Rosamund Mary Ellen Pike is an English actress who began her acting career by appearing in stage productions such as Romeo and Juliet and Skylight. After her screen debut in the television film A Rather English Marriage and television roles in Wives and Daughters and Love in a Cold Climate, she received international recognition for her film debut as Bond girl Miranda Frost in Die Another Day, for which she received the Empire Award for Best Newcomer. Following her breakthrough, she won the BIFA Award for Best Supporting Actress for The Libertine and portrayed Jane Bennet in Pride & Prejudice. Pike had film appearances in the sci-fi film Doom, the crime-mystery thriller film Fracture, the drama film Fugitive Pieces, the coming-of-age drama An Education, for which she was nominated for the London Film Critics Circle Award for British Supporting Actress of the Year, sci-fi comedy The World's End, she received British Independent Film Award nominations for An Education and Made in Dagenham, was nominated for a Genie Award for Barney's Version.
Her other films include the spy action comedy Johnny English Reborn, the epic action-adventure fantasy Wrath of the Titans and the action thriller Jack Reacher. In 2014, her performance in the psychological thriller film Gone Girl was met with widespread critical acclaim and she was awarded the Saturn Award for Best Actress and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress, the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role, the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama, the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Leading Role. Pike received further acclaim for her role as Ruth Williams Khama in the biographical drama A United Kingdom and is nominated for a Saturn Award for Best Actress for her role in the western Hostiles, her upcoming films include the thriller The Informer and Radioactive, in which she will play Marie Curie. Pike, born on 27 January 1979 in London, is the only child of opera singers Caroline Friend and Julian Pike.
Her father is a professor of head of operatic studies at the Birmingham Conservatoire. The family travelled across Europe until she was seven, following wherever her parents' performing careers took them. Pike won a scholarship to Badminton School in Bristol, while appearing as Juliet in a production of Romeo and Juliet at the National Youth Theatre, was noticed by an agent, who helped her embark upon a professional career. After being turned down by each stage school to which she applied, she gained a place to read English literature at Wadham College, Oxford, she graduated with an Upper Second class degree in 2001, having taken a year off to pursue her acting career, gaining stage experience in David Hare's Skylight, Arthur Miller's All My Sons, several plays by Shakespeare. While she was still at Oxford, Pike acted in and directed various plays, including one by Simon Chesterman, a graduate student, she made appearances on British television shows, including A Rather English Marriage and Daughters, Love in a Cold Climate, a miniseries based on Nancy Mitford's novels The Pursuit of Love and Love in a Cold Climate.
She appeared as Sarah Beaumont in an episode of the series Foyle's War. After graduating, she considered working at Waterstone's bookshop due to a lack of acting opportunities, but was offered a role as a Bond girl and MI6 agent assigned to aid James Bond in Die Another Day, she appeared in the special show Bond Girls Are Forever and, shortly afterwards, the BAFTA tribute to the James Bond series. She was the first Bond girl to have attended Oxford. Pike played Elizabeth Malet in The Libertine, co-starring Johnny Depp, which won her the Best Supporting Actress award at the British Independent Film Awards. In the same year, she portrayed Rose in The Promised Land, a film about Israel, starred as scientist Samantha Grimm in the cinematic adaptation of the computer game series Doom. In 2005, she appeared as the elder sister of Elizabeth, in Pride & Prejudice. Pike starred in the film adaptation of Anne Michaels's novel Fugitive Pieces, she starred as a successful attorney in the film Fracture, opposite Anthony Hopkins and Ryan Gosling.
