The Illyrians were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans. The territory the Illyrians inhabited came to be known as Illyria to Greek and Roman authors, who identified a territory that corresponds to Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, part of Serbia and most of central and northern Albania, between the Adriatic Sea in the west, the Drava river in the north, the Morava river in the east and the mouth of the Aoos river in the south; the first account of Illyrian peoples comes from the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, an ancient Greek text of the middle of the 4th century BC that describes coastal passages in the Mediterranean. The name "Illyrians", as applied by the ancient Greeks to their northern neighbors, may have referred to a broad, ill-defined group of peoples; the Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as'Illyrians', it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves. In fact, Illyrians seems to be the name of a specific Illyrian tribe, among the first to come in contact with the ancient Greeks during the Bronze Age, with the Greeks applying pars pro toto the name Illyrians to all people with similar language and customs.
At present it is unclear to what extent the Illyrians were linguistically and culturally homogeneous. In fact, Illyric origin was and still is attributed to a few ancient peoples residing in Italy: the Iapyges and Messapi, who are thought to have most followed Adriatic shorelines to the Italian peninsula from the geographic "Illyria"; the term "Illyrians" last appears in the historical record in the 7th century, referring to a Byzantine garrison operating within the former Roman province of Illyricum. In Greek mythology, Illyrius was the son of Cadmus and Harmonia who ruled Illyria and became the eponymous ancestor of the whole Illyrian people. Illyrius had multiple daughters. From these, sprang the Taulantii, Dardani, Autariates and the Daors. Autareius had a son Pannonius or Paeon and these had sons Scordiscus and Triballus. A version of this mythic genealogy gives as parents Polyphemus and Galatea, who gave birth to Celtus and Illyrius, three brothers, progenitors of Celts and Illyrians expresses perceived similarities to Celts and Gauls on the part of the mythographe.
Scholars have long recognized a "difficulty in producing a single theory on the ethnogenesis of the Illyrians" given their heterogeneous nature. Modern scholarship is unable to refer to the Illyrians as a unique and compact people and agrees that they were a sum of ill-defined communities without common origins that never merged to a single ethnic entity. Older Pan-Illyrian theories are now dismissed by scholars, based as they were on racialistic notions of Nordicism and Aryanism; the specific theories have found little archaeological corroboration, as no convincing evidence for significant migratory movements from the Luzatian culture into the west Balkans have been found. Rather, archaeologists from the former Yugoslavia highlighted the continuity between the Bronze and succeeding Iron Age developing the so-called "autochthonous theory" of Illyrian genesis; the "autochthonous" model was most elaborated upon by Alojz Benac and B. Čović. They argued that the'proto-Illyrians' had arrived much earlier, during the Bronze Age as nomadic Indo-Europeans from the steppe.
From that point, there was a gradual Illyrianization of the western Balkans leading to historic Illyrians, with no early Iron Age migration from northern Europe. He did not deny a minor cultural impact from the northern Urnfield cultures, however "these movements had neither a profound influence on the stability.. of the Balkans, nor did they affect the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian ethnos". Aleksandar Stipčević raised concerns regarding Benac's all-encompassing scenario of autochthonous ethnogenesis, he points out "can one negate the participation of the bearers of the field-urn culture in the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian tribes who lived in present-day Slovenia and Croatia" or "Hellenistic and Mediterranean influences on southern Illyrians and Liburnians?". He concludes that Benac's model is only applicable to the Illyrian groups in Bosnia, western Serbia and a part of Dalmatia, where there had indeed been a settlement continuity and'native' progression of pottery sequences since the Bronze Age.
Following prevailing trends in discourse on identity in Iron Age Europe, current anthropological perspectives reject older theories of a longue duree ethnogenesis of Illyrians where'archaeological continuity' can be demonstrated to Bronze Age times. They rather see the emergence of historic Illyrians tribes as a more recent phenomenon - just prior to their first attestation; the impetus behind the emergence of larger regional groups, such as "Iapodes", "Liburnians", "Pannonians" etc. is traced to increased contacts with the Mediterranean and La Tène'global worlds'. This catalyzed "the development of more complex political institutions and the increase in differences between individual communities". Emerging local elites selectively adopted either La Tène or Hellenistic and Roman cultural templates "in order to legitimise and strengthen domination within their communities, they were competing fiercely through either conflict and resistance to Roman expansion. Thus, they established more complex political alliances, which convinced
Money is any item or verifiable record, accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts, such as taxes, in a particular country or socio-economic context. The main functions of money are distinguished as: a medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of value and sometimes, a standard of deferred payment. Any item or verifiable record that fulfils these functions can be considered as money. Money is an emergent market phenomenon establishing a commodity money, but nearly all contemporary money systems are based on fiat money. Fiat money, like any note of debt, is without use value as a physical commodity, it derives its value by being declared by a government to be legal tender. Counterfeit money can cause good money to lose its value; the money supply of a country consists of currency and, depending on the particular definition used, one or more types of bank money. Bank money, which consists only of records, forms by far the largest part of broad money in developed countries.
