story features Dr. Kate Corrigan, Abe Sapien, Roger the Homunculus, newcomer Johann Kraus on a mission to rescue Liz Sherman. Hellboy makes appearances via flashbacks. A newspaper-format promotional teaser for the series titled B. P. R. D.. It was published as three single-page installments in Dark Horse Extra from December 2001 to February 2002, featuring the first appearance of Johann Kraus.
Published as a back-up feature in Hellboy: Box Full of Evil #1. Lobster Johnson made his first appearance in this written by Mike Mignola, with pencils by Matthew Dow Smith and inks by Ryan Sook. In the story Johnson and his sidekick investigate a series of bizarre deaths which appear to have been committed using telekinesis. Published in 1999 as a back-up feature in Hellboy: Box Full of Evil #2. Abe Sapien made a solo appearance in this written and inked by Mike Mignola and with pencils by Matthew Dow Smith. In the story Sapien rescues and reanimates Roger the homunculus when B. P. R. D. Scientist Dr. Roddel threatens to dissect him just as Abe recalls he threatened to do with him when he was first discovered. Published as the main feature in the one-shot Abe Sapien: Drums of the Dead with the Hellboy short story Heads by Mike Mignola as the back up feature. Abe Sapien made his first solo appearance in this story written by Brian McDonald with art by Derek Thompson. Series editor Scott Allie had been in discussions with Brian McDonald about his next project after the success of Harry the Cop and Hellboy creator Mike Mignola had been considering using Derek Thompson on a Hellboy and so it evolved that the two friends should end up working together on this project.
In the story weird deaths in the South Seas expose an ancient tragedy linked to the transatlantic slave trade. All the stories have been collected into one trade paperback: B. P. R. D.: Hollow Earth & Other Stories The trade was collected as a part of the Plague of Frogs cycle in the B. P. R. D. Omnibus format, along with The Soul of Venice & Other Stories and Plague of Frogs; this format is available in both paperback editions. B. P. R. D. Plague of Frogs - Volume 1