Pike was a judge at the 2008 Costa Book Awards. Her stage credits include Hitchcock Blonde by Terry Johnson and Tennessee Williams' Summer and Smoke, both in London's West End, Gaslight at London's Old Vic Theatre. Pike has said. In 2009, she played the title character in Madame De Sade during the Donmar's West End season, she appeared in the British film Made in Dagenham and in the Canadian film Barney's Version where she plays Miriam. In 2010, she starred in a production of Hedda Gabler on UK tour. Pike has recorded voicework for a lead role in the film Jackboots on Whitehall and lent her voice to a new series of James Bond audio-books, narrating The Spy Who Loved Me. In 2010 Pike played the part of Pussy Galore in the BBC Radio 4 adaptation of Fleming's Goldfinger. In 2011, Pike played the part of Kate Sumner in the Bond spoof film Johnny English Reborn, playing a psychologist and English's love interest; the film is a sequel to the 2003 film Johnny English and was a box office success, taking over $160 million.
In 2012, she played the role of Queen Andromeda in the fantasy epic Wrath of the Titans. She replaced Alexa Davalos, who had played the role in Clash of the Titans and had dropped out due to a scheduling conflict. Taking the role in Wrath of the Titans meant s
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Lone Scherfig is a Danish film director and screenwriter, involved with the Dogme 95 film movement and, critically acclaimed for several of her movies, including the Oscar-nominated film An Education. Scherfig's movies are romantic comedies, including her film One Day, based on the David Nicholls novel. Through both experimenting with creative constraints and her astute attention to detail, she has come to be recognized as a blossoming talent in the film industry. Scherfig graduated from the National Film School of Denmark in 1984, began her career as a director with the television film Margrethes elsker in 1985, she had been involved in the advertising business and had won awards at the Cannes International Advertising Film Festival. Her directorial debut in film came with Kaj's fodselsdag; the film was critically successful and garnered her the Grand Jury prize and the Club Espace Award at the Rouen Nordic FIlm Festival. For a period of time following such success, Scherfig wrote and directed a few short films and worked with both radio shows and the stage.
In 1998, she directed the film Nar mor kommer hjem, the recipient of the Grand Prix at the Montreal Film Festival and the Cinekid Award in Amsterdam. Scherfig found her international breakthrough with the film Italian for Beginners, critically acclaimed and won several awards, including the Jury Grand Prix Silver Bear award at the Berlin International Film Festival. Hailed as a feel-good movie, the film is preoccupied with themes of hope and choice, it is credited as the most profitable Scandinavian film to date. The film, following the creative constraints of the Dogme 95 movement, is set entirely on location within a small space, uses sound only found at the source, it's shot on video; the film involves several characters and their various romantic or otherwise interactions that unfold across this limited setting. As opposed to many other Dogme 95 films, Scherfig's is rather upbeat and comedic, has been noted for its rather amusing tone. Following Italian for Beginners, Scherfig made the deadpan comedy Wilbur Wants to Kill Himself, released in 2002.
This film, not considered a part of the Dogme 95 canon, is a touching movie centered on a suicidal man, saved and cared for by his brother. Noted by critics to be a lighthearted affair, the movie was praised for Scherfig's ability to craft deep and interesting characters. A. O. Scott mused that the film's tone "ranges from stoic to diffident to quizzical, at least on the surface, but there is an undercurrent of complicated feeling beneath the Scottish reserve. This film found Scherfig working with the prolific writer Anders Thomas Jensen in developing a screenplay, it allowed her to align her work with the production companies Sigma Films and Zentropa. Although well received, Wilbur was not as commercially successful as Italian for Beginners, although it did act as a catalyst for a Dogme 95 related project called the "Advance Party," in which both Scherfig and Jensen helped write characters for Lars Von Trier; as with Wilbur Wants to Kill Himself, Scherfig wrote and directed another character focused film: Just Like Home, released in 2007.
In this comedic endeavour, set in a little town, several characters unite to discover who could be causing commotion in the streets at night. The movie concerns itself with the various citizens of the town and their interactions with each other. In the style of constraints learned by being involved in the Dogme 95, Scherfig claims that the film was written piece by piece every day it was shot. Further proving Scherfig's fascination with lighthearted and sweet affairs, she has claimed the story is "about trust...the fundamental belief that people you hardly know will want the best for you." The film received little commercial or critical spotlight, instead acting as a bridge between Scherfig's earlier experiments and her more American successes. In 2009, An Education, Scherfig's most critically lauded film, was released. Written by esteemed fiction author Nick Hornby, the movie was based on journalist Lynn Barber's experiences as a teenager in post-war Britain; the film's story follows 16-year-old Jenny as she is picked up one rainy night by David, brought into the bustling and exciting London society.