The word "money" is believed to originate from a temple of Juno, on Capitoline, one of Rome's seven hills. In the ancient world Juno was associated with money; the temple of Juno Moneta at Rome was the place. The name "Juno" may derive from the Etruscan goddess Uni and "Moneta" either from the Latin word "monere" or the Greek word "moneres". In the Western world, a prevalent term for coin-money has been specie, stemming from Latin in specie, meaning'in kind'; the use of barter-like methods may date back to at least 100,000 years ago, though there is no evidence of a society or economy that relied on barter. Instead, non-monetary societies operated along the principles of gift economy and debt; when barter did in fact occur, it was between either complete strangers or potential enemies. Many cultures around the world developed the use of commodity money; the Mesopotamian shekel was a unit of weight, relied on the mass of something like 160 grains of barley. The first usage of the term came from Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC.
Societies in the Americas, Asia and Australia used shell money – the shells of the cowry. According to Herodotus, the Lydians were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coins, it is thought by modern scholars that these first stamped coins were minted around 650–600 BC. The system of commodity money evolved into a system of representative money; this occurred because gold and silver merchants or banks would issue receipts to their depositors – redeemable for the commodity money deposited. These receipts became accepted as a means of payment and were used as money. Paper money or banknotes were first used in China during the Song dynasty; these banknotes, known as "jiaozi", evolved from promissory notes, used since the 7th century. However, they did not displace commodity money, were used alongside coins. In the 13th century, paper money became known in Europe through the accounts of travelers, such as Marco Polo and William of Rubruck. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country."
Banknotes were first issued in Europe by Stockholms Banco in 1661, were again used alongside coins. The gold standard, a monetary system where the medium of exchange are paper notes that are convertible into pre-set, fixed quantities of gold, replaced the use of gold coins as currency in the 17th–19th centuries in Europe; these gold standard notes were made legal tender, redemption into gold coins was discouraged. By the beginning of the 20th century all countries had adopted the gold standard, backing their legal tender notes with fixed amounts of gold. After World War II and the Bretton Woods Conference, most countries adopted fiat currencies that were fixed to the U. S. dollar. The U. S. dollar was in turn fixed to gold. In 1971 the U. S. government suspended the convertibility of the U. S. dollar to gold. After this many countries de-pegged their currencies from the U. S. dollar, most of the world's currencies became unbacked by anything except the governments' fiat of legal tender and the ability to convert the money into goods via payment.
According to proponents of modern money theory, fiat money is backed by taxes. By imposing taxes, states create demand for the currency. In Money and the Mechanism of Exchange, William Stanley Jevons famously analyzed money in terms of four functions: a medium of exchange, a common measure of value, a standard of value, a store of value. By 1919, Jevons's four functions of money were summarized in the couplet: Money's a matter of functions four, A Medium, a Measure, a Standard, a Store; this couplet would become popular in macroeconomics textbooks. Most modern textbooks now list only three functions, that of medium of exchange, unit of account, store of value, not considering a standard of deferred payment as a distinguished function, but rather subsuming it in the others. There have been many historical disputes regarding the combination of money's functions, some arguing that they need more separation and that a s
History of Sparta
The History of Sparta describes the destiny of the ancient Dorian Greek state known as Sparta from its beginning in the legendary period to its incorporation into the Achaean League under the late Roman Republic, as Allied State, in 146 BC, a period of 1000 years. Since the Dorians were not the first to settle the valley of the Eurotas River in the Peloponnesus of Greece, the preceding Mycenaean and Stone Age periods are described as well. Sparta went on to become a district of modern Greece. Brief mention is made of events in the post-classical periods. Dorian Sparta rose to dominance in the 6th century BC. At the time of the Persian Wars, it was the recognized leader by assent of the Greek city-states, it subsequently lost that assent through suspicion that the Athenians were plotting to break up the Spartan state after an earthquake destroyed Sparta in 464 BC. When Sparta defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian War, it secured an unrivaled hegemony over southern Greece. Sparta's supremacy was broken following the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC.