Centered on this tender and somewhat morally ambiguous romantic relationship between David and Jenny, the movie was hailed as being subtle and deliberate in its pacing and tone. Many reviewers noted the exceptional performance of Carey Mulligan as the protagonist, she went on to gain a nomination from the Academy Awards and Nick Hornby. On making the film, Scherfig has talked about her focus on the theme of being an American teenager examined throughout the story, saying, "my guess is about America is that it’s this combination of innocence and freedom that attracts you. Here in Denmark, as well, it was more liberated than it is now, was more innocent and less dangerous. I mean, when I was a teenager, the world was a lot safer than it is now for my daughter as a teenager, which meant that I could have a lot more fun, it wasn’t risky the way it is now." She has discussed the pleasures of working in a more collaborative spirit for this movie, commenting that the movie was "the same piece that we all working on, and, important to me as a director that everyone was making the same film, that everyone contributed to the package and tried to strengthen it and get a
John Peter Sarsgaard is an American actor. His first feature role was in Dead Man Walking in 1995, he appeared in the 1998 independent films Another Day in Paradise and Desert Blue. That same year, Sarsgaard received a substantial role in The Man in the Iron Mask, playing Raoul, the ill-fated son of Athos. Sarsgaard achieved critical recognition when he was cast in Boys Don't Cry as John Lotter, he landed his first leading role in the 2001 film The Center of the World. The following year, he played supporting roles in Empire, The Salton Sea, K-19: The Widowmaker. For his portrayal of Charles Lane in Shattered Glass, Sarsgaard won the National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor and was nominated for the 2004 Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. Sarsgaard has appeared in an eclectic range of films, including the 2004 comedy-drama Garden State, the biographical film Kinsey, the drama The Dying Gaul, big-budget films such as Flightplan, The Skeleton Key, Orphan, An Education and Day, the superhero film Green Lantern, Kelly Reichardt's Night Moves, Woody Allen's Blue Jasmine, Black Mass, The Magnificent Seven.
Sarsgaard appeared in the U. S. TV series The Killing as a man on death row wrongfully convicted for the brutal murder of his wife—a performance which he says included "some of the best acting I have done in my life."Sarsgaard has appeared in Off-Broadway productions including Kingdom of Earth, Laura Dennis, Burn This, Uncle Vanya. In September 2008, he made his Broadway debut as Boris Alexeyevich Trigorin in The Seagull, he is married to actress Maggie Gyllenhaal. Sarsgaard was born at Scott Air Force Base in St. Clair County, the son of Judy Lea and John Dale Sarsgaard, his father was an Air Force engineer and worked for Monsanto and IBM. His surname originates in Denmark. Sarsgaard was served as an altar boy, his family moved more than 12 times following his father's job. At the age of 7, Sarsgaard wanted to become a soccer player and took up ballet to help improve his coordination. After suffering several concussions while playing soccer, he gave up the sport and became interested in writing and theater.
Sarsgaard attended Fairfield College Preparatory School, a private Jesuit boys' school in Connecticut, where he became interested in film. Following his graduation from Fairfield Prep in 1989, he attended Bard College in New York for two years before transferring to Washington University in St. Louis in 1991, where he co-founded an improvisational comedy troupe "Mama's Pot Roast." While at WUSTL, Sarsgaard began performing in plays in an offshoot of New York's Actors Studio. In 1993, he moved to New York. Sarsgaard branched out with guest roles in television productions filmed in New York City, with Law & Order in 1995, New York Undercover as well as an appearance in the 1997 HBO special Subway Stories, he appeared in his first film role in Dead Man Walking, where he was cast as a murdered teenager, killed by Sean Penn's character. His next film roles were in a series of independent features: Another Day in Paradise, part of an ensemble cast that included James Woods, Melanie Griffith, Vincent Kartheiser, Natasha Gregson Wagner, In Desert Blue, where he had a supporting role in the film.