It was never able to regain its military supremacy and was absorbed by the Achaean League in the 2nd century BC. The earliest certain evidence of human settlement in the region of Sparta, consists of pottery dating from the Middle Neolithic period found in the vicinity of Kouphovouno some two kilometres southwest of Sparta; this civilization seems to have fallen into decline by the late Bronze Age, according to Herodotus, Macedonian tribes from the north marched into Peloponnese, where they were called Dorians and subjugating the local tribes, settled there. Tradition describes how, some sixty years after the Trojan War, a Dorian migration from the north took place and led to the rise of classical Sparta; this tradition is, however and was written down at a time long after the events they describe. Hence skeptics like Karl Julius Beloch have denied. Chadwick has argued, on the basis of slight regional variations that he detected in Linear B, that the Dorians had lived in the Dorian regions as an oppressed majority, speaking the regional dialect, emerged when they overthrew their masters.
Archeologically, Sparta itself begins to show signs of settlement only around 1000 BC, some 200 years after the collapse of Mycenaean civilization. Of the four villages that made up the Spartan Polis, Forrest suggests that the two closest to the Acropolis were the originals, the two more far flung settlements were of foundation; the dual kingship may originate in the fusion of the first two villages. One of the effects of the Mycenaean collapse had been a sharp drop in population. Following that, there was a significant recovery, this growth in population is to have been more marked in Sparta, as it was situated in the most fertile part of the plain. Between the 8th and 7th centuries BC the Spartans experienced a period of lawlessness and civil strife testified by both Herodotus and Thucydides; as a result, they carried out a series of political and social reforms of their own society which they attributed to a semi-mythical lawgiver, Lycurgus. These reforms mark the beginning of the history of Classical Sparta.
It is during the reign of King Charillos. Indeed, the Spartans ascribed their subsequent success to Lycurgus, who instituted his reforms at a time when Sparta was weakened by internal dissent and lacked the stability of a united and well-organized community. There are reasons to doubt whether he existed, as his name derives from the word for "wolf", associated with Apollo, hence Lycurgus could be a personification of the god. J. F. Lazenby suggests, that the dual monarchy may date from this period as a result of a fusion of the four villages of Sparta which had, up until formed two factions of the villages of Pitana-Mesoa against the villages of Limnai-Konoura. According to this view, the Kings, who tradition says ruled before this time, were either mythical or at best factional chieftains. Lazenby further hypothesizes that other reforms such as the introduction of the Ephors were innovations that were attributed to Lycurgus; the Dorians seem to have set about expanding the frontiers of Spartan territory before they had established their own state.
They fought against the Argive Dorians to the east and southeast, the Arcadian Achaeans to the northwest. The evidence suggests that Sparta inaccessible because of the topography of the plain of Sparta, was secure from early on: it was never fortified. Sparta shared the plain with Amyklai which lay to the south and was one of the few places to survive from Mycaenean times and was to be its most formidable neighbor. Hence the tradition that Sparta, under its kings Archelaos and Charillos moved north to secure the upper Eurotas valley is plausible. Pharis and Geronthrae were taken and, though the traditions are a little contradictory Amyklai which fell in about 750 BC, it is probable that the inhabitants of Geronthrae were driven out while those of Amyklai were subjugated to Sparta. Pausanias portrays this as a Achaean conflict; the archaeological record, throws doubt on such a cultural distinction. Tyrtaeus tells that the war to conquer the Messenians, their neighbors on the west, led by Theopompus, lasted 19 years and was fought in the time of the fathers of our fathers.