He received his substantial role in the 1998 film The Man in the Iron Mask, where he played Raoul, the ill-fated son of John Malkovich's dueling Musketeer, Athos. The film uses characters from Alexandre Dumas' d'Artagnan Romances, is loosely adapted from some plot elements of The Vicomte de Bragelonne; the film received ambivalent reviews, but was a success at the box office, earning $182 million worldwide. In 1999, Sarsgaard earned critical recognition in Kimberly Peirce's Boys Don't Cry, where he was cast as notorious killer John Lotter; the film is based on the real-life story of Brandon Teena, raped and murdered in 1993 by Lotter and Tom Nissen after they found out that he was a trans man. Boys Don’t Cry received overwhelmingly positive acclaim from critics, his performance was critically well received. According to The Boston Globe, "Peter Sarsgaard... makes the killer's terrible trajectory not only believable, but grounded in the most mundane clodhopper behavior. He isn't a drooling monster, he's a guy you wouldn't look twice at a bar or a convenience store."
A contributor from the Seattle Post-Intelligencer wrote "It's a marvelous performance supported ably by... Sarsgaard as the unpredictable, sociopathic Lotter." The film was screened at a special presentation at the 2000 Venice Film Festival. In regards to his character, as how Sarsgaard made him "likeable, sympathetic even" was because he wanted the audience "to understand why they would hang out with me. If my character wasn't likable, I wanted him to be charismatic enough that you weren't going to have a dull time if you were with him." In another interview, Sarsgaard said. His first leading role was in the 2001 feature The Center of the World, where he plays Richard Longman, a lonely young entrepreneur who skips out on his company's big initial public offering and pays a stripper $10,000 to fly to Las Vegas with him; the film received average reviews, however, A. O. Scott of the New York Times, reported that the performances by both Sarsgaard and Parker "provide a rough grain of authenticity, captur
Chanel S. A. is a French held company owned by Alain Wertheimer and Gérard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, an early business partner of the couturière Coco Chanel. Chanel S. A. is a high fashion house that specializes in haute couture and ready-to-wear clothes, luxury goods, fashion accessories. In her youth, Gabrielle Chanel gained the nickname Coco from her time as a chanteuse; as a fashion designer, Coco Chanel catered to women's taste for elegance in dress, with blouses and suits and dresses, jewellery of simple design, that replaced the opulent, over-designed, constrictive clothes and accessories of 19th-century fashion. The Chanel product brands have been personified by fashion models and actresses, including Inès de La Fressange, Catherine Deneuve, Carole Bouquet, Vanessa Paradis, Nicole Kidman, Anna Mouglalis, Audrey Tautou, Keira Knightley, Kristen Stewart and Marilyn Monroe; the House of Chanel is known for the "little black dress", the perfume No. 5 de Chanel, the Chanel Suit.
Chanel's use of jersey fabric produced garments that were affordable. Chanel revolutionized fashion — high fashion and everyday fashion — by replacing structured-silhouettes, based upon the corset and the bodice, with garments that were functional and at the same time flattering to the woman's figure. In the 1920s, the simple-line designs of Chanel couture made popular the "flat-chested" fashions that were the opposite of the hourglass-figure achieved by the fashions of the late 19th century — the Belle Époque of France, the British Edwardian era. Chanel used colors traditionally associated with masculinity in Europe, such as grey and navy blue, to denote feminine boldness of character; the clothes of the House of Chanel featured quilted leather trimmings. An example of such haute couture techniques is the woolen Chanel suit — a knee-length skirt and a cardigan-style jacket and decorated with black embroidery and gold-coloured buttons; the complementary accessories were two-tone pump shoes and jewellery a necklace of pearls, a leather handbag.