If this phrase is to be taken it would mean that the war occurred around the end of the 8th century BC or the beginning of the 7th. The historicity of the Second Messenian War was long doubted, as neither Herodotus or Thucydides mentions a second war. However, in the opinion of Kennell, a fragment of Tyrtaeus (published in
The stater was an ancient coin used in various regions of Greece. The term is used for similar coins, imitating Greek staters, minted elsewhere in ancient Europe; the stater, as a Greek silver currency, first as ingots, as coins, circulated from the 8th century BC to AD 50. The earliest known stamped stater is an electrum turtle coin, struck at Aegina that dates to about 700 BC, it is on display at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. According to Robin Lane Fox, the stater as a weight unit was borrowed by the Euboean stater weighing 16.8 grams from the Phoenician shekel, which had about the same weight as a stater and was one fiftieth of a mina. The silver stater minted at Corinth of 8.6 g weight was divided into three silver drachmae of 2.9 g, but was linked to the Athenian silver didrachm weighing 8.6 g. In comparison, the Athenian silver tetradrachm weighed 17.2 g. Staters were struck in several Greek city-states such as, Aspendos, Knossos, many city-states of Ionia, Megalopolis, Olympia, Poseidonia, Thasos and more.
There existed a "gold stater", but it was only minted in some places, was an accounting unit worth 20–28 drachmae depending on place and time, the Athenian unit being worth 20 drachmae.. The use of gold staters in coinage seems of Macedonian origin; the best known types of Greek gold staters are the 28-drachma kyzikenoi from Cyzicus. Celtic tribes brought the concept to Western and Central Europe after obtaining it while serving as mercenaries in north Greece. Gold staters were minted in Gaul by Gallic chiefs modeled after those of Philip II of Macedonia, which were brought back after serving in his armies, or those of Alexander and his successors; some of these staters in the form of the Gallo-Belgic series were imported to Britain on a large scale. These went on to influence a range of staters produced in Britain. British Gold staters weighed between 4.5 and 6.5 grams. Celtic staters were minted in present-day Czech Republic and Poland; the conquests of Alexander extended Greek culture east. Gold staters have been found from the ancient region of Gandhara from the time of Kanishka.
In 2018, archaeologists in Podzemelj, Slovenia unearthed fifteen graves at the Pezdirčeva Njiva site. In one of the graves they found a bronze belt with a gold coin; the coin was a Celtic imitation of the Alexander the Great stater, depicting Nike and Athena, dates back to the first half of the 3rd century B. C. Coson Egyptian gold stater Silver stater with a turtle The dictionary definition of stater at Wiktionary The British Museum- Electrum 1/6 stater Silver stater with Pegasus and head of Athena wearing a Corinthian helmet, Akarnania, c. 250–167 BCE, Thyrreion mint Stater coins
Larissa is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly region, the fourth-most populous in Greece according to the population results of municipal units of 2011 census and capital of the Larissa regional unit. It is a principal agricultural centre and a national transport hub, linked by road and rail with the port of Volos, the cities of Thessaloniki and Athens. Larissa, within its municipality, has 162,591 inhabitants, while the regional unit of Larissa reached a population of 284,325; the urban area of the city, although contained within the Larissa municipality includes the communities of Giannouli, Nikaia and several other suburban settlements, bringing the wider urban area population of the city to about 174,012 inhabitants and extends over an area of 572.3 km2. Legend has it. Hippocrates, the "Father of Medicine", died here. Today, Larissa is an important commercial and industrial centre of Greece. There are a number of highways including E75 and the main railway from Athens to Thessaloniki crossing through Thessaly.
The region is directly linked to the rest of Europe through the International Airport of Central Greece located in Nea Anchialos a short distance from Larissa. Larissa lies on the river Pineios; the municipality Larissa has an area of 335.98 km2, the municipal unit Larissa has an area of 122.586 km2, the community Larissa has an area of 88.167 km2. The Larissa Chasma, a deep gash in the surface of Dione, a natural satellite of Saturn, was named after Larissa; the climate of Larissa is semi-arid in the cool version but it is close to a hot summer Mediterranean climate. The winter is mild, some snowstorms may occur; the summer is hot, temperatures of 40 °C may occur. Thunderstorms or heavy rain may cause agricultural damage. Larissa receives 413 mm of rain per year. According to Greek mythology it is said that the city was founded by Acrisius, killed accidentally by his grandson, Perseus. There lived Peleus, the hero beloved by the gods, his son Achilles. In mythology, the nymph Larissa was a daughter of the primordial man Pelasgus.
The city of Larissa is mentioned in Book II of Iliad by Homer: Hippothous led the tribes of Pelasgian spearsmen, who dwelt in fertile Larissa- Hippothous, Pylaeus of the race of Mars, two sons of the Pelasgian Lethus, son of Teutamus. In this paragraph, Homer shows that the Pelasgians, Trojan allies, used to live in the city of Larissa, it is that this city of Larissa was different to the city, the birthplace of Achilles. The Larissa that features as a Trojan ally in the Iliad was to be located in the Troad, on the other side of the Aegean Sea. Traces of Paleolithic human settlement have been recovered from the area, but it was peripheral to areas of advanced culture; the area around Larissa was fruitful. The name Larissa is in origin a Pelasgian word for "fortress". There were many ancient Greek cities with this name; the name of Thessalian Larissa is first recorded in connection with the aristocratic Aleuadai family. It was a polis. Larissa was a polis during the Classical Era. Larissa is thought to be where the famous Greek physician Hippocrates and the famous philosopher Gorgias of Leontini died.
When Larissa ceased minting the federal coins it shared with other Thessalian towns and adopted its own coinage in the late 5th century BC, it chose local types for its coins. The obverse depicted the nymph of the local spring, for whom the town was named; the reverse depicted a horse in various poses. The horse was an appropriate symbol of Thessaly, a land of plains, well known for its horses. There is a male figure. Larissa, sometimes written Larisa on ancient coins and inscriptions, is near the site of the Homeric Argissa, it appears in early times, when Thessaly was governed by a few aristocratic families, as an important city under the rule of the Aleuadae, whose authority extended over the whole district of Pelasgiotis. This powerful family possessed for many generations before 369 BC the privilege of furnishing the tagus, the local term for the strategos of the combined Thessalian forces; the principal rivals of the Aleuadae were the Scopadae of Crannon, the remains of which are about 14 miles south west.
Larissa was the birthplace of Meno, who thus became, along with Xenophon and a few others, one of the generals leading several thousands Greeks from various places, in the ill-fated expedition of 401 meant to help Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II, king of Persia, overthrow his elder brother Artaxerxes II and take over the throne of Persia. The constitution of the town was democratic, which explains why it sided with Athens in the Peloponnesian War. In the neighbourhood of Larissa was celebrated a festival which recalled the Roman Sa
Alexander the Great
Alexander III of Macedon known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of 20, he spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of history's most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until age 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BC, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's pan-Hellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia. In 334 BC, he began a series of campaigns that lasted 10 years. Following the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela.
He subsequently overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River, he endeavored to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea" and invaded India in 326 BC, winning an important victory over the Pauravas at the Battle of the Hydaspes. He turned back at the demand of his homesick troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexander's surviving generals and heirs. Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion and syncretism which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism, he founded some twenty cities. Alexander's settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization, aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century AD and the presence of Greek speakers in central and far eastern Anatolia until the 1920s.
Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics, he is ranked among the most influential people in history. Alexander was born on the sixth day of the ancient Greek month of Hekatombaion, which corresponds to 20 July 356 BC, although the exact date is disputed, in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon, he was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, his fourth wife, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his principal wife for some time because she gave birth to Alexander. Several legends surround Alexander's childhood. According to the ancient Greek biographer Plutarch, on the eve of the consummation of her marriage to Philip, Olympias dreamed that her womb was struck by a thunder bolt that caused a flame to spread "far and wide" before dying away.
Sometime after the wedding, Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream, securing his wife's womb with a seal engraved with a lion's image. Plutarch offered a variety of interpretations of these dreams: that Olympias was pregnant before her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb. Ancient commentators were divided about whether the ambitious Olympias promulgated the story of Alexander's divine parentage, variously claiming that she had told Alexander, or that she dismissed the suggestion as impious. On the day Alexander was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalcidice; that same day, Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies, that his horses had won at the Olympic Games. It was said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, burnt down; this led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away, attending the birth of Alexander.