Establishment and recognition — 1909–1920s The House of Chanel originated in 1909 when Gabrielle Chanel opened a millinery shop at 160 Boulevard Malesherbes, the ground floor of the Parisian flat of the socialite and textile businessman Étienne Balsan, of whom she was the mistress. Because the Balsan flat was a salon for the French hunting and sporting élite, Chanel had the opportunity to meet their demi-mondaine mistresses, who, as such, were women of fashion, upon whom the rich men displayed their wealth — as ornate clothes and hats. Coco Chanel thus could sell to them the hats she made. In the course of those salons Coco Chanel befriended Arthur'Boy' Capel, an English socialite and polo player friend of Étienne Balsan. Despite that social circumstance, Boy Capel perceived the businesswoman innate to Coco Chanel, and, in 1910, financed her first independent millinery shop, Chanel Modes, at 21 rue Cambon, Paris; because that locale housed a dress shop, the business-lease limited Chanel to selling only millinery products, not couture.
Two years in 1913, the Deauville and Biarritz couture shops of Coco Chanel offered for sale prêt-à-porter sports clothes for women, the practical designs of which allowed the wearer to play sport. The First World War affected European fashion through scarcity of materials, the mobilisation of women. By that time, Chanel had opened a large dress shop at 31 rue Cambon, near the Hôtel Ritz, in Paris. Coco Chanel used jersey cloth because of its physical properties as a garment, such as its drape — how it falls upon and falls from the body of the woman — and how well it adapted to a simple garment-design. Sartorially, some of Chanel's designs derived from the military uniforms made prevalent by the War. In 1915 and in 1917, Harper's Bazaar magazine reported that the garments of the House of Chanel were "on the list of every buyer" for the clothing factories of Europe; the Chanel dress shop at 31 rue Cambon presented day-wear dress-and-coat ensembles of simple design, black evening dresses trimmed with lace.
After the First World War, the House of Chanel, following the fashion trends of the 1920s, produced beaded dresses, made popular by the Flapper woman. By 1920, Chanel had designed and presented a woman's suit of clothes — composed either of two garments or of three garments — which allowed a woman to have a modern, feminine appearance, whilst being comfortable and practical to maintain. In 1921, to complement the suit of clothes, Coco Chanel commissioned the perfumer Ernest Beaux to create a perfume for the House of Chanel, his perfumes included the perfume No.5, named after the number of the sample Chanel liked best. A bottle of No. 5 de Chanel was a gift to clients of Chanel. The popularity of the perfume prompted the House of Chanel to offer it for retail sale in 1922. In 1923, to
Finola Dwyer is a UK-based New Zealand film producer and editor, best known for her films An Education and Brooklyn, produced with frequent collaborator Amanda Posey. In 2015, Dwyer produced an historical period drama film Brooklyn, starring Saoirse Ronan, directed by John Crowley based on the screenplay by Nick Hornby, she received an Academy Award nomination for the film for Best Picture at the 88th Academy Awards along with Amanda Posey. In the 2016 Queen's Birthday Honours, Dwyer was appointed an Officer of the New Zealand Order of Merit for services to the film industry. 1984: Trial Run 1986: Bridge to Nowhere 1986: Queen City Rocker 1987: Raglan by the Sea 1987: Starlight Hotel 1988: A Soldier's Tale 1994: Backbeat 1996: Hollow Reed 1997: Welcome to Woop Woop 1999: The Lost Son 2001: Me Without You 2003: One Love 2004: The Open Doors 2004: The Hamburg Cell 2005: Stoned 2006: Opal Dream 2006: Alien Autopsy 2006: Severance 2006: Tsunami: The Aftermath 2008: My Talks with Dean Spanley 2009: An Education 2012: Quartet 2012: Undefeated 2014: A Long Way Down 2015: Brooklyn 2015: What Our Fathers Did: A Nazi Legacy 2017: Our Souls at Night Finola Dwyer on IMDb