Such legends may have emerged when Alexander was king, at his own instigation, to show that he was superhuman and destined for greatness from conception. In his early years, Alexander was raised by a nurse, sister of Alexander's future general Cleitus the Black. In his childhood, Alexander was tutored by the strict Leonidas, a relative of his mother, by Lysimachus of Acarnania. Alexander was raised in the manner of noble Macedonian youths, learning to read, play the lyre, ride and hunt; when Alexander was ten years old, a trader from Thessaly brought Philip a horse, which he offered to sell for thirteen talents. The horse refused to be mounted, Philip ordered it away. Alexander however, detecting the horse's fear of its own shadow, asked to tame the horse, which he managed. Plutarch stated that Philip, overjoyed at this display of courage and ambition, kissed his son tearfully, declaring: "My boy, you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Macedon is too small for you", an
Olynthus was an ancient city of Chalcidice, built on two flat-topped hills 30–40m in height, in a fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone, near the neck of the peninsula of Pallene, about 2.5 kilometers from the sea, about 60 stadia from Poteidaea. Artefacts found during the excavations of the site are exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Olynthos. Olynthus, son of Heracles, or the river god Strymon, was considered the mythological founder of the town; the South Hill bore a small Neolithic settlement. Subsequently, the town was captured by the Bottiaeans, a Thracian tribe ejected from Macedon by Alexander I. Following the Persian defeat at Salamis and with Xerxes having been escorted to the Hellespont by his general Artabazus, the Persian army spent the winter of the same year in Thessaly and Macedonia; the Persian authority in the Balkans must have decreased at the time, which encouraged the inhabitants of the Pallene peninsula to break away. Suspecting that a revolt against the Great King was meditated, in order to control the situation, Artabazus captured Olynthus, thought to be disloyal, killed its inhabitants.
The town had priorly been given to Kritovoulos from Toroni and to a fresh population consisting of Greeks from the neighboring region of Chalcidice, exiled by the Macedonians. Though Herodotus reports that Artabazus slaughtered them, Boetiaeans continued to live in the area. Olynthus became a Greek polis. In 432 King Perdiccas II of Macedon encouraged several nearby coastal towns to disband and remove their population to Olynthus, preparatory to a revolt to be led by Potidaea against Athens; this synoecism was effected, though against Perdiccas's wishes the contributing cities were preserved. This increase in population led to the settlement of the North Hill, developed on a Hippodamian grid plan. In 423 Olynthus became the head of a formal Chalkidian League, occasioned by the synoecism or by the beginning of the Peloponnesian War and fear of Athenian attack. During the Peloponnesian war it formed a base for Brasidas in his expedition of 424 and refuge for the citizens of Mende and Poteidaea that had rebelled against the Athenians.
After the end of the Peloponnesian War the development of the league was rapid and ended consisting of 32 cities. About 393 we find it concluding an important treaty with Amyntas III of Macedon, by 382 it had absorbed most of the Greek cities west of the Strymon, had got possession of Pella, the chief city in Macedon.. In this year Sparta was induced by an embassy from Acanthus and Apollonia, which anticipated conquest by the league, to send an expedition against Olynthus. After three years of indecisive warfare Olynthus consented to dissolve the confederacy, it is clear, that the dissolution was little more than formal, as the Chalcidians appear, only a year or two among the members of the Athenian naval confederacy of 378-377. Twenty years in the reign of Philip, the power of Olynthus is asserted by Demosthenes to have been much greater than before the Spartan expedition; the town itself at this period is spoken of as a city of the first rank, the league included thirty-two cities. When the Social War broke out between Athens and its allies, Olynthus was at first in alliance with Philip.
Subsequently, in alarm at the growth of his power, it concluded an alliance with Athens. Olynthus made three embassies to the occasions of Demosthenes's three Olynthiac Orations. On the third, the Athenians sent soldiers from among its citizens. After Philip had deprived Olynthus of the rest of the League, by force and by the treachery of sympathetic factions, he besieged Olynthus in 348; the siege was short. He looted and razed the city and sold its population—including the Athenian garrison—into slavery. According to the latest researches only a small area of the North Hill was re-occupied, up to 318, before Cassander forced the population to move in his new city of Cassandreia. Though the city was extinguished, through subsequent centuries there would be men scattered through the Hellenistic world who were called Olynthians; the city of Olynthus lies in the hill named Megale Toumba near the village of Myriophyto. The probable site of Olynthus was identified as early as 1902. Between 1914 and 1916 plans were made for an excavation by the British School at Athens, but these fell through.
The ancient city extends over two hills that detach from a small coulee and possess an area ca. 1500 m long and 400 m in width. Excavations began in 1928. Prof. David Moore Robinson of Johns Hopkins University, under the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, conducted four seasons of work: in 1928, 1931, 1934, 1939; the results of the excavations were digested into fourteen folio volumes. The excavation had uncovered a portion of Mecyberna. On the North Hill this hurried pace proved harmless due to the simple stratigraphy of an area of the city occupied only for 84 years and subjected to a sudden, final destruction.